- Date submitted: 31 Oct 2011
- Stakeholder type: Member State
- Name: Japan
- Submission Document: Download
Full SubmissionInput to the Rio+20 Outcome Document The Government of Japan October, 2011 Proposal of the Japanese Government to achieve Sustainable Development ? At Rio+20, renewed political commitments should be announced toward the establishment of the world where all three pillars of Sustainable Development, which are economy, society and the environment, could function in a well-balanced manner. ? The outcome document should be concise and clear in order to convey robust global message toward the transition to a Green Economy and reinforcement of the governance of Sustainable Development. ? The outcome document should consist of ?Overview?, ?a Green Economy in the context of Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication? and ?the Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development?. I. Setting goals for Sustainable Development In order to deal with various global challenges such as planetary boundaries and widening disparity, it is indispensable for each individual to fulfill their potential and to participate in building a better society. (1) Green Economy ?Japan proposes the transition to a Green Economy as an important tool to realize Sustainable Development. - The significance of Green Economy is to be described as ?an economic system which promotes sustainable growth while improving human well-being, by pursuing economic growth and the environmental conservation in tandem, properly utilizing and conserving natural resources and ecosystem services?. - All stakeholders should take part and play roles depending on their capabilities, taking account of the diversified international community of today. Above all, focus should be on the roles and responsibilities of emerging economies and private sectors. - In order to achieve a Green Economy, various means and experiences including green innovation should be shared by each country. Establishing a framework to form a green economy strategy, which corresponds with individual country?s stage of development should be agreed upon. (2) New International Development Strategy and Goals ? Japan proposes that a new international development strategy should be prepared, with the formulation of the international development goals beyond 2015 (Post-MDGs) in mind. - In order to achieve Sustainable Development, the concept of Human Security should be the main guiding principle of the new international development strategy. - In addition to GDP, ?happiness / well-being? measure should be considered. ? In order to realize Sustainable Development, Japan proposes that the concentrated process to formulate comprehensive post-MDGs should start with the involvement of a variety of stakeholders, to be finally agreed on at UN. - Discussions at Rio+20 should be the building blocks used in the formulation of comprehensive post-MDGs. - Post-MDGs should reflect the new situations of today?s international community. II. Nine Proposals to achieve Sustainable Development (1) Disaster risk reduction Adoption of a Post ?Hyogo Framework? and its Integration to Development Policy Japan will host the 3rd World Conference on Disaster Reduction in 2015, in order to share with the international community the lessons and experiences from the Great East Japan Earthquake and other disaster experience. To integrate disaster risk reduction into development policy, a new international agreement should be formulated to substitute the ?Hyogo Framework? which was adopted in 2005. (2) Energy Toward a Bold Energy Shift Japan proposes that each country agree to start working to promote energy-efficiency, renewable energy and clean energy, in order to build a low-carbon society. (3) Food Security Achievement of Food Security through Sustainable Agriculture Japan proposes that the international community should agree on a comprehensive approach including increase of agricultural investment, promotion of responsible agricultural investment, and collective and effective actions in developing countries to increase food production. (4) Water Nexus of Sustainability: Integrated Water Resources Management Japan proposes that consideration of goals for a integrated water resource management to replace the ?Hashimoto Action Plan II?, which shows priority areas to solve problems on water and sanitation should be started. (5) Future City The City Everyone Wants to Live Japan presents a model of ?Future City? to the international community. A ?Future City? is a city which continuously creates economic, social and environmental values through building low- carbon cities and dealing with aging society with a declining birth rate. Japan tries to disseminate and evolve a model of ?Future City? through utilizing international inter-city cooperation networks. Japan proposes that Sound Material-Cycle cities spread widely, by sharing Japan?s 3R initiative. (6) Education for Sustainable Development Initiative to Cultivate ?Sustainable Citizens? Japan proposes that the importance of Education for Sustainable Development be emphasized, in order for each citizen to play the leading role as a participant in a sustainable society. Each country should agree to work on promoting and sharing efforts regarding Education for Sustainable Development and cultivating sustainable citizens domestically and internationally. (7) Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Strengthening the ?Global Earth Observation Network? Japan proposes further strengthening of global earth observation network through GEOSS, in order to deal with global challenges such as climate change and large scale natural disasters. (8) Technological Innovation and Green Innovation Realization of Comfortable Next-generation Environment Each country reassures the importance of technological innovation and green innovation and agrees to initiate its efforts depending on its growth stage. (9) Biodiversity Realization of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets toward Life in Harmony with Nature Japan proposes that each country should reaffirm the importance of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and agree to promote its participation in international actions to enhance efforts to realize the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. III. Institutional Framework ? Efforts to promote Sustainable Development are indispensable at all levels. Japan emphasizes that problems we are facing and measures to take should be identified first, before standing on the assumption that a new institution should be established as a foregone conclusion ? Japan proposes measures to strengthen the function of Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD), through i)Enhancing the reviewing function, ii) Improving theme setting, iii)Strengthening ties with development-related organizations. In providing assistance, it is beneficial for each country to establish a framework focusing on Sustainable Development. ? Japan proposes a step-by-step approach be taken to strengthen international environmental governance by enhancing integration and efficiency of United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs), taking into account the viewpoint of future establishment of a specialized agency as one of options. [UNDESA/DSD: Please download the original document to see this image] Part 1: Japan?s Basic Views on the Compilation Document I. General Remarks ( Direction to be indicated at Rio+20, based on new emerging challenges) 1. The outcome document should: Convey a concise and clear message Japan considers the ?Focused Political Document? should be concise and clear, to convey a robust global message toward Sustainable Development. Japan proposes that the political declaration should consist of the following three parts: (1) Overview (2) Green Economy in the context of Sustainable Development and poverty eradication (3) Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development 2. The Aim of Rio+20: New political commitment toward the establishment of the world where all three pillars of Sustainable Development, which are economy, society and the environment, function in a well-balanced manner After the UN Conference on Environment and Development in 1992 and the UN Millennium Summit in 2000, a certain direction has been set within the international community about the way Sustainable Development should be. Since then, however, the situation in the international community has drastically changed. New challenges have emerged, which has not been fully addressed by existing frameworks and goals. Under such circumstance, it is important that each party in the international community plays its respective role depending on individual capabilities, in order to achieve Sustainable Development for a society as a whole, by reducing disparities while keeping the burden on the environment minimum. For this purpose, Japan considers that the 21st-century style of harmonization among economy, society and the environment should be discussed at Rio+ 20, and shared with the international community. Government leaders at Rio+20 are expected to drive the transition to a Green Economy, which is a paradigm shift appropriate for the new era. They are also expected to exercise leadership to ensure the effectiveness of international institutional framework which enables Sustainable Development. 3. Basic background: Changes during the 20 years since 1992 (1) Diversification of actors in the international community The structure of the international community has drastically changed in these 20 years since the Earth Summit in 1992, including such changes as the larger presence of emerging economies, civil society, NGOs, private sectors and local administrations. In order to achieve Sustainable Development, these varieties of stakeholders are required to play roles depending on their respective capabilities. It is necessary to realize an international community in which developed and developing countries can cooperate with each other, overcoming the differences between them. It is the time to review the dichotomy of developed and developing countries. (2) Planetary Boundaries Global population growth is expected to give more serious implications with regard to the issues of energy, water and food. We need to look at the reality that resources on our planet are limited. A new growth model should be sought to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. (3) Widening disparity between the rich and the poor Multi-faceted disparity has been widening not only between developing and developed countries, but also among and within developing countries. In light of social aspect, one of the pillars of Sustainable Development, we need to narrow the wealth gap and create a society in which the benefit of growth is shared by all. The issue of domestic disparity cannot necessarily be measured by macroeconomic indicators. This particularly indicates the significance of the concept of human security which focuses on persons and the necessity of a new indicator in addition to GDP. (4) Intensifying natural disasters We have been experiencing natural disasters which seem to have been caused by extreme weather events such as heat waves, flood, drought, heavy rain and larger scale tropical cyclones such as hurricanes. Japan learned the lesson from the painful experience of the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 th March, 2011 that a large scale natural disaster has huge negative impacts not only on the national economy, but also on the global economy. In order to minimize the adverse effects of large scale natural disasters on the economic development and to promote Sustainable Development, we need more social resilience and risk mitigation of disaster-related damages. In the reconstruction process, the participation of every generation and gender including women is necessary. Since the aforementioned elements are interconnected, comprehensive approaches need to be discussed at Rio+20, based on these understandings. In this context, it is important to position human security as the main guiding principle. Sustainable Development can be achieved only when each individual fully exercises their rich potential and take part in building a better society. It is necessary to awaken each and every individual, and to create a future based on the cooperation among all stakeholders. This is the direction heads of states are expected to show and exercise leadership to lay the groundwork to materialize the concept of human security at Rio+20. The world population is expected to reach 70 billion as of October 31th 2011, and will continue to increase even further in the future. The population problem is an important issue which is the basis of imminent challenges such as Sustainable Development and poverty eradication. The international community should be united and take enhanced measures in order to respond it properly. II. Green Economy in the context of Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication 1. Significance of a Green Economy: Sustainable Development through the transition to a Green Economy Given the background described in Section I, the world needs to be united to achieve Sustainable Development. A Green Economy / Green Growth is the new growth model and essential means to achieve this. A Green Economy could be understood as ?an economic system which promotes sustainable growth while improving human welfare, by pursuing economic growth and the environmental conservation in tandem, properly utilizing and conserving natural resources and ecosystem services?. A Green Economy is a key to success and a useful tool to achieve Sustainable Development while paying attention to the environment and society. The transition to a Green Economy presents technological innovation and industries of all countries with new perspectives, and greatly contributes to the realization of a low-carbon society, energy security, life in harmony with nature (Aichi Targets) and enhancing resilience against natural disasters including those related to climate change. The transition to a Green Economy will also create new job opportunities and enable economic growth. Although concerns have been raised about possible new burdens associated with the introduction of a Green Economy, its benefits including the creation of new growth opportunity is clearly expected to outweigh such concerns. The understanding should be shared by all that introducing the elements of a Green Economy from an early stage of growth will lead to Sustainable Development. 2. Wider participation of stakeholders to realize Sustainable Development through a Green Economy: Establishing the system in which all stakeholders themselves act appropriately The Rio Declaration of 1992 made clear that states have ?common but differentiated responsibilities? on the deterioration of global environment. What this principle means is that all states should work toward Sustainable Development by taking responsibility for the global environment in view of their respective capabilities. This principle does not intend to divide the international community into the fixed categories of developed and developing countries. Compared with the time of the Rio Declaration of 1992, the situation of international society and economy has drastically changed. The role of not only nations but also new players such as private sectors, NGOs, women 1 and the elderly is becoming important. With the diversification of stakeholders in the international community, Rio+20 is required to focus on their roles. Securing participation and ensuring their access to resources for stakeholders including women at all levels in the process of policy formation and its implementation are also important. The leaders are expected to take initiative to build a partnership between variety of stakeholders, overcoming the traditional pattern of assistance from developed to developing countries. Funds, expertise and experiences of emerging economies, private sectors, and philanthropies should be utilized effectively. Otherwise, we would not be able to deal with the challenge for Sustainable Development. 3. Sharing Policy Toolbox to realize Sustainable Development (1) A Green Economy is the most important tool to realize Sustainable Development. In order to realize a Green Economy, Green Innovation is extremely important. The burden on the environment could be reduced by utilizing advanced environmental and energy technologies. This would also encourage economic development driven by new demand stimulation and the creation of new employment. Technology is the key to Green Innovation. Such technologies include smart-grid system, heat pumps, solar power generation, geothermal power generation, ecological housing, energy-saving electric appliances, light-emitting diodes (LED) lighting, technologies for appropriate resource management and the 3Rs, global observation and climate change projection, and data integration and analysis. Investment to such innovation should be facilitated in order to promote technological development and dissemination, and legitimate legal instruments including measures to protect intellectual property rights should be prepared. Other measures for the transition to a Green Economy, for instance, are as follows. Market-Based Instruments - Introduction of systems which verify the reduction of CO2 emissions as credits and promote facilities with lower environmental burden by utilizing private resources. - Subsidies to forest management - Eco-point systems to promote energy-efficient electric appliances and houses. - Gross metering scheme in feed-in-tariffs for renewable energy Green Procurement - Promotion of government procurement of products with less burden on the environment - Prioritized procurement from the companies which acquired ISO14001 Greening Finance 1 Japan expects the active role of women, by targeting the rate of women in executive position to be at least 30% in all sectors by 2020. - Promotion of investment in the field of environment by using interest subsidy and leasing subsidies - Establishment of ?Principles for Financial Action towards a Sustainable Society,? signed by financial institutions voluntarily Dissemination of environmental corporate management and environmental reporting - Promotion of environmental corporate management in small and medium-sized enterprises - Promotion of environmental reporting Utilizing private funds - To introduce a system to promote facilities with low environmental burden by utilizing private resources. Awareness raising and education - To increase awareness of lifestyle changes that reduce the daily environmental burden Consolidating knowledge and technology - Utilizing knowledge-hubs in each sector and region 2 - Technological development through daily research and development, sharing past experiences and developing appropriate networks (2) In addition to the transition to a Green Economy, it is significant to learn good practices of nations each other in order to achieve Sustainable Development. Major sectors for achieving Sustainable Development could be: disaster risk reduction, energy, food security, conservation and utilization of water resources, sustainable urban planning, education for sustainable development and GEOSS. Specific proposals on these sectors are as described in the paragraph 5 below. Sustainable Development could be achieved by applying such measures as aforementioned in 3. (1), taking each character of the sectors into consideration. (3) At Rio + 20, Japan proposes that the participants should agree to utilize the aforementioned policy tool box upon developing green economy strategy. Establishing a framework to form a green economy strategy which corresponds with individual countries? stage of development should be agreed upon. 4. To realize Sustainable Development : Toward the post-MDGs The international community has been making efforts to tackle such challenges as poverty eradication since 2001, under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). We need to continue and 2 In the transition to a Green Economy, expertise and technology of expert organization should be effectively utilized. For example, Asia-Pacific Water Forum acknowledges such organizations as knowledge- hubs, which include Japan?s Integrated Coastal Area and River basin Management (ICARM) in the field of disaster risk reduction, and Japan Sanitation Consortium (JSC) in the field of Sanitation. Investment organizations on international development assistance are encouraged to utilize such knowledge-hubs. further strengthen our efforts beyond 2015, the final year of the current MDGs? timeframe. In doing so, it is important for us to take measures based on the new situation that the international community faces, considering the role of the transition to a Green Economy in Sustainable Development. These viewpoints should be the basis in formulating comprehensive international development goals beyond 2015 (post-MDGs). The leaders at Rio+20 are expected to (a) formulate a new development strategy (or its pillars) (b) launch a formal process toward the adoption of the post-MDGs, with the involvement of variety of stakeholders, to reach a final agreement on the post-MDGs at UN by UN member states. This should be the strong basis for the post-MDGs. Although the term ?Sustainable Development Goals? (SDGs) is often mentioned, the term sustainability implies various meanings, and there are diversified opinions on the scope and target of SDGs. Some say SDGs should supplement the current MDGs, understanding sustainability in a narrow meaning which is not covered in the current MDGs. Others say SDGs are similar to the postMDGs. SDGs could be interpreted in various ways, but eventually they need to converge into the post-MDGs. Japan therefore does not use the term SDGs, in order to avoid confusion. The discussion at Rio+20, regardless of such backdrop, should form an important building block toward the adoption of the post-MDGs. (1) New international development strategy: The way the post-MDGs should be Although the MDGs has been playing a critical role as a compass of international community on poverty eradication, it does not have underlying consistent principles. Therefore, MDGs seem to be divided into section by section, under respective goal. Before setting concrete targets of the postMDGs, an international development strategy should be developed which would clarify the 21 st - century style vision and concept of development. With such a strategy, the leaders at Rio+20 will be able to show their determination and vision for Sustainable Development. (2) The principles of new international development strategy: Human Security Sustainable Development is the main element of the new international development strategy, and a Green Economy is regarded as an effective tool to achieve Sustainable Development. Japan proposes that the concept of ?human security? should be located as the main guiding principle of the new international development strategy. The concept of human security focuses on individuals and aims at building a society where each human being can realize their rich potential , through protection and empowerment,. It is important to tackle social challenges such as alleviating poverty and narrowing disparities with cross- sectoral, comprehensive and people-centered approaches. Building a resilient society, which leads to the realization of Sustainable Development, is possible only when the vulnerable and threatened people such as the aged, women, children and the poor are protected and empowered, so that they can cope with threats by themselves with the ability to decide and act on their own. Japan would like to point out that the concept of human security is closely related to other important elements such as equity and mutual support, to be included in the new international development strategy. (3) The concept on the new international development strategy The new international development strategy should cover not only developing countries but also developed countries, and promote partnership not only among nations but also among variety of stakeholders including private sectors, civil society, and philanthropies. Such a 21 st -century style partnership can be built only with strong political leadership. The importance of economic growth should be reaffirmed as a driving force of ?wealth creation?, which is the capital of Sustainable Development. ?Wealth creation? will be supported by comprehensive, shared and knowledge-based growth, in addition to a Green Economy. The new strategy is required to cover resource security / food security, climate change / environment, resilience / disaster risk reduction, which are the areas not fully covered by the current MDGs, bearing planetary boundaries, such as the population problem fully in mind. (4) A measure of well-being other than GDP In order to achieve Sustainable Development, environmental, social and economic sustainability need to be considered. Therefore, some viewpoint other than relying on the convention of GDP as a measure of economic and social progress is needed. Such indicators can be the basis of concrete targets under the post-MDGs. The new international development strategy should consider the development of such indicators. For example, ?happiness / well-being? 3 could be one of the meaningful indicators, based on i) economic and social conditions, ii) physical and mental health, and iii) human and social relationships. The outcomes of Global Project on Measuring Wellbeing and Social Progress by OECD should also be utilized. Domestic disparity should also be a focus in setting the new indicators. Again, human security could provide important signpost in this regard. (5) What Rio+20 should achieve: A path toward the adoption of the post-MDGs Japan proposes that the followings are the possible outcomes to be agreed at Rio+20 (a) To formulate a new international development strategy (or its pillars) with the shape of the post-MDGs in mind. (b) Toward the adoption of the post-MDGs, an intensive process should start with the involvement of variety of stakeholders, to reach a final agreement on the post-MDGs at the UN by the UN member states (c) To promote the work to establish happiness / well-being indicators In these processes, hearing of expert opinions will be conducted. 3 ?Committee on Well-being?, the Cabinet Office 5. Nine proposals from Japan to achieve Sustainable Development Japan proposes the following nine initiatives to realize Sustainable Development. They are all major sectors to realize Sustainable Development and also the areas Japan has strong expertise. (1) Disaster risk reduction Adoption of a Post ?Hyogo Framework? and its Integration to Development Policy Natural hazards such as earthquakes, droughts, floods, forest fires and volcanic eruptions not only deprive people of their lives but also threaten economic and social foundation and bring serious environmental destruction. Recent increase in intensity and frequency of natural hazards have become a great barrier against the realization of Sustainable Development and poverty eradication. Based on the idea of ?disasters derail development?, now is the time to locate disaster risk reductions one of the major pillars of Sustainable Development policies. Japan has consistently advocated for the importance of disaster risk reduction, by hosting the 1 st (Yokohama: 1994) and the 2 nd UN World Conference on Disaster Reduction (Kobe: 2005). The ?Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015?, adopted at the 2 nd conference in Kobe stipulates the priority actions for disaster risk reduction, and has been the guidepost for each country as the single international agreement in this field. The Great East Japan Earthquake gave Japan lessons and further expertise on disaster risk reduction. Japan?s efforts to build a more resilient and sustainable society will provide important inputs to a new international agreement to replace the ?Hyogo Framework for Action?, which will expire in 2015. Together with the discussion on the review of the current MDGs whose final year is 2015, Japan proposes that disaster risk reduction be clearly placed within the post-MDGs, and the post ?Hyogo Framework for Action? be set out which includes concrete tools and methodologies to realize the mainstreaming of disaster risk reduction into development policies. In order to contribute to this new framework, Japan proposes that a high level international conference on large scale natural disasters in 2012 and the 3 rd World Conference on Disaster Reduction be held in Japan to agree the post ?Hyogo Framework for Action? at the international level. (2) Energy Toward a Bold Energy Shift To build a low-carbon society which emits the minimum amount of CO2 (carbon minimum), all sectors of society including industry, administration and the general public are required to act to encourage energy conservation and renewable energy. UN-Energy proposes that i)universal access to modern energy should be achieved by 2030, ii)modern energy efficiency ratio to be raised to 40% by 2030, and iii) the share of renewable energy in the global energy supply should be raised to at least 30% by 2030. To realize a low-carbon society, energy-efficiency, renewable energy and clean energy need to be promoted. Japan considers the measures need to be taken to promote clean energy technology and systems, including i)the reduction of trade and investment barriers against energy efficient products , ii) joint international research and capacity building, iii) the promotion of government- private sector cooperation and the supply of efficient and low-carbon energy, and iv)adequate incentive for construction, industry and transportation sectors. Japan proposes that the Rio+20 agree on the launch of work by each country to realize a low- carbon society for promoting energy efficiency, renewable energy and clean energy. Energy-efficient technologies are widely available in Japan both in the private and public sectors, and a low-carbon type life style is also widely spread. Various measures have been introduced, including the Top Runner standard which sets a target for each electric appliance that consumes a large amount of energy, in order to promote energy efficiency. These energy-saving efforts greatly helped Japan to deal with power shortages after the Great East Japan Earthquake. (3) Food Security Achievement of Food Security through Sustainable Agriculture Considering the global population growth, resource limitations and intensified extreme weather events, food security has become a pressing global challenge. At the same time it is necessary to promote a sustainable agricultural system and diversified crops, which would contribute to positive externalities of agriculture as well as sustainable use of natural resources such as land, water and biodiversity. Japan proposes that food security be realized through sustainable agriculture, which includes the followings: - Agricultural production and productivity need to be enhanced and will need to be raised by 70% in order to feed the world?s population, which is expected to reach 9 billion in 2050. - co-existence of diverse agricultural patterns, improvement of disaster response, and rural development are needed. In this regard, assistance and expertise sharing will be needed in the least developing countries (LDCs) to encourage regional dispersion of agricultural production to deal with disaster risks caused by climate change. - International policy coordination such as responsible agricultural investment, improvement of market transparency, improvement of agri-business and increasing investment to agricultural sector to increase food production is also urgent. In order to harmonize and maximize the interest of investors, recipient countries and local residents, Japan has been promoting the ?Responsible Agricultural Investment (RAI)? with related international organizations such as World Bank, Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) etc. RAI needs to be promoted. To realize food security, the following measures are extremely important: - the reducing of post-harvest loss - facilitating trade in food and agricultural products - organizing farmers and human resource development for the purpose of resource management In developing countries, it is indispensable to promote intensive and efficient measures while encouraging proper agricultural investment (in irrigation facilities, land improvement, agricultural research, fertilizers, agricultural chemicals and market access) by utilizing regional resources. Developed countries are especially required to reduce excessive investment which places a heavy burden on the environment. (4) Water Nexus of Sustainability: Integrated Water Resources Management Water is the nexus of Sustainable Development to bridge social benefits such as food, energy and human health, and the atmosphere and natural water circulation process. 100% of agricultural production and 95% of energy generation (firepower, hydropower, tidal power, nuclear power: solar power also needs massive pure water) rely on water in the process of production to disposal. On the other hand, there are many people who do not have access to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities. One of the MDGs targets aims to halve the proportion of the people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation by 2015. With population growth and urbanization, rising demand for water and severer water pollution are expected. With the rising frequency of floods and water depletion due to climate change, water environment has been deteriorated. Given this trend, more efficient management of water resources and water environment is required. Japan has been conducting projects to domestic and overseas projects to apply advanced technologies and know-hows, including advanced wastewater treatment using membrane treatment technology, the energy utilization system for sewage biomass, and asset management systems. Japan has been working on international standardization, in order to disseminate water-related technologies and systems to overseas. The UN Secretary-General?s Advisory Board on Water and Sanitation (UNSGAB) announced ?Hashimoto Action Plan? at the 4 th World Water Forum in 2006, followed by ?Hashimoto Action Plan II? in 2010. These Plans have played important roles in the utilization of water resources, by setting goals such as improving access to water and sanitation, integrated water resource management, and disaster response. These plans will expire in 2012. In the recommendation of UNSGAB to Rio+20, as announced in September 2011, the additional goals of waste water management and more efficient use of water in agriculture have been introduced. To share these Japanese measures with the international community, Japan proposes that the discussion should start at Rio+20 on the goals for water resource management after 2013, from the viewpoint of Sustainable Development. This will be an important element of the post-MDGs. (5) Future City The City Everyone Wants to Live While more people are expected to live in urban areas, especially in emerging economies, developed countries are experiencing a seriously declining birth rate and aging society. Energy and environment have become urgent and common global issues. In order to deal with such challenges, Japan proposes that newly born cities as well as existing cities aim to become a model of ?Future City?, which realizes the transition to the Green Economy. Future cities are cities in which not only the three pillars of Sustainable Development, namely, economy, society and the environment are well balanced up to a certain level: but also can keep continuously creating new values from these pillars. In order to create values from those three pillars, it is essential to make an intensive effort to tackle challenges of building a low-carbon city and dealing with aging society with a declining birth rate, within a city which possesses integral functions in certain areas. Such efforts would combine technologies and services in various different fields strategically and transform social and economic systems into sustainable direction, while inducing synergistic and positive secondary effects. Through this process, it is expected to expand demand, to create jobs and to invite private investment. Moreover, it is important that each city involves multiple stakeholders to design a desirable future from the viewpoint of citizens and realize it, while utilizing regional characteristics such as natural and social conditions. Through such undertakings, a city where everyone wants to live and with stronger social bonds will be realized. Japan is to realize such a city ahead of others and presents it to the world through international municipal networks. When Japan realize it, it is expected that cities friendly to local residents, communities and ultimately friendly to global environment will be created in many places throughout the world. Japanese local administrations and communities are playing leading roles in actively promoting the 3Rs (Reduction, Reuse and Recycle). A model of ?Future City" is Sound Material- Cycle cities, which include the elements of the 3Rs by reducing, reusing and recycling wastes, while utilizing environmentally-friendly alternative materials to the maximum extent. Such Sound Material-Cycle citiesor ?3R cities? could spread throughout the international community, by transferring Japan?s expertise on waste management and recycling to countries in need, through global partnerships on waste. It is important to promote projects in which each stakeholder voluntarily cooperates with each other in cities and local administrations, and assist international cooperation between local authorities, including assistance from international organizations. (6) Education for Sustainable Development Initiative to Cultivate ?Sustainable Citizens? In order to achieve a sustainable society, it is indispensable for each one of us to be aware of the limited resources on earth and to play a leading role in the creation of such society. From this viewpoint, Japanese education connects issues such as the environment, disaster risk reduction, biodiversity, climate change, international understanding, peace, welfare, development, gender, children?s human rights, AIDS, poverty reduction, and conflict prevention, using the principles of Sustainable Development. Japan promotes such education within and outside school, in cooperationwith a variety of sectors including international organizations, foreign governments, educators, NGOs, and enterprises. Japan thinks ?sustainable citizens? can be fostered through such efforts. Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is something to be shared not only among children but also within the society as a whole, across generations 4 . Especially after the Great East Japan Earthquake, the recognition of the importance of education on disaster risk reduction and energy has increased. The promotion of human resource development has gained importance in order to solve the global issues such as large scale disasters and climate change, and to contribute to building a sustainable society. Each country has endeavoured to promote Education for Sustainable Development, it is clear that Sustainable Development cannot be achieved unilaterally. Toward the end of the ?United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (UNDESD)? in 2014, it is necessary to further promote ESD and to share such efforts and encourage inter-sectoral works at regional and global levels in cooperation with UNESCO, the leading agency of UNDESD. Japan, hosting the international conference on Education for Sustainable Development in 2014, proposes that the Rio+20 be an occasion to agree on disseminating such education in each country and foster citizens who can support Sustainable Development by sharing the efforts domestically and internationally. (7) Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Strengthening ?Global Earth Observation Network? In order to achieve Sustainable Development, innovation in science and technology is indispensable. In order to deal with global challenges such as climate change and large scale natural disasters, timely, quality long-term data on the globe should be obtained and shared. After the importance of the global observation activities was emphasized in the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in 2002, the international community aims at building GEOSS in the ten years from 2005 to 2015, by achieving comprehensive, coordinated and sustained observations of the Earth system. It also aims at generating information necessary as a basis for sound decision-making in the nine fields of social benefit 5 . ?GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan 6 ? was adopted as an indicator to measure this goal. 4 Japan proposed the concept of ?Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)? in the Johannesburg Summit in 2002. The concept of ESD connects individual issues such as environmental education, basic education, and international understanding in the holistic manner. Japan also proposed that the decade from 2005 to be designated as the ?Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD)? in the same Summit. Japan plans to host the ?UNESCO World conference on ESD ? in the final year of UNDESD. Japan places education on sustainable development as ?one of the most important education principles? in the Basic Plan for the Promotion of Education, and includes the concepts in the Courses of Study, Government Curriculum Guidelines. 5 Disaster, health, energy, climate, water, weather, ecosystem, agriculture, and biodiversity 6 This was formulated at the 3 rd Earth Observation Summit in 2005. The 5 th Earth Observation Summit (GEO Ministerial Summit) was held in 2010, marking the middle year of this plan, set out ?GEOSS Strategic Targets? to articulate the plans in the latter half of the decade.6 Japan has been contributing to the construction of GEOSS by conducting various observations through satellites such as Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite ?IBUKI (GOSAT)?, which can improve understanding of global carbon cycle dynamics and accuracy of future climate forecast, for monitoring atmospheric CO2 and CH4, and Advanced Land Observing Satellite ?DAICHI (ALOS)? for monitoring volcanic eruptions and the situation in earthquake hit areas. In order to achieve green economy, it is extremely important to invest in technological innovation in developed and emerging countries and share the fruits of sophisticated technologies by creating international networks of science and technology, as seen by the example of GEOSS.6 The importance of networks has been increasing in the 21 st Century. Universal sharing of accurate data on the globe is extremely important in terms of reducing digital divide. Japan proposes that the network on the global earth observation system though GEOSS should be further strengthened by upgrading basic geospatial information, such as that on water system and geographic features, which covers the whole planet. In order to do so, Japan proposes that global earth observation systems be improved in nations and organizations, related data be disclosed as much as possible, and user- friendly database be constructed. (8) Technological Innovation and Green Innovation Realization of a Comfortable Next-generation Environment The transition to a Green Economy is the key to achieving Sustainable Development. Technological innovation and green innovation are extremely important for the transition to a Green Economy. It is the very technological innovation through everyday research and development that supports the elements needed to achieve Sustainable Development, such as: renewable energy, energy conservation, building smart grids, technological innovation for proper resource recycling, communication technology innovation, zero-emission houses, and sophisticated global earth observation, climate change projection and data integration and analysis. Japan hopes to further develop these cutting-edge Japanese technologies, and share them with the international community to improve the environment for fostering Green Innovation. In the ?Strategy for becoming an environment and energy power through ?green innovation? of 2010, Japan announced the ?Strategy for becoming an environment and energy power through ?green innovation?, which lines up the following six elements. i) Making use of Japan?s world-leading technologies ii) Becoming the world?s top environment and energy power through a comprehensive policy package iii) Promoting growth by green innovation and securing support resources 7 for the growth 7 To speed up the development of innovative technologies including storage batteries, next-generation vehicles, improved thermal power plant efficiency, and information and communications systems with lower electric power. To achieve comprehensive greenhouse gas emissions reductions in the transportation and household sectors by promoting modal shifts, encouraging the use of energy-conserving consumer electronics. To leraise efficient electric power supply and demand through a Japanese-version smart grid linking electric power suppliers and electricity users via information systems, and spark new demand through related equipment in households, promoting this as a growth industry. Through such measures, Japan aims to build independent and decentralized energy system which excels in both low-carbon and disaster reduction iv) Lifestyle reforms through improving the comfort and quality of life 8 v) Creating green cities by promoting the rebuilding and remodeling of superannuated buildings vi) Developing model to reform the socioeconomic structure from local areas In ?The Guideline on Policy Promotion for the Revitalization of Japan? announced after the Great East Japan Earthquake, an innovative strategy for energy and the environment is mentioned to be considered, as a measure toward ?Redesigning and Refortifying National Strategies towards New Growth?. In the light of the global resource limitation, green innovation is expected to gain its importance as a significant element to provide technological innovation and job opportunities through creation of new markets. Japan proposes that each country reassure such importance and initiate its efforts depending on its growth stage. (9) Biodiversity Realization of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets toward Life in Harmony with Nature In order to realize Sustainable Development, it is indispensable to maintain rich biodiversity and to maximize ecosystem services (benefits from food, water, timber, medicine, etc.). At the 10 th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD/COP10) held in October 2010, the long-term vision to be achieved by 2050 was adopted to create a world of ?Living in harmony with nature? where ?By 2050, biodiversity is valued, conserved, restored and wisely used, maintaining ecosystem services, sustaining a healthy planet and delivering benefits essential for all people?. Human beings have accumulated wealth upon benefits from nature. Japan considers the world living in harmony with nature will create the basis of true Sustainable Development. The human-influenced natural environment (socio-ecological production landscape) has been formed and maintained by human use and management. Such environment has resilience against large scale natural disasters and contributes to the maintenance and development of sustainable society and economy. From this viewpoint, Japan has proposed ?Satoyama Initiative?, to promote the conservation of such environment worldwide. The value of such environment should be appreciated under the vision of ?living in harmony with nature?. As concrete targets for actions to realize the long-term biodiversity vision, twenty ?Aichi Biodiversity Targets? have been adopted at CBD/COP10, to be achieved by 2020 or 2015. These targets include the conservation and expansion of protected areas and revision and steady implementation of the National Biodiversity Strategies. To achieve these targets, it is necessary to aspect. Japan also promotes complete cyclical use of domestic resources by further focusing recycling and technological development of alternative materials to substitute rare metals and rare earth. 8 To promote zero-emission homes, offices, and other facilities through the spread of eco-housing, the expanded use of renewable energies, the spread and expansion of heat pumps, and the 100% adoption of LEDs. promote relevant policies and measures at national, regional and global levels, and to provide assistance to developing countries for necessary capacity-building. In order to promote concrete actions to achieve the Aichi Biodiversity Targets by all sectors, the UN General Assembly decided to stipulate the year from 2011 to 2020 as ?the UN Decade on Biodiversity?. During this decade, wide-ranging stakeholders such as business communities, local authorities, and NGOs should be encouraged to take part in relevant activities (mainstreaming of biodiversity). Japan proposes that each country should reaffirm the importance of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets at Rio+ 20, which is expected to be the opportunity to contribute to the realization of those Targets by encouraging each country to share, support and participate in measures to promote them (eg. through ?International Partnership on Satoyama Initiative? and regional partnership for protected areas?. III. Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development 1. Basic Background and challenges ahead: Sustainable Development should be promoted at all levels. Institutional reform is not a precondition. In order to achieve Sustainable Development, it is necessary to promote integrated effort at all levels including national, regional, and international levels, while striking a balance among economy, society and the environment. It would be beneficial for the international community to share such basic understanding and to agree to concrete measures to improve international frameworks including those of international organizations at the Rio+20, as a basis for tangible actions. In doing this, Japan considers present problems should be defined first, rather than standing on the assumption that a new institution should be established. Firstly, it would be effective if the international organizations related to the three pillars of Sustainable Development, namely, economy, society and the environment, strengthen collaboration with each other at the field level, and enhance the structure to support implementation of Sustainable Development at the national level. Japan appreciates the effort to enhance collaborations between UN institutions at the national level, under ?One UN? initiative. After analyzing past successes and failures in precise, this initiative could be made for example ?One UN for Sustainable Development Initiative?, in order to further promote the mainstreaming of the environment in national development plans and strategies. Secondly, it could be pointed out that the officials in the environment sector and the development sector are not fully collaborating and cooperating with each other, both in government offices and in international organizations. For this reason, there is a tendency that discussions are often duplicated and lack understanding on each other?s arguments. Therefore, a framework should be established to harmonize these two sectors at all levels, including national, regional, and international levels. For example, it is beneficial for each country to establish a framework focusing on Sustainable Development. 2. CSD Reform: Focus should be on the improvement of functions The following points have been discussed on CSD, the only high-level committee on Sustainable Development: i) discussions at CSD usually center on environmental policies and are often duplicated with those in other for such as UNEP and various MEAs. CSD lacks originality in its discussion. ii) CSD only reviews the implementing situation of Agenda 21, without being able to secure actual implementation of it. For example, the review meeting which is held in the first year of each CSD cycle is the occasion for countries only to present their policies, and not functioning as review for ensuring their implementation. The policy conference in the second year usually spend great deal of time negotiating without adopting a decision, or leaving MEAs to make decisions. These meetings do not produce meaningful outcome so far. iii)The participants to CSD meetings are mainly ministers and officials from environmental ministries, who do not have a close collaboration with those in development sector. The following points would provide concrete solution: (1) Strengthening Review function of CSD Actual problems in implementation should be attached more importance, in order for each country to learn from each other?s experiences. Japan proposes the introduction of peer reviews on each country?s policies and follow-ups toward the achievement of international goals on Sustainable Development. Based on such peer reviews, periodic report would be needed to comprehensively evaluate global measures for Sustainable Development. (2) Improvement of CSD agenda setting It would be necessary for CSD to decide not to take up the issues which have already discussed at Conference of Parties (COPs) of MEAs. (3) Further collaborations with development agencies It would be beneficial to enhance the collaboration between the discussions on environment and economic/social development, by holding the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) substantive session together with CSD meetings. Japan considers it to be beneficial for each country to establish a framework focusing on Sustainable Development, in conducting development assistance. 3. Strengthening Institutional Framework on the environment: Improving efficiency of administrative and financial managements Strengthening of institutional framework on the environment is an urgent task in the three pillars of Sustainable Development. Since there are numerous MEAs and related organizations in the field of the environment, duplications of activities and administrative inefficiency are the issues to be addressed. Therefore, Japan considers that it would be significant if leaders at the Rio+20 agree on the manner in which international environment organizations should be to exercise true effectiveness and leadership. However, only discussions on institutional reforms preceding the scrap and build of duplicated organizations could result in fragmentation thus not desirable. Japan considers that stepby-step approaches are realistic. Only after taking each step by promoting synergies 9 among MEAs and rationalizing their administration, the possible creation of an ideal specialized organization may be envisaged as one of options. This could be achieved in the following steps. (1) The first step - Strengthening collaboration among MEAs activities and administrative arrangements, holding joint COPs in each field (especially in the area of biodiversity) - Conducting a review based on UNEP?s report on the activities of MEAs - Enhancing collaboration among UNEP, MEA Secretariats and United Nations Development Program (UNDP) at national levels (2) The second step - Integrating MEA Secretariats associated with each other and appointing joint executive secretary - Strengthening coordination within the Environmental Management Group - Integrating UNEP regional offices and regional centers of MEAs, building cooperative system between UNEP regional offices and UN national teams (3) The third step On the condition that the first and second steps are fully ensured, an establishment of a specialized environmental agency by integrating UNEP and MEAs could be considered as a final step. The plenary of this agency would make decisions on international actions on environment, to be followed by concrete activities by MEAs. Each MEA Secretariat should be integrated in the Headquarter office of this agency. Cooperative mechanism should be built with development related organizations, including international financial institutions such as the World Bank. If a restructuring including these were realized, environmental governance could be enhanced, with administrative procedures and financial management further rationalized. 9 Coordination has been enhanced among the three conventions related to chemicals and wastes, including joint activities, joint management, and joint services. In order to strengthen assistance to national-level implementation, capacity building and technical assistance have been encouraged to be done jointly. Capacity-building programmes and the development of clearing house mechanism will be done jointly, as well as collaboration among scientific advisory organizations and joint national reporting, in 2012-2013. The budget for these joint activities will be divided among the three conventions. On joint management and joint services, the Joint Executive Secretary of these conventions was appointed last spring, and the joint secretariat is under preparation. A joint secretariat will be composed of joint convention service unit (legal issues, administration and budget, knowledge management and IT, awareness raising, conference services, resource mobilization) and individual technical unit. Through the integration of secretariat functions, budget has been rationalized. The fixed costs such as office equipment, translation and printing have been reduced by the third to the half in the 2012-2013 budgets. Secretariat staff members will be reappointed in the manner not to exceed the personnel cost of each convention. Part 2: Global challenges and effort in major sectors and Japan?s experience toward the transition to a Green Economy In order to promote the transition to a Green Economy, it is important that global challenges and necessary measures in major sectors are shared, with each country taking appropriate actions depending on individual circumstances. Japan is a ?Green Economy Advanced Nation 10 ?, which has been implementing various measures toward the greening of its economy. Sharing Japan?s experiences, therefore, would be beneficial for the countries which are to make the transition to a Green Economy. This section describes the global challenges and efforts in the sectors Japan considers to be prioritized, together with Japan?s experiences and undertakings in such sectors. 1. Mitigating risks related to natural hazards (1) Challenges and goals to be shared Needless to mention the Great East Japan Earthquake, the recent increase of disasters shows that the reduction of the risks related to natural hazards and early recovery from disasters are extremely important for the international community. From the Sustainable Development viewpoint, it is indispensable for the international community to raise awareness on the common challenges and goals to reduce the risks related to natural hazards. Once taking place, disasters not only take many people?s lives but also lead to the separation of people and the destruction of communities, destroying the long-term development outcome in a matter of seconds. On the other hand, disaster risk reduction has not been regarded as a major development agenda because it is difficult to access and foresee the outcome of actions. However, it is quite possible to make rational judgments on how much resources should be allocated to recover the damage brought by disasters, based on objective data analysis and verification of past disaster records. As recommended in the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction in 2009, the promotion of some additional investment to disaster prevention could play an important role in protecting human lives and development outcome. After the Great East Japan Earthquake, international activities have been vigorously 10 Japan aims at creating 1.4million new jobs in the environmental field, through Green Innovation. The Chair?s conclusion of the G8 Labour and Employment Ministers Meeting in Niigata in May 2008 recognizes ?that Governments, employers and workers should work together to achieve a coherent balance of growth, employment, productivity and concern for the environment?, and the following measures were agreed. - helping displaced workers caused by environmental changes make a transition to new jobs - encouraging skills development that responds to environmentally-friendly innovations and industrial changes -promotion of environmentally-friendly way of working, by adjusting to new patterns of natural resources use and conservation in workplaces. Japan provides assistance to Asian countries which have achieved industrialization to a certain extent through International labour Organization (ILO). The assistance includes the promotion of environment-related employment by strengthening partnerships between workers and employers to realize environmentally-friendly corporate activities, and the pilot programme to cultivate model companies. Japan has promoted vocational training in new areas such as environment and energy. conducted to utilize Japan?s experiences to strengthen global measures against disasters. The World Bank Report in November 2010 points out the importance of actions to avoid catastrophic damage from less frequent but larger scale disasters such as the one experienced by Japan. The OECD is proposing stronger measures against global-scale shocks and the creation of a resilient society by conducting disaster risk assessments. (2) Necessary measures The 2 nd UN World Conference on Disaster Reduction in 2005 in Kobe adopted the ?Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015?, which includes the following priorities. i) Ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national and a local priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation ii) Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early warning iii) Use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels iv) Reduce the underlying risk factors v) Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective responses at all levels In developing countries, the following measures would be needed. - measures straightly before the disasters to protect human lives, such as early warning and evacuation instruction - measures to prevent catastrophic economic damage considering the seriousness of such damage by recent intensified disasters - regional cooperation in conducting emergency assistance for recovery which would lead to international efforts It is also necessary for the international community to raise the sense of emergency on large scale disasters which rarely take place in each country. With the accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake which involved an exceptionally large scale earthquake and tsunami, the perpetual necessity of nuclear power plant safety assessment has been reconfirmed. It is important for all the countries which intend to use or introduce nuclear power plants to conduct a comprehensive assessment on risks and safety of nuclear facilities. (3)Japan?s approach While promoting the Hyogo Framework for Action, Japan proposed and established the International Recovery Platform as an international joint project, in order to materialize the Hyogo Framework. This enables Japan to summarize and disseminate international expertise and lessons on recovery and reconstruction, and develop human resources for ?build back better?. In order to further contribute to international disaster cooperation activities, Japan announced that Japan would like to host the 3 rd World Conference on Disaster Reduction in 2015, to share the expertise and lessons learned from the Great East Japan Earthquake with the international community. To prepare for this conference, Japan is going to host a high level international conference on large scale disasters in 2012. Japan committed to the contribution of more than 2.5 billion dollars in five years for disaster risk reduction and reconstruction in the Asia-Africa Summit in 2005. Japan has steadily disbursed this assistance, and has actively extended assistance for disaster risk reduction. Japan promotes ?Sentinel Asia 11 ?, a project to share disaster-related information such as satellite pictures in Asian countries via internet. As we have witnessed after the Great East Japan Earthquake, many tsunamis have been historically triggered by earthquakes in Japan. Based on the experiences and lessons learned from the Great East Japan Earthquake, Japan decided to review its overall measures against earthquakes and tsunamis. The basic direction was announced by the Experts Committee of the Central Disaster Management Council in September. Japan promotes ?building cities resilient to disasters and tsunamis? through both logistic and substantial measures based on the concept of ?reducing risks? to minimize disaster damages, and maintaining protecting human lives as the top priority. Basic lifelines such as sewage systems have been promoted, through Business Continuity Plan (BCP) to secure emergency function, not only logistic measures but also substantial measures and the improvement of evacuation system using ICT. Japan also plans to designate ?Sanriku Fukko (Reconstruction) National Park (as a provisional name)?, in order to enhance the reconstruction of disaster-affected areas and to pass the disaster experiences to future generations, according to the Natural Parks Act. In order to strengthen initial response measures, Japan will mobilize emergency response personnel from the places outside of disaster-stricken areas, in case response capacities are limited in the areas. This will help emergency rescue and early reconstruction. Through these measures, Japan intends to avoid prolonged effects of disasters and to enhance a wide-ranging disaster risk reduction system to prevent secondary damages. These expertise and technologies based on Japan?s own experiences will greatly contribute to the Sustainable Development of the international community. Japan will promote the wider network and expertise for disaster risk reduction in Asia, through the Asian Disaster Reduction Center (ADRC). Under the collaboration with research organizations such as ICHARM, Japan will domestically and internationally utilize science and technology to make a rational selection of appropriate damage mitigation and prevention measures, based on disaster risk assessment and prediction acquired from the global observation data. 2. Climate Change and Energy ( To achieve a low-carbon society) (1) Challenges and Goals to be shared The ultimate objective in the field of climate change is to achieve stabilization of greenhouse 11 The joint international project aiming to support disaster management in the Asia-Pacific region. This joint project was proposed and led by Japan in the ?Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum(APRSAF)?, an international community aiming to enhance space activities in the Asia-Pacific region. The project aims at sharing disaster-related information obtained through such means as earth observation satellites via internet, in order to prevent and mitigate damages from natural disasters including typhoons, floods, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions and forest fires. The project is participated by 67 organizations from 24 countries/regions and 11 international organizations. gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system (Article 2, UNFCCC). The Cancun Agreements adopted at COP16 recognize that deep cuts in global greenhouse gas emissions are required according to science with a view to reducing global greenhouse gas emissions so as to hold the increase in global average temperature below 2°C above preindustrial levels, and it is also agreed that the Parties should cooperate in achieving the peaking as soon as possible. In order to achieve these goals, it is necessary to operationalize the Cancun Agreements robustly, and to establish a fair and effective international framework in which all major economies participate. UN-Energy proposes that i)universal access to modern energy should be achieved by 2030 ii) modern energy efficiency ratio to be raised to 40% by 2030, and iii) the share of renewable energy in the global energy supply should be raised to at least 30% by 2030. Such targets are meaningful in dealing with climate change and from the viewpoint of securing access to energy. (2) Necessary measures The following policy measures are effective in achieving these goals. - in addition to UN negotiations, promotion of cooperation to build a low-carbon society at global, regional, national and lower levels, as being steadily implemented, as well as steady assistance to developing countries for this purpose - sharing expertise within regions, exchange of opinions with wide-ranging stakeholders, and the promotion of co-benefit approach - specifying risks of climate change, information gathering on the probability and impact assessment, to create the scientific basis for an international framework - implementation of adaptation and mitigation measures and assistance to vulnerable countries - supporting REDD-plus 12 activities as a mitigation measures and improvement of measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) as the mitigation measures - securing CO2 sinks through promotion of sustainable forest management, appropriate management and conservation of protected and other forests and the promotion of urban greening - environmental education - promotion of low-carbon society through a comprehensive policy package including designing new systems, changing existing systems, introduction of new regulations and deregulations. Quick dissemination of environment-friendly technologies and products, and the promotion of Green Innovation 12 The reducing emissions from deforestation and forests degradation in developing countries (REDD), with the share of approximately 20% of the world GHG emissions, is one of important issues to mitigate climate change. The role of the conservation , sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries are added to REDD, and is called REDD-plus. (3) Japan?s approach (a) Contribution to the international community Japan supports the establishment of a low-carbon society. Japan announced to provide developing countries which are tackling climate change by reducing emissions and countries which are vulnerable to the effects of climate change with the assistance of approximately 15 billion dollars from private and public sectors, by 2012. Japan has already disbursed 11.3 billion dollars by the end of July 2011. Japan is actively participating in the designing process of ?the Green Climate Fund?, and ?Climate Technology Center and Network? and its designing process, as agreed to establish by the Cancun Agreements. In this regard, Japan hosted the 2 nd Transitional Committee in Tokyo in July 2011, and hosted Policy Dialogue on Climate Change in Africa in October 2011. Japan has been promoting international initiatives such as the ?Innovative Program of Climate Change Projection for the 21 st Century (KAKUSHIN) 13 ?, ?Research Programme on Climate Change Adaptation 14 ?, ?International Research Network for Low Carbon Societies (LCS-RNet) 15 ?, ?Asia and the Pacific Adaptation Network (APAN) 16 ?, ?Ministerial Conference on Global Environment and Energy in Transport 17 ?, ?Global Mapping? project 18 , and ?Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases 19 ?. Japan will continue these measures to improve climate projection and impact assessment technologies, and to generate information contributing to risk management. Japan is also formulating ?Low-Carbon Growth and Sustainable Development Strategy for Africa 20 ? with African partners and 13 This program conducts researches on long-term global environmental projection near-term, climate prediction, extreme event, projection through simulation computing by the super-computer ?Earth Simulator? This program is expected to contribute to IPCC-AR5, and provides basic information for the policies on climate change mitigation and adaptation. 14 To develop downscaling methods, data assimilation technology, climate change adaptation simulation technology, in order to refine the results of the ?Innovative Programme of Climate Change Projection for the 21 st Century (KAKUSHIN)? down to regional level. 15 The network of 16 research organizations from 16 countries, launched in 2009 under the G8 Environmental Ministers? Meeting. Research organizations in G8 and Asian countries are cooperating and sharing information and expertise under this network, on various challenges and measures to build low-carbon society through scenario analysis. 16 An Asian network which constitutes the Global Adaptation Network proposed by UNEP at COP15. The network contributes to sharing knowledge, experiences and information and to matching adaptation needs of developing countries with assistance 17 A meeting of transport ministers and relevant international organizations of majour countries, focusing measures against climate change in transportation sector. Japan hosted the 1 st Meeting. 28 countries and 5 international organizations participated in the 2 nd Meeting in Italy. 18 An international project participated by National Mapping Organizations from 181 countries and regions, to develop global geospatial information, which is necessary in dealing with global environmental issues. Proposed by Japan in 1992, and Japan has been playing the central role with Geospatial Information Authority of Japan serving as the Secretariat. 19 A research network participated by 32 countries on GHG reduction in agricultural sector. Researches have been conducted on livestock, paddy fields rice and croplands. Japan serves as the Chair in Paddy Rice Research Group. 20 Low-Carbon Growth and Sustainable Development Strategy in Africa? is promoting ?East Asia Low Carbon Growth Partnership 21 ? with East Asian countries. Japan actively participates in international discussions to reduce GHGs from the international transportation sector, at international organizations such as the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Japanese public and private sectors are enthusiastically engaged in the development of the cities which enable people to live in harmony with the environment, through Japan?s advanced environmental technologies such as bullet train, urban transportation, water, energy and highly efficient coal fire power generation. Japan will conduct necessary researches, human resource development, and public sector financial support. Japan will support the introduction of related environmental regulations in developing countries. (b) Domestic Measures The ?New Growth Strategy ?Blueprint for Revitalizing Japan?? was decided by the Cabinet in June 2010 and places the ?Strategy for becoming an environment and energy power through Green Innovation? as one of the strategy sectors. The New Growth Strategy stipulates that the Government of Japan will conduct such measures as supporting the spread of renewable energy, promoting lowcarbon investments and financing, utilizing information and communication technologies, promoting modal shifts, disseminating energy-saving electric appliances, and recycling domestic resources. On the New Growth Strategy, the Japanese Cabinet decided the ?Interim Report on Strategies to Revitalize Japan? on 5 th August 2011, taking into account the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on the Japanese economy. Based on this report, the Japanese Government will make efforts to put into practice the ?New Growth Strategy? by adhering to the objectives and schedules and also redesign and reinforce strategies for new growth, and to develop the ?Strategies to Revitalize Japan? by the end of the year (?Overall Picture of Policy Promotion?, decided by the Cabinet on 15 August 2011). The following have been stipulated in the ?Strategy for becoming an environment and energy power through Green Innovation?. i)To try to quantitatively change the ?Strategy for becoming an environment and energy power ?, including the review of energy-related policies ii) To sum up the basic policies of the ?Innovative Strategy for Energy and the Environment? toward the end of 2011, based on the ?Guidelines for Policy Promotion ? toward the revitalization of Japan ?? issued by the Cabinet in May 2011, and reflect them to the ?Strategies to Revitalize Japan? iii) To formulate a new roadmap as the ?Innovative Strategy for Energy and the Environment?, by reviewing the existing roadmap under the ?Strategy for becoming an environment and energy power ? in the ?New Growth The 3 rd Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD III) Ministerial Follow-up Meeting in May 2011 (Dakar) agreed to formulate this strategy and it was included in the communiqué. An interim report on this strategy will be submitted to the TICAD Follow-up Meeting in 2012 with the final report to be done by the end of 2012. Japan is collaborating with African countries and TICAD co-organizer organizations to formulate the strategy. 21 The concept of ?East Asia Low Carbon Growth Partnership? promotes the development of low-carbon growth model in East Asia, the world?s growth center as well as the largest CO2 emitter. The concept was included in the Chairman?s Statement of the East Asia Summit Foreign Minister?s Consultation in July 2011. Japan is considering to host a conference to promote sharing information and best practices in East Asia next April. Strategy?, with the idea that the scenario to reduce the dependency on nuclear energy should be materialized and the Green Innovation Strategy should be reinforced and implemented ahead of schedule. The Cabinet Committee on global warming in December 2010 basically shared the idea that technological innovation is the very ?answer to the winning formula on the environment, energy and growth?. The Committee decided to develop a comprehensive Green Innovation Strategy, by expanding the ?Strategy to build Japan into a Global power in the Environment and Energy field? under the New Growth Strategy. The Renewable Energy Special Measures Law, including the introduction of this system, was passed in the 177 th Regular Diet Session. The law will enter into force in July 2012. 3. Food Security (1) Challenges and goals to be shared Considering global population growth, rising food prices, limited global resources, and intensifying extreme weather events, ensuring food security has become one of the global challenges. To halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day and who suffer from hunger are set out in the MDGs. On the other hand, it is necessary to promote sustainable agricultural system and crop diversity which would contribute to the sustainable use of natural resources such as land, water and biodiversity, and land conservation as well as the positive externalities of agricultural activities such as the cultivation of water sources, protection of landscape, and conservation of biodiversity. (2) Necessary measures In order to achieve the above, the following measures would be necessary: - increasing food production and productivity through crop breeding and the improvement of irrigation facilities - improving disaster response measures, promoting farming , forestry and fishing communities, and dealing with tasks related to climate change, water and other resource management - promotion of responsible agricultural investment - facilitation of trade in foods, agricultural and fishery products - improvement of market information and transparency - improvement of agri-business environment - international policy coordination - reducing the impact of price fluctuation on the most vulnerable people - achieving sustainable fishery production - sharing expertise and assistance to developing countries are also important to promote these measures in the most vulnerable LDCs 22 . 22 In order to raise global food production, investment in agriculture is an urgent issue for both public and private sectors. With the rapid increase of large scale acquisition of agricultural land in recent years, it is often criticized as ?competition to (3) Japan?s Approach (a) Contribution to the International Community Japan hosted the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Ministerial Meeting on Food Security, and contributed to the adoption of action plans for ?sustainable agricultural development? and ?facilitation of investment, trade and market function?. Japan has been promoting RAI?, which aims to harmonize and maximize the interest of investors, recipient countries and local communities with related international organizations harmonize. Japan has been endeavoring to increase agricultural production and productivity by improving irrigation infrastructures in developing regions and promoting New Rice for Africa (NERICA) in Africa. Japan has also been making efforts to promote international cooperation such as technical, financial and food assistance including southsouth cooperation and joint assistance by Japan and Brazil. Japan pledged 3 billion dollars at minimum for agriculture related sectors from 2010 to 2012, at the G8 L?Aquila Summit, and has been steadily disbursing it. Japan has built the Asia-Pacific Information Platform for Food Security (APIP), the ASEAN + 3 (Japan, China, Republic of Korea) Emergency Rice Reserve (APTERR), and the ASEAN Food Security Information System (AFSIS), as well as human resource development. Japan extends contribution to the United Nations World Food Program (WFP) to support self-reliance efforts in poor regions and to promote rice farming. Japan also makes contribution to the FAO to improve the information platform on agricultural investment and to formulate policy guidelines for agricultural investment. (b) Domestic measures Japan promotes variety of measures to increase domestic agricultural production to achieve its food self-sufficiency target in a comprehensive manner. Japan conducts measures to establish stable trade relations with food-exporting countries while keeping appropriate food stockpile of important crops for food security. Japan?s food security is to be ensured through the combination of these measures. Japan developed a guideline for stabilization and diversification of Japan?s food supply, at a conference on the promotion of foreign direct investment for food security. In order to respond to unforeseen situations such as international conflicts and a drastic decline in import due to global crop shortage, manuals on appropriate actions have been prepared for the government and the public. According to the ?Future vision for Food? stipulated by the Government in 2010, new methods are to be introduced to examine and implement response measures to the risks which may give impact to the stable supply of food, such as climate change, fluctuation of energy and material prices, by constantly analyzing and evaluating them. win agricultural land?. In order to minimize the negative impact of such acquisition and to harmonize and maximize the interest of investors, recipient countries, and local residents, Japan has promoted RAI? with related international organizations (World Bank, FAO, UNCTAD, IFAD). Japan intends to continue such effort. 4. Water Resources (1) Challenges and goals to be shared As water directly relates to the life of human beings, full access to water is indispensable from the viewpoint of human wellbeing. Water is the fundamental resource which supports food, economic activities and energy, and is the most important sector for Sustainable Development. With the population growth and urbanization in many countries, global demand for water will unavoidably rise. The issue of already deteriorating water pollution would become worse without new measures. Therefore, promotion of water resource management by securing safe water in efficient and stable manner is an urgent task for us. Poverty eradication and Sustainable Development will not be achieved without mitigating water-related risks. The 4 th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental. Panel on Climate Change (IPCC-AR4) of 2007 points out that it is likely that the area affected by droughts increases due to the progress of climate change, and that climate change brings massive impact on water resources. Adaptation to increasing threat on water resources is one of the most important challenges for Sustainable Development. (2)Necessary measures The ?World Water Vision? ensured at the 2 nd Word Water Forum in 2000 stipulated the necessity of securing integrated water resources management participated by all stakeholders, establishment of appropriate pricing mechanisms, improvement of the structure for consolidating river basin management system, especially in international rivers, lakes and marshes. The Istanbul Declaration of Heads of States on Water adopted at the 5 th World Water Forum in 2009 points out that a global framework needs to be sought through collaboration in participatory, inter-sectoral and crosssectoral approaches for water resource management. For example, the G20 Agricultural Minister?s Meeting in 2011 referred that sustainable water resource supply and the improvement of water management are important for food security and sustainable agricultural production. It is important to achieve further efficient water use, including irrigation. The Istanbul Declaration also points out that governance in the water sector needs to be improved to strengthen pollution prevention measures of surface and underground water, through the promotion and implementation of collection, treatment and reuse of waste water, by properly employing the Polluter Pays Principle. Securing reliable basic data (on precipitation, flux, etc.) endorsed by global observation science and technology and climate change prediction, and making them visible are the fundamental conditions for diverse sectors to participate and collaborate with each other. The establishment of a global observation system is one of the important measures to expand good water governance such as raising the share of the areas which have access to water resources on a sustainable condition. The Declaration of the Ministers? Forum for Infrastructure Development in the Asia-Pacific Region in 2010 states that adaptation should be actively promoted together with mitigation, in order to deal with water-related risks such as intensifying and frequent floods, high tides and coastal erosion, numerous drought and water quality deterioration, which are intensified by the impact of climate change. Regional collaboration on water resources needs to be strengthened. In the input document of UNSGAB to Rio+20 as announced in September 2011, the necessity of setting goals of wastewater management, in addition to improvement of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation which is placed as one of the MDGs target, is recommended in order to protect human health and economic activities together with ecosystem conservation. (3) Japan?s approach (a) Contribution to the international community As a top donor of Official Development Assistance (ODA) in the field of water and sanitation, Japan has been contributing to the improvement of water and sewage system, and to water resource management, in order to solve diverse issues related to water. Japan in recent years has been extending technology transfer to climate-change vulnerable countries by human resource development through ODA. Japan has been leading the international assistance in the field of water and sanitation, by announcing 30 billion JPY grant-aid assistance at the TICAD IV in 2008. Taking the opportunity of the 3 rd World Water Forum, various partnerships and networks have been established. They include the International Flood Network (IFNet) in 2001, the International Network for Water and Ecosystem in Paddy Fields (INWEPF) and the Water Environment Partnership in Asia (WEPA) in 2004. The Network of Asian River Basin Organization (NARBO) was established by the Japan Water Agency, the Asian Development Bank and its Research Institute in 2004. INWEPF is organized mainly by Asian Monsoon Region countries and releases information to the world on the importance of agricultural water used by paddy farming. WEPA is participated by 13 countries, and works to solve the issue of water pollution by enhancing water environment governance in each country, through unified implementation of developing information platform of water environment and human resource development. NARBO contributed to the development of the guideline announced by UNESCO in 2009. In the field of sanitation, the Japan Sanitation Consortium (JSC) was established in 2009 as an Asia-Pacific knowledge hub (international platform), to compile, disseminate and share the knowledge and information on ?sanitation?. The Japan Global Centre for Urban Sanitation (GCUS) has been supporting these activities as the platform of industry academia-government cooperation. Japan has been following up the activities of the International Year of Sanitation 2008 and greatly contributed to the formulation of the ?Five-Year Action Plan on Environmental Sanitation Promotion? toward the achievement of MDGs in the year of 2015. Japan has been raising awareness not only on the improvement of sanitation facilities but also on the necessity of wastewater treatment, in the integrated water resource management plan. Japan will actively use its expertise in the following areas: i) improvement of ratio of population covered by domestic wastewater treatment facilities, achievement ratio of environment quality standards for water quality ii) securing and effective use of agricultural water, which has approximately 70% share of the global water use iii) improvement of the global observation system and its database iv) joint use of the global observation data of other countries with higher accuracy v) awareness raising in the international community toward the exchange and sharing of global observation data International cooperation frameworks on the earth observation have provided various examples of advanced science and technology activities in order to support the establishment of ?Good Governance? in water (resources) management. The major contribution from Japan in this area include the launch and operation by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite ?TRMM?, and the Global Change Observation Mission Water ?SHIZUKU (GCOM-W)? , the active use of Global Flood Alert System (GFAS), Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS), and Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GS-MAP), Global Mapping, and the African Water Cycle Coordination Initiative (AfWCCI). Japan will also extend institutional and technical assistance on asset management of growing water resource infrastructures, and on intensified water-related disaster management. (b) Domestic measures Japan has overcome serious water shortages, extreme water pollution and land subsidence in the past by improving water management systems through the Water Resources Development Promotion Law and the Water Pollution Control Law, together with strenuous efforts of national and local governments and businesses. Japan promotes the introduction of cost-effective technologies and earthquake and other natural disaster-resilient facilities, while maintaining and restoring water environment and sound hydrological cycles, as a measure to utilize technology. These measures include efficient use of water resources in each river basin by integrated operation of reservoirs (dams), and the consolidated management of diversified water resources such as rainwater, underground water and surface water. Japan promotes the recycling sewage system which regenerates resource and energy at the same time, and the development of johkasou system as one of the decentralized wastewater treatment facilities which is suitable for sparsely populated areas, in order to achieve effective waste water treatment and sound hydrological cycles. In order to efficiently maintain the functions of an increasing stock of facilities, Japan will continue to establish asset management by utilizing examination and survey old pipes and pipe renewal technology. Principal agricultural irrigation and drainage systems such as dams and head works are the basic infrastructures indispensable for Japan?s agricultural production. Japan therefore reduces the lifecycle costs of these facilities through risk management, in order to maintain their stable functioning and to secure necessary agricultural water supply in each area. Japan promotes maintenance and management of agricultural irrigation and drainage facilities by monitoring, examining, repairing and renewing the functions of these facilities timely and accurately. Japan conducts the Breakthrough by Dynamic Approach in Sewage High Technology for GHG reduction Project (B-DASH Project) to domestically and internationally apply advanced technologies such as advanced wastewater treatment applicable membrane treatment technology and the energy utilization system for sewage biomass. Japan is working on the international standardization to disseminate water-related technologies and systems to overseas, through for example the cooperation among Japan, China and Republic of Korea on the standardization for the promotion of reclaimed wastewater in urban areas. Japanese local governments and companies are making efforts to flexibly respond to drought risks by climate change, through the introduction of water-saving equipments and securing diversified water source such as rainwater and recycled water. For example, the Tokyo Sky Tree, the tallest independent radio tower in the world (634m) to be completed in December 2011, contains the ?large-capacity chilled/hot water storage? with the capacity of 7,000 tons in its basement and surrounding areas. This water storage could shift the power peak by utilizing the cold (in summertime) and hot (in wintertime) water produced during the night, for air conditioners needed in the daytime. This storage could also raise energy efficiency by using geothermal power. A system is also being under consideration that this water storage could be used in case of large-scale disasters, for domestic and fire-extinguishing uses. Japan promotes such urban style water system at the local authority level. 5. Biodiversity (1) Challenges and goals to be shared around the world We receive various benefits necessary for our life from rich biodiversity and ecosystem such as food, water, timber, medicine, healthy water circulation and climate adjustment. The conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems is important in terms of reducing the risks from natural disasters, as seen by the roles of coral reefs and mangroves in mitigating tsunami damages and the roles of forests in preventing from mountain disasters. The Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets were adopted at CBD/COP10 in October 2010. It was agreed that a life living in harmony with nature should be realized to provide indispensable benefits to everyone, by maintaining ecosystem services and healthy planet through evaluation, conservation, restoration and wise use of biodiversity as a longterm vision to be achieved by 2050. To take effective and urgent action to halt the loss of biodiversity by 2020 was also agreed as a short-term goal. In total, 20 targets have been adopted to be achieved in the short-term, including the integration of biodiversity values into national and local development strategies, the promotion of sustainable use and the conservation of at least 17 % of terrestrial and inland water areas, and 10% of coastal and marine areas through the systems of protected areas by 2020. The CBD Secretariat is currently considering a set of indicators responding to each target to evaluate the progress. The UN General Assembly announced the year from 2011 to 2020 as ?the UN Decade on Biodiversity?. It is important that the Aichi Biodiversity Targets be achieved by 2020 and its progress is checked based on such indicators. (2) Necessary measures The following are the international measures needed on biodiversity. - to stipulate and review legislative, administrative, or political measures including the review of the National Biodiversity Strategies based on the Aichi Biodiversity Targets - conservation and expansion of protected areas in terrestrial and marine areas - conservation of rare wild species, establishment of ecosystem networks which secure connectivity and appropriate distribution of wildlife habitats - to secure resources for relevant projects - development of financial mechanisms - assessment of economic value of biodiversity - conservation and development of tidal flats and algal beds (3) Japan?s approach Japan exercises initiatives to act as the CBD/COP10 Presidency and to establish Intergovernmental Science and Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), in order to achieve common goals and contribute to the international community. Japan announced the ?Life in Harmony Initiative?, which extends 2 billion dollars in three years starting from 2010, in order to assist developing countries? efforts to prepare their national strategies and action plans to achieve their targets, based on the Aichi Biodiversity Targets which are the global strategic plan for biodiversity. Japan established the Japan Biodiversity Fund (1 billion JPY) to support the revision of national biodiversity strategies and action plans in developing countries, and the Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) Nagoya Protocol Implementation Fund (1 billion JPY), in order to support their efforts to implement the results of CBD/COP10. Japan also established the partnership of protected areas in Asia. Japan reviews its National Biodiversity Strategy, implements the Law to Promote Biodiversity Conservation, and promotes Satoyama Initiative. The Government assists agricultural, forestry and fishery measures, which place greater emphasis on biodiversity, including direct payments to the farming activities which are effective to biodiversity conservation. The Government also supports measures for conserving biodiversity by local authorities. On marine protected areas, Japan has a numerical target of doubling the amount of the Marine Park Areas in its national parks based on the Natural Parks Act from 2,359 ha in 2009 to the level of approximately 4,700 ha by the end of March 2013. 6. Marine Resources (1) Challengers and goals to be shared Fisheries play an extremely important role for employment, culture and economy in addition to stable food supply. CBD/COP10 adopted Target 6 of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets: Living marine resources are managed and harvested sustainably. The world?s common goal is to achieve future sustainable use of all fishery resources under proper management in each country or, as appropriate, through the FAO and regional fisheries management organizations (RFMOs). (2)Necessary measures In order to deal with the aforementioned challenges, the following measures are needed. - appropriate resource management based on scientific data - promotion of measures against Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported (IUU) Fishing - implementation of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, international plans of action and technical guidelines of FAO - protection of ocean environment from development such as land reclamation - conservation and restoration of tidal flats and algal beds - conservation of important habitats for living marine resources, including the reduction of the pollution load from land-based activities - promotion of autonomous resource management and the improvement of fishing ground environment by local fishers and local community (3)Japan?s approach In order to conserve living marine resources, the following measures are important. i) monitoring and analysis of status of living marine resources ii) introduction, implementation of and compliance with conservation and management measures based on the resource size and the characteristics of the resources and sea areas iii) raising awareness on the necessity of sustainable use of resources through conservation and management of them iv) cooperation with international organizations v) information exchange and network building with countries within the region In order to conserve and develop habitats for living marine resources by the end of Japan?s fiscal year (JFY) 2011, Japan set out the target to conserve and restore 5,000 ha of tidal flats and algal beds. 4,814 ha have already been covered from JFY 2007 to 2010. Target after that will be followed. Japan is supporting developing countries by direct technical assistance such as dispatching experts and by indirect technical assistance through supporting the projects implemented by international organizations including the FAO and the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC). The assistance also includes the improvement of marine protected area database and coral reef habitat map. 7. Forest Conservation (1) Challenges and goals to be shared Forests are indispensable for Sustainable Development in their roles of conserving ecosystem, reducing natural disaster risks, and realizing low-carbon society. The international community is expected to achieve i)reversing the loss of forest cover, ii)enhancing forest-based economic, social and environmental benefits ,iii) increasing significantly the area of protected forests worldwide and other areas of sustainably managed forests, as well as the proportion of forest products from sustainably-managed forests ,iv)enhancing capacity building for sustainable forest management , and v)contribution to climate change mitigation by promoting sustainable forest management (2) Necessary Measures In order to achieve tangible results, the indicators would be proper implementation of 25 national policies and measures and 19 international cooperation and means of implementation listed in ?Non-Legally Binding Instrument on all type of Forests (NLBI)? which was agreed in the 7 th session of United Nations Forum on Forests. (3) Japan?s approach Forest covers about 70 % of Japan?s land area. Japan has conducted various measures including the followings, which are applicable to other countries. i) development of Forest and Forestry Revitalization plan and legislative measures such as the revision of the basic plan for forest and forestry ii) recovery and regeneration of coastal disaster-prevention forest, from the viewpoint of recovery from natural disaster and earthquake iii) proper designation of protected forests in national forest including forest ecosystem protection areas, from the viewpoint of biodiversity conservation iv) measures related to forest carbon sinks, from the viewpoint of climate change 8. Sustainable production and consumption (management of wastes and chemicals) (1) Challenges and goals to be shared In order to achieve Sustainable Development, sustainable production and consumption are critical. Discussions on the?10 Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production? are being held at CSD, and an early launch of this framework is needed. The use of resources in production and consumption sectors need to be restrained as much as possible. Appropriate waste management is especially important for sustainable production and consumption. Agenda 21 includes the minimization of the generation of wastes, encouragement of environmentally sound reuse and recycle of wastes, and the promotion of environmentally sound disposal of wastes, which are succeeded to the WSSD Plan of Implementation. The WSSD Plan of Action sets the target which aims to achieve that chemicals are used and produced in ways that lead to the minimization of significant adverse effects on human health and the environment by 2020. The ?Dubai Declaration on International Chemicals Management of Strategic Approach to International Chemical Management (SAICM)? adopted as the international strategy and action plan to achieve this target, shows such as i) unwavering commitment to promoting the sound management of chemicals and hazardous wastes throughout their life-cycle, in accordance with Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation and ii) determination to realize the benefits of chemistry, including green chemistry, for improved standards of living, public health and protection of the environment, and resolve to continue working together to promote the safe production and use of chemicals. The SAICM ?Overarching Policy Strategy? ensures) to promote the environmentally sound recovery and recycling of hazardous materials and waste and ii) to promote the development of safer alternatives. SAICM ?Global Plan of Action? listed up 273 actions which could be taken by governments, international organizations and industries, etc. (2) Necessary Measures The following measures are important to realize them. - introduction and revision of legal framework on environmentally-sound management of wastes - environmentally-sound management of chemical substances throughout their life-cycle (from production to disposal) - appropriate and timely safety assessment of existing chemical substances and environmentally- sound management of waste, based on laws and measures on evaluation of chemical substances and regulations of their manufacture, etc - Environmentally-sound management of waste - compliance with action plan by each country through the above, for the conversion to sustainable production and consumption - building a Sound Material-Cycle Society - prioritization of the 3Rs - setting indicators and numerical targets - preparation of disposal facilities and systems - promotion of green purchasing and green procurement in the government procurement process - shift to the use of environmentally friendly consumer goods, including the introduction of energy- efficient houses and electric appliances - Enhancement of international partnership on waste management to provide technical assistance and capacity building on waste management (3) Japan?s approach Since proposing the 3R Initiatives in the G8 Sea Island Summit, Japan has been actively promoting the 3Rs internationally. Japan has also been promoting various domestic initiatives such as such as; - enacting the Fundamental Law for Establishing as Sound Material-Cycle Society and other laws on recycling - amending the Waste Management Law for appropriate disposal - enacting the Green Procurement Law, in order to promote government procurement of products and services which contribute to reducing environmental burden - enacting the Green Contract Law to promote the contracts which pay attention to the reduction of GHGs - enacting the Environmental Consideration Law to promote environmental reporting - encouraging use and purchase of environmentally-friendly goods and services by introducing ecopoints for electric appliance, home eco-point system, eco-reform, eco-action points - encouraging low-carbon facilities by eco-leasing subsidy program for households and businesses - promotion of a low-carbon society by subsidizing interest to environmentally friendly management and projects From the viewpoint of sustainable production and consumption, producers have grave responsibility. Therefore, it is critical that businesses are conducted in environmentally- friendly manner, through products, production processes and business models to restrain waste generation as well as the conversion to recycling centered society, focusing on emitters responsibility and extended producer responsibility (EPR). Japan is taking measures considering the WSSD 2020 goal and amended the Act on the Evaluation of Chemical Substances and Regulation of their Manufacture, etc. in 2009 in order to promote comprehensive management of chemicals by conducting risk assessment of all chemical substances including existing chemicals, to regulate their manufacturing, import and use as necessary. Japan also conducts measures on transmitting information which contributes to chemical management in the process of distribution (entered into force in April 2011). In Japan?s Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR) system, the amount of emission and movement of target chemicals has been reported by private enterprises since its launch has been steadily in decline the system has contributed to the promotion of voluntary chemical management improvement by private enterprises and the removal of obstacles to environmental conservation in advance. Japan has also been taking measures to further improve the existing PRTR system based on the latest situation of chemicals, including the review of target chemicals and target industry sectors of PRTR in 2009 (came into effect in April 2011). In order to promote the response to Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS), regarding international harmonization of labeling and classification of chemical toxicity, Japan Industrial Standard (JIS), which used to be composed of two parts (Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) and labeling), were integrated and the introduction into JIS of the latest GHS document issued by the UN (revised in 2011) has been promoted. Japan is promoting and enhancing its projects such as ?Research Project on Chemical Risks? and ?Japan Eco & Child Study?. 9. Sustainable City Planning (1) Challenges and goals to be shared Urban dwellers will increase in numbers and mega-cities are expected to emerge, especially in emerging economies. In such new mega-cities, traditional city planning consuming large amount of resources and energy will give a huge impact on environmental issues such as climate change. Improving the hygiene in the cities is important from the viewpoint or poverty reduction. Sustainable City Planning has become an important task to achieve Sustainable Development. Local Governments for Sustainability (ICLEI) and the Cities Climate Leadership Group (C40) as well as other progressive local authorities are discussing the issue of sustainable city planning, including building a low-carbon city. It is important to share common tasks and set goals from the viewpoint of city planning at Rio+20, in order to extend these undertakings to the international scale. (2) Necessary measures The following measures will be needed to realize the above. - to introduce disaster-resilient, low-carbon, independent and decentralized energy system which utilizes renewable energy and storage batteries - to build disaster-resilient, low-carbon, independent and decentralized smart-grid - to promote the introduction of green buildings with low energy consumption - to promote Environmentally Sustainable Transport (EST) - to realize a compact urban structure - to promote the use of public transport - to promote areal use of energy and the use of untapped energy - to promote green conservation and urban greening - to share the concept of sustainable cities with the international community - to introduce waste treatment facilities by local administrations - to reduce the amount of wastes by ensuring segregation and thorough recycling - to build partnerships between local authorities of developed and developing countries, and promote technology transfer and capacity building appropriately (3)Japan?s approach ?Future City? Initiative was introduced by Japan as one of the 21 National Strategic Projects: in the New Growth Strategy decided by the Cabinet in June 2010. This initiative aims to select qualified cities as a model of ?Future City?, to support their attempt to generate successful cases in terms of technologies, schemes, serviced and city planning, and to disseminate these achievements nationwide as well as overseas. A ?Future City? is a city which could continuously create economic, social and environmental values by generating successful cases, while tackling the environment challenges and aging society with a declining birth rate. First selection of ?Future City? will be done by the end of 2012. Japan also intends to collect and disseminate domestic and international best practices in the areas of environment and dealing with aging society with a declining birth rate , to evolve the concept of ?Future City?. As a part of efforts to build low-carbon cities, local governments of certain scales have been under the obligation to include policies and measures suitable for each natural and social circumstance to local action plans for climate change protection. The amendment of the Law Concerning the Promotion of the Measures to Cope with Global Warming in 2008 mandated these local governments to add area-wide policies and measures to existing local action plans which had covered only policies regarding their administrative work and project. Under the local action plan, each local authority is required to estimate CO2 emission amount within the area, to set reduction goals, and to include specific actions in terms of promotion of renewable energy and others. Based on this local action plan, each local government has promoted climate change policies proactively and systematically. The Government provides local governments with planning know-hows and takes various financial assistances, supporting efforts by local initiative to create low-carbon societies. One of specific financial programs is the ?Green New Deal Fund?, The Government finance a fund set up by local administration to support energy-efficient projects, to create jobs and to build sustainable local economy and society, based on the local action plan for climate change protection. ?Challenge 25 Local GHG Reduction Model Project has been conducted to verify effective and advanced measures for CO2 reduction such as low-carbon transportation system and utilization of untapped energy in urban areas. The cities of Yokohama, Toyoda and Kita-Kyushu have started to ?verify the next-generation society and energy system?, in order to promote a smart-grid community, by effectively utilizing power and unused energy such as waste heat from factories. The ?Verification of Next generation energy and social system? has started to promote smart-communities which include the improvement of local transportation systems. The ?Eco Model Cities? has been introduced, to achieve low-carbon society and local revitalization. The city of Tokyo started to request companies above certain standards to report and disclose their CO2 reduction plans in 2002. The city introduced the upper limit of CO2 emission for large scale offices since 2010. When the buildings with large floor mass are built or extended, the Tokyo metropolitan office requests them to submit construction plan to ensure they save energy are environmentally friendly. The Tokyo metropolitan office also introduced labeling to apartment houses showing how they are energy efficient Through these measures for greening of offices and apartment houses, CO2 emission from large offices was reduced by 12.7% from 2005 to 2007, and ?Green Buildings? have been constructed one after another, with the highest energy efficiency level. Japan is also working for capacity building on waste management in developing countries, through technical assistance. Disseminating such good practices in Japan and sharing expertise will contribute to the building of sustainable cities around the world and strengthen ties between cities and nations. 10. Construction of Global Earth Observation System (1) Challenges and goals to be shared In order to achieve Sustainable Development, innovation in science and technology is indispensable. Above all, to deal with global challenges such as climate change and large scale natural disasters, accurate earth observation data should be collected, analyzed and shared in the international community. In order to share data, information, experiences and ideas across sectors, beyond national and regional boundaries, there should be coordination among global earth observation, climate change projection, data integration and analysis and systems for management and education. Certain function in which various sectors could collaborate and capacity building should be promoted. Sound decision- making will be supported and a resilient society will be built by establishing a network across nations, regions and sectors to share accurate information and generate necessary data. After the importance of global earth observation was emphasized in the WSSD in 2002, the international community aims at building GEOSS between 2005 and 2015, by integrating information systems and earth observation data from satellites, land, and ocean through international collaboration. It also aims at generating information necessary for the decision-making in the nine fields of disaster, health, energy, climate, water, weather, ecosystem, agriculture, and biodiversity. (2) Necessary measures ?GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan 23 ? was adopted as an indicator of performance measurement. For the stable implementation of the plan, ?Group on Earth Observation (GEO) is held, to decide concrete actions to be taken once in every 3 years, and qualitatively evaluate the progress of each task. (3) Japan?s approach As an executive member of ?Group on Earth Observation (GEO)?, Japan exercises dynamic initiative for the construction of GEOSS by playing a major role in establishing constellation of satellites 24 . Japan proposed the ?Global Mapping? project at the Earth Summit in 1992 and plays the central role to develop global geospatial information, in cooperation with National Mapping Organizations and related organizations around the world. 23 This was formulated at the 3 rd Earth Observation Summit in 2005. The 5 th Earth Observation Summit (GEO Ministerial Summit) was held in 2010, marking the middle year of this plan, set out ?GEOSS Strategic Targets? to articulate the plans in the latter half of the decade. 24 Toward the construction of GEOSS, Japan implemented the Project to monitor water circulation and climate change in Asian Monsoon Region, the Project to monitor the Tropospheric atmosphere, the Project to monitor global warming and carbon circulation under the ?Japan Earth observation system Promotion Program (JEPP)?. Japan developed observation satellites: the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite ?IBUKI? , which can improve understanding of global carbon cycle dynamics and accuracy of future climate forecast, for promoting CO2 and CH4, and the Advanced Land Observing Satellite ?DAICHI?, for monitoring volcanic activities and the situation of disaster hit areas of Japan. In order to promote GEOSS in Asia-Pacific Region, Japan is leading the GEOSS Asian Water Cycle Initiative (AWCI and the GEOSS African Water Cycle Coordination Initiative (AfWCCI). In order to reinforce global earth observation system through GEOSS while improving basic geographical and spatial information on the water system and land shape, the promotion of global earth observation, the improvement of institutions, the disclosure of data, and the construction of the easily used database are needed. Japan promotes a program for integration of global environment information 25 ?, to sophisticate the ?Data Integration and Analysis System (DIAS)? platform, which converts various earth observation data into essential information for the decision-making. Japan has contributed to the development of the GEOSS by conducting various observation through satellites such as Greenhouse gases Observing SATelite ?IBUKI (GOSAT)?, which can improve understanding of global carbon cycle dynamics and accuracy of future climate forecast, for monitoring atmospheric CO2 and CH4 and Advanced Land Observing Satellite ?DAICHI (ALOS)?for promoting volcanic eruptions and the situation in earthquake hit areas. The Precipitation Radar (PR) on-board Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite has been observing Radiometer-EOS (AMSRE) on-board the US earth observation satellite AQUA has been monitoring the Arctic sea ice area. Japan promotes the development of Data Integration and Analysis System (DIAS), by converting integrated various global observation data to the scientifically and socially beneficial information. Through these activities, Japan has contributed to the development of GEOSS. Japan continues research and development which contributes to the solution of global issues, and will contribute to the generation of beneficial information for society, through encouraging observation data integration acquired from satellite, land and ocean observation. Investing in technological innovation in developed and emerging countries and share the fruits of sophisticated science and technology by creating international networks, as seen by the GEOSS, are extremely important for the greening of economy. 25 With the aim of integrating global earth observation data, climate change forecasts, social and economic data into socially and scientifically useful information, which will be provided for policy decisions, sophistication and extension of the ?Data Integration and Analysis System (DIAS)? is promoted by this program.
STATEMENT OF JAPANESE STAKEHOLDERS FOR THE PROMOTION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Proposal for the Development of a Sustainable 21st Century International Society based on Experiences from the Great East Japan Earthquake, Tsunami and Subsequent Nuclear Power Plant Accident October, 2011 Japanese National Preparatory Committee for Rio +20 Contact info: Secretariat (Shigefumi Okumura), Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc 10-3, Nagatacho 2-Chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 100-8141, Japan E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org TEL +81-3-6705-5427 FAX +81-3-5157-214 The Japanese National Preparatory Committee for Rio +20 and its Activities Given UN Resolution 64/236, the Japanese National Preparatory Committee for Rio +20 was established on Wednesday, July 13, 2011 as a voluntary gathering of a wide range of stakeholders with an interest in Rio +20, including the 9 major groups mentioned in Agenda 21, in order to promote dialogue for Rio +20 between stakeholders in Japan. The co-Chairs of the Japanese National Preparatory Committee for Rio +20 were selected at its first meeting on July 13, 2011. The Japanese National Preparatory Committee for Rio +20 hosted workshops with the purpose of sharing information and exchanging views on the issues of Rio +20 to reflect a wide range of Japanese stakeholders? input in the preparation of the zero draft of the Rio+20 outcome document. The opinions and recommendations of the Japanese National Preparatory Committee for Rio +20 are summarized below in this proposal. Key Messages from Japanese Stakeholders Expecting Political Commitments to Develop a Sustainable International Society for the 21st Century Our Lessons learned from Experiences from the Great East Japan Earthquake, Tsunami, and the subsequent Nuclear Power Plant Accident The global environment has, despite great efforts, deteriorated in the 20 years since the Rio Summit was held, while the global economy and most regional economies are floundering. We believe that now is the time to take action in cooperation with the peoples of the world so that future generations are not exposed to significant environmental risks or ecological crises and can live a comfortable and healthy life. Amidst this backdrop, people live in Japan experienced the unprecedented Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami and subsequent nuclear power accident in March 2011. During the reconstruction process, Japan is striving to build a resilient society that is considerate of the local environment, economy, society and cultural values. Japan has also received massive amounts of assistance for its reconstruction effort from countries around the world. We sincerely appreciate this international assistance. Based on the lessons learned during the reconstruction process in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake we, Japanese multi-stakeholders convey the following message for Rio +20. All countries that use nuclear power as well as international society must learn from this accident and take fundamental measures to strengthen nuclear power safety. Reviews concerning the future direction of nuclear power and shifts to renewable energy policy should be held with participation from a wide range of domestic and international actors. In addition, radioactive contamination spread from the nuclear power accident has polluted foodstuff, water, the ocean and soil, threatened economic activities and the sound daily life of the people, and has forced local residents to evacuate their homes. This experience has taught us that 21st century society must be firmly grounded in systems that ensure environmental conservation and ecosystem services, which form critical infrastructure that is at the very heart of human survival. The spirit of transnational and trans-regional ?Kyoujyo (mutual assistance)? illustrated in the wake of the earthquake and tsunami represents the exact stance required to build a sustainable society. Japan would like to provide as reference to the discussions on sustainable development in Rio +20 the example of ?green reconstruction ? in which the sustainable use of natural capital has been used as part of the earthquake reconstruction effort that is seeking to quickly restore the core industries of the disaster-affected areas, including agriculture, forestry and fisheries, while balancing biodiversity conservation with development, based on the traditions and culture of these local areas. Japan retains energy saving, environmentally sound and recycling technologies that are among the best in the world today and also has a track record of social systems such as the energy efficiency top-runner approach and the pledge and review system. There is also the fact that Japanese earthquake-resistant technologies, safety management systems, and disaster prevention measures also functioned during the Great East Japan Earthquake, as evidenced by Shinkansen bullet trains stopping safely as well as earthquake resistance technologies and safety management practices in high-rise buildings living up to their potential. We would like to further improve Japanese world-leading technologies and supporting social systems, further deepen understanding, diffusion and capacity building both in Japan and internationally, and, by doing so, make contributions to the development of a sustainable world. We Japanese Stakeholders Expect the Following Political Commitments to be Adopted as the Outcome of Rio +20 1) Add culture as the fourth pillar of sustainable development and promote multi-layered initiatives: In order to develop a sustainable global community in the 21st century, we must attain a uniform sustainability based on multifaceted and multilayered relationships as well as add culture to the other pillars of the environment, economy and society. We need to learn from the wisdom and traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples and history rooted in local communities and the countries, such as, for example, actions embodied by the Japanese term ?Mottainai? or the spirit of the indigenous Ainu people that deeply reveres nature, as well as value cultural diversity and work together with the many different stakeholders that make up the global community while respecting one another. The promotion of above-mentioned multilayered initiatives is essential for sustainable development. 2) Promote sustainable development under social justice and steadfast principles: The principles that should be shared by all peoples and countries of the world are essential to the realization of a sustainable society. Specifically, these principles include respect for human rights as set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the achievement of social justice across generations, genders and regions, control of the law, the disclosure of public information to the public, promotion of participation of women, children, youth and other socially vulnerable groups in the policy making processes, the assurance of transparency in policy formulation, implementation, oversight and evaluation, the decentralization of power and local sovereignty, the polluter-pays principle and the beneficiaries-pay principle, the establishment of decision-making rules based on scientific knowledge incorporating precautionary principles, and in particular the need for thorough, multifaceted screening of existing and new technologies. 3) Stabilize the economic infrastructure needed for sustainable development as soon as possible: In order to achieve sustainable development globally and eradicate poverty, we need to build a sound economy within the capacity of the current / future global environment, as well as make the transition from currently battered global economy to a new stable growth path as soon as possible. To that end, it is essential to rectify the skewed international distribution of capital, resolve, in particular, domestic fiscal deficits and balance of international balance of payments , as well as internationally regulate speculative money that has brought about disorder in international financial markets and unjustly inflated the international price of crude oil and mineral resources, which are the cornerstones of economic and industrial activities, as well as foodstuff essential to the daily life of humankind. 4) Develop a system internationally to conserve the natural environment and utilize natural capital in a sustainable manner: The globalization-driven competition for/exploitation of resources such as fossil fuels, mineral resources, fishery resources, water resources and forest resources has, depending on the region, amplified diplomatic tension between countries as well as the threat of armed conflict. In addition, the deterioration of natural capital is progressing due to the climate change and loss of biodiversity. In aiming to conserve the natural environment and utilize natural capital in a sustainable manner, biodiversity conservation on a worldwide scale (specifically, the achievement of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets), respect for the decision-making process of local communities, a major shift to lifestyles of sustainable consumption, and the establishment of sustainable production structures that make the production of environmentally and economically balanced products and services mainstream are desirable. In addition, with regard to the utilization of natural capital, there is also a proposal to use natural capital based on the ?User Recovery Principle? and we expect that discussions surrounding this proposal will broadened. 5) Build a system in recognition of diverse values where all people can equally participate and collaborate: Together with reviewing and exploring a possibility to expand the major groups of Agenda 21, it will be important for all major groups and other stakeholders, while avoiding a dichotomy in each country and international society, to reaffirm their individual roles for sustainable development and transfer this reaffirmation into action based on deeper awareness of diverse values and perspectives achieved through multi-stakeholder dialogue. Governments must also recognize this importance and quickly push forward with building an environment to strengthen multi-stakeholder-led international collaboration and cooperation frameworks. These same efforts are required at the intergovernmental level as well. We Japanese Stakeholders Recommend the Following Policy Measures to Build a Sustainable Global Community We Japanese Stakeholders recommend the following policy measures for all countries to implement for achieving the aforementioned domestic and international policy targets on a global scale. i) New energy vision required for the 21st century and the mechanisms to guarantee this vision (a) Enhance energy and resource efficiency, encourage R&D on technologies for renewable energies, such as biomass, geothermal, small hydroelectric, (expand) existing hydroelectric, photovoltaic (sunlight), concentrated solar heat, and wind power; maximize use and utilization of renewable resources; and, implement the necessary policies (subsidies, tax benefits, consortiums, international collaboration, etc). (b) Promote international policy initiatives to disseminate the best available technologies and best practices throughout the world. (c) Enhance nuclear power safety based on international standards, including reviews of the appropriate timing for decommissioning reactors, and ensure the proper disposal of nuclear waste. In addition, there are different opinions on the future of nuclear power, calling for a quick and planned exit or leaveing nuclear power open as an option. ii) Promotion of low-carbon and sound material-cycle and biodiversity considering city and urban planning based on the unique characteristics and initiatives of local communities (d) Promote related local government measures (land use, construction, transportation, energy, etc.) to create the above city. (e) Use IT and advanced technologies hat have a minimal impact on the environment. (f) Build a sound material-cycle urban society through the advanced use of resources. (g) Promote local production for local consumption. Encourage cooperation between producing and consuming areas of food, water and energy producing areas and consuming areas, as well as support intercity cooperation both domestically and internationally to promote technology transfers. (h) Develop partnerships with the national government to undertake above-mentioned policy measures ((d)-(g)) iii) Mechanisms to ensure employment and economic stability aimed at establishing a stable economic infrastructure (i) Increase the number of jobs that contribute to the environment and biodiversity (green jobs) and implement job-creation measures in conjunction with the shift in industrial structure (just transition). (j) Build mechanisms for increasing the employment of men and women, especially young people at small and medium-sized businesses, social enterprises, and in underdeveloped regions. (k) Promote measures to address the future rapid transition to an aging society in developed countries and most countries in Asia (tax and financial benefits for increasing the employment of senior citizens, etc.). iv) Promotion of the UN Decade on Biodiversity, attainment of mainstream biodiversity and revitalization of agricultural, fishing, and mountain villages (l) Share good practices from around the world in terms of conserving and recovering ecosystems, using biological resources in a sustainable manner, the fair and equal distribution of benefits resulting from the use of genetic resources, providing appropriate monetary resources and encouraging capacity building. (m) Implement appropriate policies effectively and make biodiversity mainstream through policy linkages based on biodiversity and the dissemination of the meaning and value of biodiversity as well as take a precautionary approach to decision making. (n) Help agricultural, fishing, and mountain villages facing economic difficulties to recover and appropriately manage their natural resources of agricultural, fishing, and mountain villages. (o) Promote the multifaceted use, appropriate control and sustainable management of forests. v) Continual implementation of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development and establishment of mechanisms that encourage active and responsible actions by consumers (p) Develop human resources through the promotion of school education, social education, and training in business companies based on the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (Decade of ESD) and formulate a concrete action plan to be implemented after the Decade of ESD. (q) Promote civic education for consumers to encourage responsible and active actions that lead to a shift in industrial structure as well as develop information to support this. Develop mechanisms to prevent greenwash, such as receiving evaluations from third-parties. vi) Develop and implement tools such as indicators that support new approaches to sustainable development (r) (p) Evaluate the contributions of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and compile a roadmap to achieve an international consensus/realization of development targets and indicators for 2015. (s) Develop indicators to measure the quality of life and social justice as a substitute for conventional GDP growth indicators. (t) Establish sustainability indicators that include natural capital stock, resource productivity and reproduction speed. (u) Promote a mainstream shift to a low-carbon industrial structure where the production of services, products, environmentally sound technologies, and zero waste contribute to the conservation and recovery of the natural environment. Support technological innovation such as the wider application of IT to achieve this. (v) Develop regions based on local production for local consumption, and help maintain and innovate traditional cultures and arts. vii) Implement innovative financial mechanisms that provide the necessary funding to those in need (w) Offer tax incentives and preferential treatment in financial services to small and medium-sized businesses and regions with delayed development. (x) Give priority to the distribution of investment capital that contributes directly or indirectly to poverty reduction and sustainable development. (y) Secure funding for sustainable development through greening of finance. viii) Disseminate environmentally sound technologies and products throughout the world (z) Promote the mutual transfer of appropriate environmentally sound technologies (based upon the consent of local communities). (aa) Incorporate environmentally sound production technologies, products and services into the social system of countries (use of eco point and top-runner programs). 1 Progress since the Rio Earth Summit and Remaining Issues / Emerging Issues 1.1 Progress since the Rio Earth Summit and Remaining Challenges 20 years have passed since the first Rio Earth Summit. Since then, the Cold War ended, the world entered the 21st century, emerging economics countries have risen to the forefront, and globalization has progressed. As a result, the structure of the world system has undergone significant change. Following the 1992 Earth Summit, the intensification of globalization and global market competition in world trade, foreign direct investment and the capital markets has accelerated the movement of people, goods, capital and information as well as had both positive and negative effects on a worldwide scale. The result of globalization has been robust economic growth, yet in developed country and developing country alike the number of hungry is increasing sharply due to a rise in the unemployed, in particular the rise in the Unemployment rate among youth, and soaring food prices. In the two decades since the first Rio Earth Summit, the East Asia and Pacific Regions have drastically increased income levels and significantly improved education, water and sanitation thanks to direct investments from foreign countries and an increase in exports. On the other hand, however, income and regional disparities within each of these countries have grown more serious, while mainly Africa and least developed countries have been left behind from the globalization of the world economy due to poverty, low levels of social development and the lack of infrastructure development. Furthermore, the world faces serious challenges on a worldwide scale never seen before that include the deterioration and loss of biodiversity on a worldwide scale, a squeeze on energy and natural resources as well as the degradation of the environment, each in conjunction with the rapid urbanization and economic growth taking place around the world, climate change and the increase in greenhouse gas emissions. The Rio Declaration, Johannesburg Declaration and action plans have been announced in order to address these global issues, but the progress of each has been significantly delayed. On the other hand, the MDGs have been established, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity enforced, and the frameworks of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification Particularly in Africa, United Nations Forum on Forests and the WSSD Type II partnership model set up. Initiatives such as the Decade of ESD and the UN Decade on Biodiversity have also been launched, illustrating that perspectives on social development have grown more emphasized compared to 20 years ago. Yet, sufficient monitoring and evaluations are not taking place today. Therefore, international and domestic monitoring and evaluation systems need to be strengthened going forward. (a) International economy: Globalization has resulted in a structure where the economic crisis of one country can rapidly lead to an world economic crisis. The global financial crisis that reverberated around the world following the Lehman Shock in 2008 showed that the results of efforts toward sustainable development made by all countries are greatly impacted by external factors. Furthermore, turmoil in financial markets is negatively affecting the real economy. (b) Poverty: According to the UN MDG Report 2011, the global poverty rate is expected to decline to under 15% by the year 2015, which achieve the MDG target of 23%. Although significant improvements were seen in East Asia and Latin America, more than half of the population in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa remain stuck in poverty. Specifically, the impacts from soaring food and energy prices as well as climate change has caused the living situation of people live in poverty to become even more grave. (c) Health Care: Improvements in the health of the poorest children have lagged behind in particular. According to a UN MDG Report, nearly one quarter of all children in developing countries were underweight in 2009, with the condition of the poorest children the most serious. Children from the poorest households in developing countries are more than two times as likely as children from the most affluent households to die before their fifth birthday (d) Sustainable Consumption and Production: Visible advancements have been seen in sustainable consumption and production in developed countries thanks to the development of 3R-related legal systems in Japan and Europe, the development of designs for the environment (DfE), designs for recycling (DfR) and recycling-related technologies as well as awareness-raising activities. In particular, consumer activities geared toward resource saving and environmental conservation perspectives are steadily growing, having been fostered through consumer education, such as providing and illuminating correct information concerning the effects (merits and demerits) consumer activities have on environmental and urban issues. In contrast, in developing countries production and consumption has increased sharply on the back of economic growth, which has caused huge amounts of waste and resulted in the greater consumption of resources. (e) Climate Change: A certain degree of progress was made with technology transfers to developing countries and the requirement of greenhouse reductions by developed countries after the Kyoto Protocol came into effect. Despite the establishment of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change at the Rio Earth Summit based on the awareness of the need to urgently take measures against climate change, however, negotiations and efforts under the Kyoto Protocol and the Convention have lagged. Other issues have arisen such as the United States refusal to ratify the Kyoto Protocol, even though it is the world?s second largest emitter of CO2 emissions from energy use, or the sharp increase in greenhouse gas emissions from the economic development of emerging countries such as China?the world?s largest emitter. With demand heightening for the promotion of worldwide efforts, a new framework must be built based on emerging issues. Climate changes have also progressed around the world, with countermeasures fast becoming an urgent issue. (f) Biodiversity: The Convention on Biological Diversity has grown to 193 members, while the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety has been developed (Nagoya-Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol on Liability and Redress to Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety were adopted in October 2010) and the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets concerning biodiversity conservation have been agreed upon. Japan, in particular as Chair of the Convention on Biological Diversity by next COP, retains the responsibility to promote efforts itself. However, global assessments, such as the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Global Biodiversity Outlook indicate that the situation surrounding biodiversity is still deteriorating. (g) Water and Sanitation: Global water problems have grown more serious after the start of the 21st century due to climate change, urbanization, population increases and the deforestation and forest degradation that help cultivate water resources. Massive droughts, declining groundwater levels, lake pollution and water sanitation are causing human suffering. The world?s population has grown by 3.7 times over the past 100 years, but water demand has grown by some 7 times over this same period. Water and sanitation are the basic human right of all people and represent basic infrastructure for gender equality, education and preventing epidemics, yet there are many countries in Africa, the Middle East and Asia where the outlook indicates difficulty in attaining the MDGs. (h) Forests: Forest issues vary from one country to another,. while individuals are less aware of the mutual relationships involving these issues. We welcome the efforts of countries and international organizations at all levels, as well as international initiatives for promoting sustainable forest management based on the ?non-legally binding instrument on all types forests? (NLBI) and the Multi-Year Program of Work (MYPOW) passed at the UN General Assembly in January 2008. However, we are deeply alarmed by the continuing loss of 13 million hectares of forests with multi-functionality per year due to land-use change, forest fires, natural disasters, and illegal logging. Based on awareness that forest deforestation and forest degradation are closely related to global issues in the three Rio Conventions, the efforts of the international society are required to reverse this trend. (i) Hazardous Chemical Substances and Hazardous Wastes: Regulations on the use of hazardous substances in electrical and electronic devices have been tightened over the past several years, as progress has been made in reducing the use of hazardous substances in these devices. However, developing countries have yet to create a legal framework and governing structure for recycling, and reports have been made about health hazards occurring as a result of improper recycling practices. Many developing countries have achieved rapid economic growth without sufficiently developing monitoring systems for the processing of hazardous waste, with this disposal fast becoming an issue in these countries. Furthermore, Japan?s recent nuclear power accident has brought the issues surrounding the final treatment and disposal of spent nuclear fuel into the spotlight. (j) Energy: The expansion of rural electrification and decentralized energy systems incorporated into the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation remain as before as issues. While advancements have been made in the use of renewable energy in certain developed countries and developing countries, most countries continue to face challenges in increasing their use. In addition, many issues remain that need to be examined in order to promote the greater use of renewable energy, including the proper speed of this promotion as well as the scale of costs and approaches to defraying these costs, while also anticipating use will be expanded over the long term. In addition, with regard to the assessment of nuclear power, which had been seen as a prized energy source due to increasing energy consumption, the exhaustion of fossil fuels and climate change, opinions will largely differ among stakeholders regarding future approaches concerning its use. (k) Women and Gender: Women?s employment opportunities remain limited, a large income disparity by gender remains, and women are the majority of the poor both in developing and developed countries and it continues to be a major issue. In addition, gender equality has not achieved in terms of education and capacity building and, especially, participation in decision making. (l) Children?s and Youth Education: The fact that the enrolment rate for primary education?one of the MDG targets?increased significantly shows that MDG targets are attainable where there is a strong political will and funding arrangements are available. On the other hand, however, we need to note that 76 million children do not enjoy primary education. Under the Decade of ESD, there was a rise in the number of countries that had begun to incorporate ESD into their national education policies and curricula especially for primary and secondary education, as well as sustainable development and environmental strategies. Yet there are still many countries where specific ESD policies or strategies are not in place and dissemination of ESD is an issue. On the other hand, actors do exist that fulfill the function of education and raising awareness- in a variety of forms outside formal education, but analysis and assessment of these actors remains inadequate. We must reaffirm the importance of adult and lifelong education, and take comprehensive actions to improve linkages and cooperation among ESD, school education, and social education. (m) Rights of Indigenous Peoples: The rights of indigenous peoples were greatly furthered at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. This was illustrated, for example, by the fact that the Convention on Biological Diversity clearly specified Indigenous and Local Communities (ILCs). At the UN General Assembly in 2007, the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) was historically adopted, and it clearly stipulated that the inherent fundamental freedom and human rights of indigenous peoples shall be respected on the basis of international law. In Japan, the House of Representatives and House of Councilors in 2008 recognized the Ainu people as an indigenous people in Japan. A report issued in 2011 by the Experts Committee on Approaches to Ainu Policy, which was set up by the Japanese government in 2009, stated, ?Future Ainu policy should be developed based on the recognition that the Ainu people are an indigenous people and that the government bears a deep responsibility to promote their culture, and grounded in the Constitution of Japan?the supreme law of the nation?and the meaning of the UN DRIP as a general guideline for policy approaches to indigenous peoples.? (n) Measures against Natural Disasters: The UN International Strategy on Disaster Reduction was established to carry on the activities of the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction from the 1990s, while the UN World Conference on Disaster Reduction adopted the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) 2005 to 2015 and the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction was set up to effectively and efficiently promote the HFA. This indicates that a framework has been built for international cooperation in the face of natural disasters. On the other hand, as illustrated in the Global Review of Disaster Reduction Initiatives 2011, we have once again recognized that we must build an agile and strong society that can respond to natural disasters in order to cope with ?emerging vulnerabilities? derived from the complexity of technologies and mutual dependence found in today?s society, such as the ?complex disaster? of earthquake, tsunami and subsequent nuclear power accident that occurred as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake. (o) Funding Sources and Funding Mechanisms: Excluding certain countries in Europe, other countries around the world will likely be unable to achieve the target of ODA totalling 0.7% of GNI by the year 2015. At the Gleneagles Summit, Japan promised to increase its ODA spending between 2005 and 2009 by 10 billion dollars compared to 2004 levels, but its poor economy, stringent budgetary restrictions, large repayments of ODA loans from some debtor countries, and a lack of political will has meant that its current ODA spending has fallen 3.6 billion dollars below the pledged amount. (p) Employment and Labour: The global financial crisis that begun in 2008 has provided a widespread impact on vulnerable areas such as youth, the elderly, and minority groups, depriving them of many employment opportunities. It is absolutely necessary to create stable, quality jobs to fundamentally improve the global jobs crisis. In June 2009, the International Labor Conference adopted the ?Global Jobs Pact?. The deteriorating quality in employment must be revitalized while also seeking the formation of new global governance, amplifying both multilayered and enterprising job polices as well as social safety nets, and surveying the expansion of what is considered ?Decent Work?(the availability of employment in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity). Furthermore, in addition to the specific issues listed above, existing conventions are not being challenged. In fact, dilemmas found within the agenda itself are also becoming predominant. For example, the bio-fuel promotion policy put forth by Europe and the United States as a greenhouse gas reduction policy triggered an inflow of speculative money, which had lost its bearings following the Lehman Shock, into the futures market. This incited a worldwide price increase for food and as a result placed pressure on the lives of the poor. In order to offer global solutions, Japan has also moved forward with various initiatives. The Japanese government proposed the ?United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development? at Rio+10 in 2002, illustrating the notion of providing security for human beings that it recognized to be necessary during the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis. Japan contributed funding, technologies and human resources for the development of Asian countries.. This resulted in a measure of legitimacy from other countries. On the other hand, because of the recent economic downtown and a lack of political will, Japan has yet to achieve the internationally agreed goal of allocating 0.7% of GNI to ODA spending. 1.2 Emerging issues 1.2.1 Emerging issues of the World We are under pressure to address emerging issues as well. Particularly important issues include energy, food security (the stable supply of food, the issue of genetically modified food), responses to natural disasters, sustainable urban development, and the advancement of aging societies and depopulation. (a) Increase in Global Energy Demands: With energy demands rising globally and the progress of climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions, we need to implement a shift in an energy supply system that is overly dependent on fossil fuels. (b) Water and Food Security(Stable Supply of Water and Food):The increase in drought occurrences around the world is a further indication of the effects of climate change. As speculative money is causing a chain reaction that affects food prices on a worldwide scale, there is growing apprehension conflict occurring between countries over food. Humankind is faced with the issue of ensuring food security throughout the world. Water is an invaluable, fundamental right for the existence of humanity and it is the most basic element for the infrastructure needed for the sustainable development of society. Many countries which are experiencing conflict and destabilization over water should resolve these issues with regional security as their top priority. While areas where food is supplied and where food is consumed undergo globalization and the escalation of food prices by areas plagued by drought have a pervasive effect on the entire globe, not only do water conflicts that arise between areas become an issue, but global security is becoming an issue as well in what is turning into a competitive scramble between countries over food. Water and food security is becoming an even more difficult issue to face as droughts and the degradation of groundwater levels occurs around the world due to excessive water intake caused by climate change, mass consumption, urbanization and population expansion. (c) Response to the Large Number of Natural Disasters: Not only the Great East Japan Earthquake but a rash of natural disasters are occurring around world. There is apprehension that such devastation is spreading due to the impact of climate change. Developed countries are at the forefront of amassing countermeasures against natural disasters, and it is important to disseminate and share this knowledge with the rest of the world. (d) Concentration of Populations in Cities and Growing Demands for Urban Infrastructure: At present, urban populations have already risen to over half of the global population and by 2050 this will rise to 70%. Urban areas are consuming 67% of the world?s energy and by 2030 this will increase to as high as 74%. In developing and emerging countries, urban construction is progressing at fast pace, producing one megacity after another. However, architectural structures and urban infrastructure being built today will sequester carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption over the next several decades. A huge amount of urban construction and low carbon demands will drive a green economy forward and lead to the expansion of green jobs. (e) Furthering the Needs of New, Sustainable Urban Development: Rural populations moving into urban areas and the growth of populations in cities are increasing at a rapid pace. The emission of greenhouse gas is increasing as urban development and economic activities become more widespread. Therefore, we need urban redevelopment and development programs that are more compact and have less energy consumption. In cities, residences, transportation, and energy supplementation are transforming into more sustainable models. There needs to be a global push for sustainable cities to present how urban development can exist in balance with nature. (f) The Progression of Depopulation and Aging Society: Considering the long-term, aging societies, such as Japan is facing, could gradually become global issues as well. As populations increase, the world will move toward an aging society and we must anticipate new ways to respond. Young people will most likely be the ones to move into cities as described above, so it is conceivable that aging societies will spread in agricultural and mountain regions throughout the world. (g) Constraints due to the Rapid Deterioration and Depletion of Natural Capital: Humanity is ushering in the depletion and degradation of natural capital in exchange for the rapid accumulation of industrial and financial capital. As a result, the rarity of these forms of capital has flip-flopped comparatively, especially in recent years with developed and emerging countries at the heart of a sharp rise in global consumption, wherein the amount of available natural capital per capita is decreasing while being surpassed by the increasing pace of consumption. At this current development pattern, we fear that the world population will no longer be able to support itself by the time it reaches 9 billion. Consequently, we face the urgent task of raising collective awareness among all people based on the need that we discover the extent of the constraints we must subject ourselves to due to the depletion and degradation of our natural capital, as well as the nature of the content, speed, and scale of changes we must make to our development pattern. With international society entering the 21st century in this manner, we need to address prompt resolutions for such deep global issues. We are attempting to resolve these various issues by pushing ?sustainable development? forward, but in order to do so we need to consider how ?development? became ?unsustainable.? More specifically, the major premise for measures going forward must answer our own questions in a calm and humble manner to both discover the cause for the rise of ?over-development? and ?mal-development? and to formulate appropriate countermeasures. In order to construct a sustainable society, we must be compelled to prepare the world stage to face new emerging issues that have not been foreseen during the Rio Earth Summit. 1.2.1 Issues for a the Developed Country of Japan and the Great East Japan Earthquake Issues for the Developed Country of Japan Japan is as ?Forerunner of Emerging Issues ? facing such as an aging society and newly emerging problems with the environment and energy, many of which are new issues that other countries have yet to experience. While Japan is working to resolve these issues, it is also under pressure to formulate a long-term vision to reach a future ideal of sustainable development to form a ?sustainable society.? The Great East Japan Earthquake The Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on March 11, 2011 once again called into question what constitutes a ?sustainable society.? On March 11, 2011, Japan experienced one of the world?s worst natural disasters: a 9.0 magnitude earthquake noted as the fourth largest earthquake recorded in the world?s history; a 40.5m high tsunami which is the tallest ever recorded in Japanese history. We did not expected such big scale of the tsunami therefore roughly 20,000 people either died or went missing in the wake of the giant wave, extensive environmental and social damage was incurred from the diffusion of nuclear substances in the environment by a nuclear power plant accident, which was later determined to be a level 7 on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). Even now, many afflicted people have little choice but to reside in temporary housing and the reconstruction process following the Great East Japan Earthquake is becoming a considerable challenge for the nation. Experiencing the nuclear power accident has led us to question the overconfidence Japanese society had felt toward our mass consumption of energy, our lifestyles, and our technologies. On the other hand, we must also recognize the fact that, during the Great East Japan Earthquake, the bullet trains performed perfect emergency stops to prevent large accidents, most of the high-rise buildings remained standing, and Japan?s earthquake countermeasure not all but many technologies proved effective. Currently in Japan, people from all over the country are acting warm-heartedly, without looting or rioting, to support the nation in an effort to recover from the earthquake disaster. Amid this, many good practices have emerged thanks to the cooperative efforts of various stakeholders. Local governments and communities, as well as businesses, industries, farmers, labor unions, and cooperatives are making a spirited effort toward reconstruction. NGOs have taken up the role of coordinating by gathering the detailed needs on-site. Youth and children from around the world are working together as volunteers through the NGOs to support reconstruction. Companies and industries are contributing support and making various efforts to restore production activities and the livelihood of their employees as swiftly as possible. Labor unions have been working together on disaster countermeasures, utilizing scale merits to commence rescue and support activities in the disaster area. For example, after the earthquake struck, associations immediately established disaster response headquarters, dispatched advance teams to the disaster areas, collaborated with relevant local associations, secured means of transportation and coordinated local activity centers and shelters. In addition, they administered requests for relief supplies, emergency assistance, and rescue support donations from government bodies, political parties and business federations. Also, a great deal of local governments suffered damage and were unable to offer public services. However, rehabilitation commenced with the unstinting support offered by several other local governments within Japan. Many local governments are endeavoring to conduct reconstruction with the local government as its nucleus while also performing revisions of their damage reconstruction strategy to plan for safe urban development that will ensure that such casualties and property damage never occurs again. In the reconstruction process, we started a lot of activities for sustainable development. The Basic Act on Great East Japan Earthquake Reconstruction (Law No. 76, 2011) and the Basic Guidelines for Reconstruction clearly state the participation of women, elderly, children, and people with disabilities in decision-making process as a basic principle for reconstruction. This enables the needs of vulnerable people to be met. Following the nuclear power accident, Japan is facing a paradigm shift regarding energy. Every single citizen has taken the opportunity to consider anew the importance of the energy problem. Even while opinions are split among stakeholders over whether or not to exit nuclear energy, the general consensus when looking long-term to promote the use of renewable energy with consideration of burden on industries and the people. It should also be noted that Japan could address scarcity of electricity supply in the summer of 2011 by corporate efforts and energy saving actions of citizens. Electricity crisis changed the lifestyles of the people. As addressing the crisis of the disaster and the nuclear power accident, we are taking vital steps for sustainable development as a way to reduce the environmental load by promoting the use of renewable energy and energy conservation. It appears that these experiences for Japan can contribute strongly to the discussion on sustainable development at Rio +20. Several issues have been brought into sharp relief which may serve as a point of reference for the Rio+20 debate on sustainable development, such as reconstruction in the wake of an unprecedented natural disaster, efforts to build anew where so much had been lost, and handling of radioactive contamination from the nuclear accident. 2 Proposal for the Outcome of Rio+20 2.1 Expectations of Rio+20 We believe that many concerned stakeholders in Japan wish to take the opportunity at the Rio+20 to revise the approach for sustainable development, such as the necessity of adding a cultural pillar to existing economic, social, and environmental aspects. It is necessary to review our approach in sustainable development as we keep in mind these changing times. It is especially important to be aware of multiple points of view without becoming too wrapped up in any specific set of values as we to progress with sustainable development by recognizing the difference in values and worldviews of stakeholders involved in the Rio+20 while formulating an ideal model for a sustainable society that may vary in accordance with different locations. The following points listed are of particular importance for the basic approach Japanese stakeholders have in mind for sustainable development: (a) Implement of multi-stakeholder dialogue: Governments should proactively participate in discussions to make the most of this opportunity to work with each stakeholder and give weight to a multi-stakeholder dialogue on both an international and domestic level. The Internet and mailing lists, etc. should be put to practical use in the dialogue in consideration of the silent majority. (b) Respect the views of those whose voices are not loudly echoed within society: An institutional framework for sustainable development must be established through peer study with each stakeholder and by attaining the social participation of citizens. In this regard, we must respect the views of stakeholders whose voices are not weighted within society, such as women, children, minorities, individuals with disabilities, and indigenous peoples. (c) Gender equality: The realization of social justice, including gender equality, must be reaffirmed as a core principle of a sustainable society. The importance of integrating gender perspectives in sustainable development should be clearly addressed in the outcome document of Rio+20. In this regard, equal participation of women in decision-making is vital for sustainable development, so positive actions should be taken to promote it. Gender equality should be ensured when shifting toward renewable and sustainable natural energy use, and the benefits of sustainable energy use should be guaranteed equally between women and men. (d) Global creation that reflects children and youth: The most irreplaceable and precious aspiration for the human race is that we create a peaceful global society where we live together by resolving our issues and sharing a declaration that moves toward mutual knowledge and values. It is future generations who must implement the declarations and promises we make. We need to reflect the views of children and youth in a more positive way and be aware that the issues we are addressing will have a deep impact on the youth of today and the generations that follow. (e) Respect the values and perspectives of indigenous peoples: As we consider development and the future of the environment, we need to place greater importance than we have in the past on the values held by indigenous peoples, such as the Ainu. Those involved in sustainable development must acknowledge that this grim disparity of a priori (bias) exists in people?s world views and values. In particular, it is vital that we maintain a sense of fairness and balance so that we will not be over-reliant on the view that sets modern science and market economy above all else. In the time between the UNCED in 1992 and today?s Rio+20, the United Nations adopted the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in 2007 to strengthen the respect to traditional knowledge and customs . The countries of the world must respect this declaration of the rights of indigenous peoples in this context. (f) Support the empowerment of local government: There is a necessity to encourage international society to support local governments (institutional back-up) as a way to recognize that the single most vital role for the government is to aspire to shape resilient, low-carbon cities, provide for the conservation of biodiversity, and sustainably develop agricultural and mountain regions for the betterment of society. Stakeholders form accords as they develop a full understanding of overwhelming environmental problems. Advance efforts made by cities and governments push for international agreements as they heighten awareness about green economies and low-carbon societies. In order for the advanced practices of local government to take part internationally, we hope for the foundation of a system that can draw in international support for local government through international society?s financial assistance for developing countries. (g) Reaffirm the significance of a strong international convention to fully realize the proper care and value of forests: 1.6 billion people, nearly a quarter of the world?s population, rely on forests for life, livelihoods, work, and a secure income. With diverse functionality, forests play a key role in handling complex and interlinked global issues in regards to economic and social development, poverty reduction, environmental sustainability, food security and agriculture, energy, water, adaption and mitigation to climate change, the combat against desertification and soil degradation, biodiversity conservation, river basin conservation, and disaster mitigation. In light of this, we must strengthen systems that handle problems affecting forests globally while coordinating with international authorities and a process involving the three Rio Conventions. We must take advantage of the forests? ability to absorb and accumulate carbon dioxide by promoting sustainable operations, adequate forest management and measures against illegal logging, and measures against deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries. Furthermore, there needs to be systems and mechanisms to improve each individual?s recognition that forest problems differ in each country and that we require a mutually coordinated effort to address such problems. (h) Ensure equal responsibilities and status of all partners: As the world grows ever more diverse, we cannot solve environmental problems if we consider them based on a dichotomy such as north-south problems or between developed and developing countries. If we insist on our opinions from the viewpoint of dichotomy, it will generate alienation with differing viewpoints at a personal level and we will be beleaguered by opposition. To achieve sustainable development, it is important that for stakeholders to understand have an in-depth understanding and care respect each other. It is also needed required to establish rules and environments in which sincere and faithful attitudes are valued. (i) Establish the resolution of environmental problems as a top priority political issue: At the Rio+20, we need to summarize our progress in sustainable development made in Rio and, subsequently, Johannesburg as well. We must confirm what policies exist for the world and countries, and the status of their implementation. We must also confirm that heads of state around the globe are making the resolution of environmental problems a top priority political issue. (j) Reaffirm the role of education: We must set aside the sectionalism among departments and each stakeholder to increase synergies in different areas by restructuring the organizational, institutional, and financial framework that moves across various plans and practices related to ?Capacity Building for Sustainable Development.? (For example, ESD, Education for All (EFA), the MDGs, Communication, Education, and Public Awareness (CEPA) activities in various environmental conventions as well as adult education and lifelong learning.) To make these actions more effective, we must reaffirm the importance of the role education will play towards sustainable development and strengthen synergies of these actions. (k) Ensure food security through sustainable agriculture: It is important to establish a food manufacturing system that is focused on biodiversity as well as traditional agriculture and fishing methods that relate to the climates of countries around the world for the sake of food security through sustainable agriculture. (l) Governance and management of natural capital: The inclusion of the governance and management of natural capital in economic propositions is indispensible for the sake of sustainable development. Effective governance must not only be done through government authority but also through the participation and cooperation from a wide spectrum of multi-tiered stakeholders. The people who that are the most cooperative and effective in managing natural capital are the ones who are directly affected by the blessings and disasters that come along with the unique qualities and diverse land and climate of their local environment. Therefore, it is vital that we shift policy maneuvers so that communities have a form of autonomy to help oversee national land. Many stakeholders in Japan think we should re-commit to past declarations in the Rio+20. For example, the Johannesburg Summit contained the assertion that, ?We resolve to swiftly increase access to the basic requirements of clean water, sanitation, adequate housing, energy, healthcare, food security, and the conservation of biodiversity. At the same time, all of us shall work together to consider how to acquire access to financial resources, net profit from market liberalization, ensure capacity building, utilize new technologies to bring about development, and secure methods of technical transfer, human resource development, education, and training for the sake of doing away with underdevelopment for good.? The topic of human resource development in particular upheld the proposal from Japan for the ?United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development? that commenced in 2005. Japanese stakeholders offered a proposal to reaffirm the importance of addressing water issues globally, the direction of food rights for independent countries, including developing countries, as extended by the United Nations General Assembly?s ?Resolution on the Right to Food,? the FAO World Food Summit, and the World Food Security Committee, and the necessity of education, human resource development, and technology transfers. The nuclear power accident that occurred in Japan is a profound problem that has created a significant catalyst to consider a conversion into a society of sustainable energy. Even within Japan, the topic of denuclearization is subject to a wide range of opinions, such as those who wish to exit nuclear power as soon as possible and those who see no other alternative in our current condition but to be dependent on nuclear power. It is necessary to prepare various data in order for the entire world to reassess all of the risks involved in the development and use of nuclear power. The standards of fairness in competition with other power sources must be brought to light, as well. There is also the view that we should prudently consider an option of promoting locally distributed energy-usage systems, which would entail restructuring of the energy market, rulemaking for structured coalitions, and a review of relevant legal systems. There needs to be a rational and multilateral discussion on the existence of an energy shift, which ensures transparency and the sufficient disclosure of information that is based on fact and logic. Each country should create a mid- to long-term vision that, at its heart, would further the pursuit to streamline renewable energy, energy conservation, and thermal power. Safety should be heightened at nuclear power plants throughout the world by sharing information globally following reviews of safety standards based on a thorough determination of the cause of Japan?s nuclear power accident. We obtained (or may one day learned) expertise and experience about the issues through nuclear power plant countermeasures, such as health care and decontamination, as well as short- and long-term measures following the core meltdown and the radiation leaks that occurred simultaneously. It is notable that we can improve nuclear power management worldwide using the knowledge obtained as assets to be shared globally. Japan wishes to be strongly involved in participating in joint international study initiatives and networks. It has been pointed out how important it is to tie the Rio+20 and the post-2015 targets of MDGs together. Looking back on the past 20 years, it is notable how the development objectives of the MDGs reflect an adequate grasp of the progress made and the issues that remain. It is also notable how this, along with action plans and necessary long-term visions, can work as an appropriate marker of progress while reviewing the post-2015 target of the MDGs. It is important to have a renewed commitment for full collaboration with all affiliated countries aimed at accomplishing the goals of the three Rio Conventions crafted at the Earth Summit (the Convention on Biological Diversity, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, and the International Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification Particularly in Africa). It is agreed upon that the Convention on Biological Diversity, in particular, must reach the Aichi Biodiversity Targets within twenty years, which shall be the year 2020. In addition, the United Nations General Assembly resolved to achieve the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and marked the remaining ten years (2011-2020) as the U N Decade on Biodiversity. It is important that the magnitude of this be noted once more during discussions at the Rio+20. 2.2 Concrete Proposal for Rio+20 Many Japanese stakeholders consider that a common understanding of sustainable development should be included anew in the Rio+20 outcome document, and its essence is stated in the key message at the top of this document. Now, we are required to have a long-term vision of sustainable development and to take concrete actions in accordance with that vision. The proposals from Japanese stakeholders are as follows: a) Proposal for energy: Energy policies are very important for stable economic growth both domestic and overseas, as well as in solving global environmental problems such as climate change. However, it is essential to implement urgent and ambitious measures both for the current and future generations, because it takes quite a long period of time before the effect of implementation can be felt. It is expected that each country will set a long-term renewable energy target (e.g. by 2030), and start initiatives and make recommendations to introduce relevant policies and measures to reach their target. Regarding energy supplies, it is necessary to reconsider the total balance of supply and demand, shifting from a policy debate with a supply-side bias to the activation of a policy debate on energy saving at the demand-side (e.g. households and small businesses). In addition, for developing countries where future demand is expected to increase, building a platform for ?thinking together? is needed, by providing a mechanism for efficient transfer of technologies and know-how for renewable energy. b) Proposal for poverty measures: Realize the security of human rights and empowerment of the poor and vulnerable group of people. In addition, it is necessary to ensure the participation of the citizens of developing countries, especially the poorest, in policy formation, along with the formation of public opinion that supports the idea. By directly approaching poor and vulnerable people, we will form public opinion that supports the implementation of policy that reflects the needs of citizens in developing countries. We should view green economy as ?a system that exists by capturing social issues such as poverty alleviation and human rights protection? and build a process to achieve coexistence, symbiosis, and social justice. c) Proposal for water and sanitation: The water problem is rooted in various factors specific in each region, and to solve this problem, an approach must be selected that is not universal and rational, but delicate and sustainable, appreciating the culture of a particular area. In particular, there is high expectation for local governments in Japan to contribute to developing countries. Difficult problems that developing countries face are the improvement of water and sewage infrastructure, and its operation and maintenance management. In many countries, the central or local government is responsible for the improvement of water infrastructure, its operation and maintenance management, and struggle with the collection of water rates and water leakage problems. The resolution of these water problems requires a maintenance management for the water system as a whole, rather than the latest technologies. Japanese local governments are in the perfect position to respond to this request due to their long term expertise experience in the improvement of water infrastructure and its maintenance and operation. Local government in Japan began the way to the new business of the improvement of water infrastructure and its maintenance and operation in developing countries. Long lasting international contribution is neither mere volunteering nor profit-seeking principle. It is realized over a business with a reasonable profit. Japanese local governments will be the first in the world to carry out this important mission in developing countries, which will have public spirit and be a long run water business. d) Proposal for air quality conservation/climate change: Promise to reach an agreement of a legally binding framework toward the prevention of climate change; after not having realized the agreement in Copenhagen, progress is currently being made on new framework for 2013 and beyond. In the UNFCCC process, we should promise to reach an agreement for fair, ambitious and binding framework, and support the acceleration of UNFCCC negotiation. The sustainability of life on earth is unable to be ensured unless international effort proceeds based on the latest scientific findings and the establishment of an international agreement to climate change measures. Specifically, whether it is developed or developing country, the agreement needs to be reached on the enforcement and a legally binding framework should be adopted as soon as possible for the following points: the responsibility of each country and its significant reduction dependent on each national capacity, financial support, adaptation measures, technology transfer, capacity-building, measures against deforestation and forest degradation for vulnerable developing countries. Sufficient consideration should take place for resilience against serious damages, which could be caused by the extreme climate events associated with climate change that is anticipated to become more serious in the future. In order to achieve this, the Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development (IFSD), which encourages the construction of these societies, is essential. Disclosure of the weather data of each country, which is in progress by the WMO, is also hoped to contribute to the improvement of the predictability of disasters. e) Proposal for the conservation of biodiversity/environment conservation farming and fishery: Towards the achievement of Aichi Biodiversity Targets, the UN Decade on Biodiversity will be actively promoted with the cooperation of the United Nations, international governments and relevant stakeholders. In addition, policy guidance should be made to demonstrate again the characteristic of living with nature traditionally found in the primary industry sector in Japan (environmental conservation agriculture, forestry and fishery); and a new mechanism should be created for agriculturalists, forestry and fishermen who make an effort to follow this direction, as well as their areas, are rewarded through a direct payment system and support from urban residents. f) Proposal for the promotion of agriculture，forestry, and fishery village areas: To promote agriculture forestry, and fishery villages that are stagnating economically, policies that attract human and financial support from urban residents should be developed, creating a revival strategy based on local initiatives using regional natural resources and learning from successful good practices inside and outside the country. The most typical green economy gives meticulous care to the original rich natural resources of the agriculture, forestry and fishery villages using labor-intensive methods, makes production activities economically sustainable, and generates employment. Now, as the depletion of stock resources is becoming a reality, a system design that fundamentally changes the preceded ?development strategy? is required. g) Proposal for strengthening nuclear power safety: Japan aims to share the issues revealed by the accident of the nuclear power plant in Japan with international community as much as possible and prevent further accidents by exchanging information on nuclear power accidents, the risk of radioactive contamination, emergency measures, and permanent measures on a global scale. Simultaneously, there is a need for contributing to the reinforcement of the safety of nuclear power in every country, carrying out the improvement of international cooperation system in case an accident occurs. It is necessary to review and revise the international safety standard based on international scientific research on the adverse effects of radioactivity on human bodies, animals and plants as well as monitoring functions. h) Proposal for achieving gender equality and participation f women: Participation of women in decision-making is essential to respond to the diverse needs. In this context, it is important to provide concrete measures to increase in the participation of women in decision-making, such as, by setting numerical targets with time frame,s incentives, quota systems and cross-compliance. Providing opportunities for capacity building of women is also important to achieve gender equality. i) Proposal for indigenous peoples: The advancement of the rights of indigenous peoples should be the interest of Rio+20. The rights that must be assured include preservation and promotion of the Ainu people including the Ainu language, Ainu culture and religious rights, land right and rights to resources, the rights to education and information, economic and social rights, rights to participation, and the rights to self-determination. These efforts are the responsibility of the Japanese government and these views must be reconfirmed at Rio+20. j) Proposal for children and youth: For the implementation of Rio Declaration, it is essential to realize a global society where everyone is able to receive education as a fundamental human right. Aim to achieve the goal through educational activities for people in every life stage, such as school education, social education, and lifelong learning. It is necessary to promote the above mentioned education in formal, non-formal and informal education through collaborative partnerships between public agencies and NGOs. It is also necessary to significantly increase opportunities for children and youth to express their views and findings in national and local policy making as well as at international conferences . An example of how a child can learn ESD is that recognizing the linkage between local and global issues, a child will carry out such actions that embody the idea of thinking globally and acting locally. Provision of sufficient funds to education sector is also quite important in development countries. k) Proposal for local governments: It has been revealed that active measures by local governments to reduce the environmental impact in cities where population and industries concentrate have brought significant effects; therefore, local governments have an important role to play. However, the need for local governments? to address global environmental issues is not yet fully understood. It is important that the international societies clearly requests local governments, such as large cities, to work towards resolving global environmental issues on the basis of outcome document emerging from the Rio+20, in order to encourage more local governments to participate actively. l) Proposal on employment and Trade unions: Establishing the limit of social protection worldwide. It is necessary to clarify the solution to challenges such as abolishing child labor, securing gender equality in the employment opportunities, securing minimum wages, and the minimum standard in the creation of green job, particularly in developing countries. ?Green Job Strategy? is a long-term strategy that aims to increase green and descent jobs by at least 50% by 2015, to progress both countermeasures against climate change issues and the structural change in employment and working conditions simultaneously, and link these to realize a low-carbon society. This strategy should be further promoted and developed, and an international agreement is expected to be formed that shares its challenges and realization. Implementation of education and training as well as assistance in housing and living condition for workers, and maintaining and generating ?Decent,? ?green? and ?sustainable? employment, and mediating to find reemployment opportunities are needed. Through these employment measures and an official multi-stakeholder meeting, ?Just Transition ? that promotes climate change measures and employment measure simultaneously is needed, and it is expected that an international agreement regarding the sharing and realization of the challenge be formed. It is necessary to set and implement the minimum standard s of green jobs to solve the problems of child labor and, gender equity, and to guarantee minimum wages, especially in developing countries. m) Proposal for funding sources and mechanism: In the situation where financial deterioration is globally worsening, a mechanism for more effective use of private funds should be considered through public-private partnership projects. Also, further promotion of SRI at financial institutions is required for a smooth supply of private funds. As a motivation for this, the progress of the ?greening of finance? is desired, under the United Nations Environment Program Finance Initiative (UNEP FI) rooted in the principles established or under development, and with penetration of the decision making process based on ESG (environment, society, governance) issues under the financial institutions including insurance. Also, a solid framework for more specific monitoring should be created in relation to the target of contributing 0.7% of GNI to the ODA to secure funding to achieve the MDGs. For example, a measure to be considered includes one by which each country is obliged to create a roadmap for achieving its target. In addition, some stakeholders in Japan consider that a ?next generation tax? and ?international solidarity levy? should be implemented as a budgeted measure that enables a variety of projects related to sustainable development. However, while tax can be a powerful tool for securing financial resources, concrete consideration has to be carried out upon the understanding and agreement of citizens of every level, clarifying the purpose and its use, and through a wide range of discussions. n) Proposal for the improvement of support and development effectiveness: When conducting development, effort should be made to achieve the improvement of the development impact and the effectiveness of aid (as well as the realization of social justice). Government of each country will follow Paris Declaration, Accra Agenda for Action, and in addition of which they should also comply with the agreement that will be established at the High-Level Forum in Busan in December 2011. NGO should make the Istanbul principle (Open Forum CSO Development Effectiveness), which is for enhancing the impact of development, as their standard rules, and strengthen an effort to improve accountability in each group. Moreover, it is also important to involve new actors such as the emerging donors and private sector in discussions to improve the development impact and effectiveness of aid. o) Proposal for strengthening the environmentally sound technology transfer, cooperation and the ability to handle: When considering resource constrains and environmental constraints, it is desirable that various social problems such as poverty and natural disasters faced by developing countries will be overcome, as in the future the economy of many developing countries will grow on development trajectories led by China. On the other hand, earth resource constraints and energy supply constraints will prevent such development. It is the technology to achieve the maximum wealth and social infrastructure with minimum resource consumption that will solve this dilemma. Japanese companies and industries have gained a wide range of technologies such as resources-saving technologies, energy-saving technologies, environmental protection technologies, and also the fundamental technologies for recycling economy through various recycling technologies, in the process of development in the past, overcoming a number of social and environmental constraints including the oil crisis, the recession caused by strong yen, and pollution problems. It is important to improve the sustainability of the earth as a whole, implementing the earth?s resources, energy saving and environmental protection through the diffusion of such technologies to the world and used for economic development of developing countries. Japanese environmentally sound technologies, which are at the global high level, should be transferred while maintaining a win-win relationship with developing countries. For a smooth implementation of this transfer, security of intellectual property is crucial. p) Proposal for the promotion of education, public awareness and training: Along with the strong promotion of the Decade of ESD (Education for Sustainable Development), it is necessary to create a mechanism that continue to promote ESD worldwide after the end of the Decade of ESD in 2014. Specifically, it is necessary to formulate the International Action Plan and funding arrangements for implementation, create a mechanism to share information and experiences regarding ESD, undertake capacity building activities for local residents with ownership awareness for their local community, train and support training for local coordinators who promote various cooperation/collaboration among stakeholders working on to building a sustainable society in the area. Such activities need to be carried out through all levels of education and training including school education and social education. Action plans should include ?green economy education program? and ?lifelong learning program for sustainable development?, capacity building activities to ensure implementation of the UN Declaration on Indigenous Peoples adopted at the UN General Assembly in 2007. Actions should be designed to enhance synergy effect with communication, education, public awareness (CEPA) in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Convention to Combat Desertification. q) Proposal for statistical data for decision-making and information collection: The information needed to enhance the participation of women, youth and other vulnerable groups in decision-making for sustainable development is insufficient. This also hampers identifying the issues underlying sustainable development. So, it is important to collect data that is disaggregated by gender, generation, and other important criteria, and provide it in an accessible manner internationally through the Internet and other media. r) Proposal to establish a decentralized society: The need for a decentralized and resilient society has been suggested to deal with natural disaster and to adapt to climate change. In this process, to pursue a green economy plays an important role, and for the promotion of building such society, institutional framework for sustainable development is essential. Japanese stakeholders suggested that the concept of these societies should be described anew in the Declaration. s) Proposal for conservation of natural resources and sustainable usage: For natural capital with a characteristic of shared material to be used sustainably beyond generations, NGOs suggested to establish the ?User Recovery Principle?, which is centered around the idea that ?users of natural capital are responsible for restoring its original state and its cost in cases where it was used beyond the sustainable pace?, and the involved countries should seek an agreement on the direction of institutionalizing it. t) Proposal on forest: Forest has the effect of carbon dioxide absorption and storage, and this function should be utilized. Also, appropriate forest management and sustainable management should be promoted. Conduct continuous discussion towards a framework with robust legal binding force that leads to the recognition of the importance of forests and a realization of appropriate forest management. In addition, constructing a network and platform at the international citizen level will promote the exchange of human and information, improve the awareness of issues with forests, and generate a need to change behaviors. 2.3 Suggestions on the United Nation?s existing proposals With regard to the green economy road map, it is important that the sustainable use of natural resources and the realization of social justice are shared in the concept of the premise of a green economy. As there are a variety of existing objectives and goals at the UN level, it is necessary to ensure the consistency of them. Considering the indicators to show ?development,? we aim to establish versatile indicators that could become the foundation of the effort by the international community, based on the accumulation from various attempts for sustainability indicators and environment assessment methods. Fundamentally, further consideration among the international community will be encouraged, aggregating the green economy indicators being examined by Satellite System for Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA), OECD and UNEP. As part of such framework for sustainability indicators, we will introduce the concept of regeneration speed and incorporate it as part of the evaluation method of natural capital of the indicators discussed here, in addition to the amount of natural capital stock and resource productivity. It would be meaningless to establish the indicators unless every individual becomes aware of sustainability. For this purpose, the role of ESD is important. Along with an easy to understand presentation, it is necessary to recognize the limitation of numerical targets. 2.4 Suggestion on the ways to close the implementation gap Rights-based approach for poverty alleviation: In reference to Agenda 21 Action Plan and the MDGs, the progress of poverty issues has been particularly delayed. It should be understood that it is not just a problem of low income, but a problem of deprivation of social and political rights, and all the stakeholders need to play a role in guaranteeing the rights of vulnerable groups of people. Namely, further focus on the rights-based approach for poverty alleviation is crucial. Rights in this context include the rights of indigenous peoples, their own original rights stipulated in ?the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples?, and the fulfillment of the rights must be promoted. Promotion of civil participation: In order to fill the gap, not only the government effort but also civil participation is needed. The private sector should be recognized as an important actor that provides solutions. As the negotiation process between countries have come close to the limit, Japanese stakeholders view that the role of the private sector in the process should be clarified upon the understanding of the importance of the private sector. Promotion of the participation of local governments: Whilst local governments possess great potential with regard to the promotion of low-carbon cities and green economy, the understanding and policy making ability between developed and developing countries is not sufficient. In calling to local government for participation in the construction of low-carbon cities from international community, we will be able to promote it and activate the green economy. Effective participation in the construction of cities by local governments can enhance the ability to provide basic public services for the urban poor in developing countries and contribute to the improvement of their living condition. For this policy support and human resources development, cooperation between local governments is most effective. International organizations should develop programs for international cooperation between cities and support them. Ensuring financial discipline: Fiscal deficits in both developed and developing countries have been increasing year by year, and in the present condition the financial gap has been filled by issuing deficit-covering national bonds. As imposing a financial burden to the next generation will lead to injustice between generations, it is necessary to ensure financial discipline that includes taxation as a policy to fill the gap. For example, the idea of utilizing tax to secure funding for the next generation has been shown. Voluntary approach: Japanese companies as well as Japanese industry have had the principle of ?good cooperate citizen? and implemented the environmental voluntary action plan with the mutual understanding and cooperation with the government administration and stakeholders from different fields, recognizing that effort towards environmental issues is an essential requirement for one?s own presence and activities. As the country?s unique initiatives, so far Japan has accumulated significant achievement in waste management, creating a recycling-oriented society, and climate change measures. Incentives: In planning for sustainable development, there are some opinions that consider not only regulatory approaches but also an approach that encourages effort, such as putting a price on carbon, is also important. A typical example of this is the introduction of an economic approach that utilizes market mechanisms. However, there are also views that in Japan with superior environmentally sound technologies, this approach does not work, and it might make a negative contribution to solving global problems due, for example, to a loss of financial resources caused by further development of the latest technologies. In the introduction of the economic approach, we should consider its purpose to be fulfilled and the way we take the burden, and necessarily gain the understanding and agreement of citizens of every level. It is also important to take an approach that encourages efforts. For example, Japanese stakeholders proposed the following: low-carbon society priority measures for research development for building a recycling society, a review of the regulation of used products to achieve a recycling society, donations that will be implemented to attain the sustainable development of society, activities for social contributions, and priority measures for investment in taxation. 2.5 Suggestion on specific cooperation mechanism, partnership arrangement, and implementation tools Financial scheme for the resolution of water issues: In order to solve the problem of the water sector, it is necessary to establish a financial scheme that supports international contributions from private companies in the water sector and promotes the management of water and sewerage services in cooperation with private companies and local governments. Continuous human resources and technological support for the field of operation and management, promotion of small-scale projects such as sector loan projects, and flexible and enterprising suggestions with political initiatives, which are beyond the sector borderlines, are required. In addition, as the experiences of other countries show, problems have occurred because of the privatization of water services, and thus, securing water should be considered a fundamental human right. The launch of dialogue mechanisms and organizations for promoting the UN Decade on Biodiversity and resolving the issues of biodiversity: To achieve the ?Aichi Biodiversity Targets?, it is necessary to create a mechanism to strengthen dialogue between the sectors, which has not been sufficient so far. Solutions to the challenges related to the vertically divided administration in each country are needed. Each country should investigate the root causes of biodiversity loss, make efforts to solve them, and should have organizations that hold a clear mission to reflect the outcome in policies. Introduction of a mechanism for promoting responsible voluntary behaviors of consumers: For the resolution of global issues, the role of consumers is important and it is necessary to promote civil education for consumers to encourage their responsible and voluntary behaviors. Furthermore, it is vital to raise each other?s awareness by environment communication represented under the label of the environment. In order to make consumers interested and influence their daily choice of goods and services, the development of environmental labels, promotion of environment communication and the implementation of environmental education are needed. Promotion of cooperation between programs for youth: For the development of children and youth, a collaborative relationship among youth programs currently promoted by governments, companies or schools and the programs voluntarily run by youth should be established. Specifically, holding a large-scale international conference dealing with comprehensive information and the internet database covering all the programs for youth is vital. While the United Nations takes a lead, governments and global companies will be expected to contribute to provide the necessary resources for these as their social responsibility. Regional centres of expertise on ESD (RCEs): For sustainable development, it is important to have human resources development utilizing various types of educational opportunities such as school education, social education, and corporate training at the local community level. In order to achieve this, mechanisms by which a variety of stakeholders in local communities are able to have more opportunities for collaboration are needed. Such mechanisms will include ones for identification and training of local ESD coordinators, and local knowledge base (RCEs) to promote ESD. Review of the WSSD type 2 partnerships: Requesting a review and report regarding the result and progress of the Type 2 partnership launched at WSSD, as well as considering the role that has been played by the partnership in sustainable development and its future situation, is necessary. 2.6 Roles of stakeholders in the promotion of sustainable development (including greening the economy) Nine major groups were recognized at the Earth Summit in 1992, but its review is a major premise. For example, the groups that play a significant role in sustainable development such as consumers, cooperatives, and education sector should be included. On that basis, it is important that each stakeholder confirms the following roles. Roles of women: Establish women as active promoters of green economy and promote gender equality through a green economy. Role of children and youth: The realization of a sustainable society is an important issue with which the future generations are the concerned party, and therefore, it is essential to have their understanding, cooperation and involvement. In addition to the existing initiatives such as ESD, the capacity building activities of children and youth should be undertaken through all possible means of education/training. The practices of children and youth for their society should be strengthened and we should create a world where the voice of children and youth are better reflected in their societies. To achieve this, support from not only children and youth groups but all the stakeholders is needed. Role of NGO?s: The characteristics of NGOs are to act flexibly and sensitively in a diverse society. For example, in the recovery from the earthquake, NGOs in the affected areas as disaster volunteers made huge contributions in the area where the government did not reach. NGOs also carry out specialized activities for policy recommendation to attempt the economic transformation of existing social system. These NGOs play an important role in policy formation. NGOs play a surveillance role against the actions of government administration and companies that bring the voice of citizens to the decision-making authority (policy recommendations). Moreover, NGOs have a function as a flexible platform for individuals and various stakeholders to form partnerships and for citizens to start voluntary participation in activities. Role of local governments: Local governments have the capacity to advance low-carbon and facilitate a green economy using their authority in the field of urban development, transportation, water and sewage services, waste disposal, education, conservation and utilization of natural resources. Local governments are able to facilitate low-carbon business as a leader in public facilities construction, infrastructure maintenance and public transport management, which could be a major project. They can also promote the improvement of energy-saving functions in buildings in the entire local community, including the private sector and the restriction of GHG emission from economic and industrial activities, with a system that uses a regulatory authority and market mechanisms. In addition, as the government closest to local businesses and consumers, local governments can provide detailed guidance and advice on energy consumption, and are capable of facilitating energy measures for the demand-side thoroughly. Role of trade union: Green job initiative, which was proposed by the ILO in June 2007 with a response to climate change, sustainable society and good quality job creation as its aim, was introduced in the joint report by ITUC, ILO, UNEP and IOE called ?Green jobs? in which it is anticipated to create 20 million new jobs in renewable energy sector by 2030. In order to implement ?Just Transition? that creates ?Decent Work? confirmed in the Cancun Agreement, the Japanese Trade Union Confederation (RENGO), the national center of the trade union, along with ITUC of which the RENGO is a member, should work in cooperation with civil society to encourage democratic social dialogues that propose the way we should deal with the elements which may negatively influence issues such as employment, gender, wages, working conditions, Occupational safety and Health and conduct a follow-up. In view of these needs, the Japanese Trade Union Confederation confirmed at the 59th Central Committee (December 2010) ?Toward a secure society build around work as its core theme? that showed a image of society and vision to be pursued. Along with the necessity of the ?environmental conservation of the earth? and the ?creation of green jobs,? which are the prerequisite for sustainability, ?Decent Work,? ?just distribution of resources,? and ?détente and achievement of peace between countries,? fulfilling the core labor standards are indicated as neckwear in any country. In addition, in August 2011, ?Guidelines on Responsible Investment of Worker?s Capital? was adopted and workers (union members) were requested that they act to contribute to the social formation of a fair and sustainable society, by implementing a responsible investment that encourages socially responsible cooperative action and financial transactions with the contributed funds of workers or funds that workers contributed to. Role of cooperatives: Cooperatives are autonomous organizations that sign up voluntarily to fulfill common economic, social and cultural needs and desires through a business body that is member-funded, co-owned and democratically controlled. Cooperatives have a function that stabilize life and activate communities, and by being rooted in society and encouraging mutual assistance, they play a role in encouraging a sustainable society. Role of companies and industries: Japanese corporations and industry consider the role of Japanese industry should be to apply Japanese superior technologies to the economic development of developing countries and support sustainable development with a minimum consumption of resources and environmental impact. In addition, as the procurement power of the world, greening the supply chain (such as the promotion of environmentally friendly procurement and production) will be advanced actively. In other words, ?green purchasing,? which is an environmentally sound procurement of materials, including carbon footprint and ecological footprint can be promoted. Role of scientific technology communities: In the process of each stakeholder?s participation in sustainable development, it is important that each of them receives correct information. The scientists are required to play the role that conducts monitoring on the current environmental situation, predicting the future based on the monitoring data, and presenting measures based on the prediction. It is also the role of scientists that they explain such information to the public in an easy to understand manner. Japan in particular is able to contribute to the development of a circumstance for developing countries to work voluntarily on sustainable development, by providing basic scientific data on global environmental issues such as geographic information, greenhouse gas effect, and the situation of biodiversity. Role of educators: For human resources development, the role of educators is extremely important. Higher education institutions such as universities are required to promote ESD for students who are expected to compose of the critical mass of the future society by reorienting their educational curricula. They are also requested to train teachers who understand ESD, and as experts provide advice and other support for local community activities to build a sustainable society. Regarding primary and secondary education, the perspectives of the ESD should be integrated into all the curricula from kindergartens to high schools. It is also necessary to strengthen communication and collaboration among different grades and different levels of schools, and to look for collaboration with local stakeholders. Furthermore, not only teachers but also curators at museums, libraries and town halls as well as interpreters at natural parks are expected to play an active role in promoting ESD in local communities. Role of the media: In promoting sustainable development, it is important to encourage the reform awareness of citizens and companies on which the media has the biggest influence. Defining the media as an important stakeholder and clarifying its role is crucial. In addition, not only the one-way communication as was in the previous model, but mutual communication such as social media that promotes a participatory society is important. Role of individuals: The role of individuals is also important. Every organization in the world is formed by individuals and often an individual belongs to multiple major groups. Individuals are required to have awareness as a consumer in compliance with purchasing for a sustainable green economy, choice of time, and choice of policies. Although individuals have certain roles at work, in private and in community, the key to all the changes is the individual?s action based on firm awareness that they as an individual have the final responsibility. 2.7 Shifting lifestyle to achieve sustainable development Traditionally Japanese people have been committed to the efficient use of resources, following the idea of ?mottainai?, which is roughly equivalent to the English expression, ?What a waste!? To overcome the power crisis in Japan after the earthquake, great cooperation has come from companies that have made energy and peak power saving efforts, in addition to coping through a shift in lifestyle. The lifestyle changes like Japan experienced through cutting lights and actions such as changing clothes to better adapt to weather conditions are important elements in achieving sustainable development. There must be a catalyst that encourages us to change our lifestyles. For example, the development of environmental initiatives locally and nationally that encourage changes in household and individual lifestyles to save resources, save energy, and implement low-carbon models is being considered (e.g. improved eco-point system, introducing and popularizing an eco-community currency, labeling of agricultural/forestry/fishery products and household appliances, the idea of local production for local consumption, developing road infrastructure for the efficient use of vehicles, compiling and sharing of all relevant road transport statistic data for this purpose, promoting public transport usage, and maintaining a transportation and mobility environment that minimizes social costs). In the transformation of lifestyle, the role education plays is also important. It is desirable to strengthen educational activities currently promoted under the Decade of ESD, such as school education, social education, training in business companies and institutions, education for citizens, regional centres of expertise on ESD (RCEs), activities of ESD or ESS (education for sustainable society) in each local society. If the significance of a green economy becomes clear to individuals, it will lead to actions. With the awareness that the final responsibility of sustainable development lies in individuals, it is important to link this to a life style change. 3. Opinions on Specific Themes 3.1 Proposals on the Green Economy in the Context of Sustainable Development and Eradication of Poverty 3.1.1 Priority Areas and Procedures for ?Greening of the Economy? Japanese stakeholders recognize the green economy as important in moving forward with sustainable development. The following reasons were cited for the necessity of discussing the green economy: a) As economic activities underlie environmental problems, it is necessary to discuss fundamental problems; b) Biodiversity and natural capital that support economic activities are significantly deteriorating at present. We need an economic mechanism that reflects the cost of the deterioration of natural capital and risk to people, including future generations; and c) Under constraints on resources and climate change, we need an economy that is well aware of these constraints. We regard a low carbon strategy through the development of technologies for efficient utilization of resources and green innovation in infrastructures, including roads and buildings, as an area we should address on a priority basis. It is also essential to proceed with efforts in areas conducive to the promotion of energy saving. (Examples: Development, improvement and diffusion of energy-saving, low-carbon technologies, development and diffusion of long-life materials and products, shift to energy-saving, low-carbon industrial structure and utilization of renewable and natural energy, etc.) It is also desirable to promote the utilization of sustainable ecosystem services based on the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and Nagoya Protocol adopted at the tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD-COP10) held in 2010. The greening of finance and agriculture, forestry and fisheries is also an important issue. Various ideas have been proposed as necessary efforts and procedures for the promotion of the green economy: a) Stability of governance of each country is important in facilitating the green economy, and it is necessary to have a mechanism to promote democratic systems, laws and regulations, free trade and investment; b) Governance of global multinational corporations and financial systems is also important, and initiatives such as ISO26000 should be further promoted; c) Citizens lack the awareness and knowledge of the green economy, and it is necessary to get them across through school education and civil society; d) Consumption styles not to break down the balance of natural capital should be established; e) Since it is important for each individual to make purchase decisions on the basis of information on the environment, etc., information for such decision-making should be provided; f) Legal system development, administrative system improvement, information disclosure, participation of all stakeholders and third-party monitoring bodies should be ensured; and g) Efforts should be promoted while monitoring progress with the use of appropriate indicators. It is necessary to position the perspective of Communication, Education and Public Awareness (CEPA) as the basis of efforts toward the green economy the international community will make with the holding of Rio+20 as motivation and to encourage the synergy effect between CEPA activities to achieve the Aichi Biodiversity Targets under the Convention on Biodiversity and promote the U.N. Decade on Biodiversity and each country?s obligations concerning the public awareness, education and training concerning the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the U.N. Convention to Combat Desertification, etc. 3.1.2 Measures Necessary in Each Area to Promote the Greening of the Economy To use utilize natural capital having the nature of common property across generations in a sustainable way, it is recommended to start in-depth discussion on the ?User Recovery Principle? centering on the idea of the user of natural capital being responsible for restoring the original state and paying the cost when natural capital is used beyond a sustainable pace, and considering the direction of institutionalizing that principle in the countries concerned. Given the limits on the environmental capacity of the earth, sustainable development and growth requires the realization of economic growth and creation of employment. In addition, in the present capital market, stabilization of the financial markets is an important factor. In order to promote the green economy, financial instability that could hamper corporate activities poses a major impediment and causes a setback in the driving power. Regulations on excessively speculative investment and regulations to break wild fluctuations would be required. As a prerequisite for the greening of the economy, it is necessary to consider natural capital in terms of the real economy. The World Bank?s ongoing initiative to incorporate ecosystem services into national economic accounting provides a useful reference. It has been demonstrated that tools to promote the greening of the economy are diverse. They are broadly divided into regulations and incentives, management tools and voluntary efforts, and the following tools are considered effective: (a) Regulations: Introduction of the feed-in tariff and other systems for the promotion of renewable energy, utilization of tax systems that reflect costs imposed on ?others,? including future generations, and risks such as the environmental tax and international solidarity levy, and tougher environmental regulations, etc. (b) Incentives: Expansion of preferential tax, financial and fiscal treatment of and commendation systems for business corporations and organizations, etc. that promote the development and diffusion of environment-friendly technologies and products, evaluation and announcement, etc. of efforts by business corporations, appropriate application of accounting standards. (c) Utilization of international standards and guidelines: Utilization of international standards as tools for realizing the green economy is also effective. It is important to position ISO26000 issued in November 2010 as a tool to give shape to the green economy in organizational management and promote it at an international level. (d) Voluntary efforts (Pledge and review): Voluntary efforts to promote the green economy are important as is the formation of systems to support them. The role of consumers is important in promoting the green economy, and to that end, communication between producers and consumers are also important. As an effective tool, it is important to review inadequate points in the existing environmental labeling and improve it globally. International institutions and national governments, as an informational environment for promoting the conservation and sustainable utilization of natural capital, jointly build an international database on available natural capital, etc., in regions of the world and establish the system for monitoring, evaluation and verification of the status of its utilization. In order to promote product design under constraints on resources, launched the Finite Design Initiative to Support a Sustainable Society with the participation of research institutes, product designers, business corporations, traditional craftsmen and consumers, etc., of various countries for such efforts as (1) closer cooperation among institutions concerned with finite design research; (2) development of common product protocols conducive to finite design (develop and share common product protocols concerning processes and parts that serve as the pivots of recycling and reuse); (3) diffusion of the top-runner format; and (4) visualization of the degree of sustainability of natural capital utilization (visualize the degree of sustainability of natural capital utilization by quantitatively showing the amount of natural capital required for the manufacture of goods and services consumers make use of in their everyday life and the ?waiting time? for their recycling). In order to develop the capital market to support the green economy, urge institutional investors around the world to embrace the Principles for Responsible Investment (PRI) and ask them to enhance the transparency of their investment behaviors. Furthermore, business corporations compile corporate reports that integrate financial as well as sustainability issues, and governments and exchanges institutionalize such reports. Since the green economy based on gender disparity cannot be regarded as sustainable development, strive to promote the green economy on the basis of institutional and organizational cooperation between divisions that promote the green economy and divisions that promote gender equality. 3.1.3 Efforts Necessary to Ensure Economic Growth and Poverty Eradication through the Greening of the Economy Promotion of the green economy means a shift in the direction of growth toward economic growth that breaks out of the resources-depleting growth to date and confirms to the environmental capacity of the earth. Low-carbon and sustainable utilization of resources will become possible, together with economic growth, employment creation and food security, through promotion of new environmentally sound technology development and reconstruction of labor-intensive and sustainable domestic industries. It is also essential for the business community to provide manufacturing and services friendly to the environment and human rights throughout the supply chain. In every effort, it is necessary to develop institutional frameworks that facilitate the poorest segment of the population, particularly poor women in developing countries, to benefit from the green economy. Development of environmentally sound technology, in particular the progress in small-scale power generation technologies based on renewable resources, contribute to the provision of cheap energy to poor people in rural areas. Development of sustainable and responsible agricultural, forestry and fisheries industries is highly likely to similarly contribute to ensuring employment and food for poor people in rural areas who have high dependence on natural resources. Sustainable base of the pyramid (BOP) business is in the spotlight to eradicate poverty from the perspective that supporting people living in poverty in their employment, business launching and livelihood and thereby enhancing their purchasing power should help their economic growth as well as business expansion. It is necessary to help raise the awareness about examples of best practices and develop frameworks of support for BOP business in consultation with stakeholders involved. 3.1.4 Values the Greening of the Economy Brings The greening of the economy should contribute to the realization of low-carbon and sustainable utilization of resources, along with economic growth, employment creation and food security, and should at the same time be conducive to eradication of poverty. Promotion of the green economy should contribute to correcting the existing structural disparity, rather than fixating such disparity. In particular, the aspect of employment creation is highly important. Various countries have set respective employment targets related to the green economy, and Japanese New Growth Strategy calls for employment creation to the tune of 1.4 million jobs. Gender equality should be emphasized in the creation of employment. As the green economy can also nurture sustainable domestic industries and promote the development of alternative resources and alternative energy, it can be expected to enhance the capacity to adapt to surges in prices of food, resources and energy the international community is now confronted with by reducing the dependence on overseas sources of supply. The greening of the economy also allows the ?non-economic value? to be recognized anew. In addition to the richness of natural capital and selfless cooperation among community members that cannot be measured by the economic value, the cost and risk, etc., imposed upon ?others,? including future generations, in a hard-to-see manner comes under consideration. The greening of the economy prompts changes in people?s values and individual choices and also encourages people to seek sustainable lifestyles. 3.1.5 What Are Appropriate Indicators to Make the Richness of Life and Mind and the Costs and Risks Hitherto Unconsidered Visible? In order to make the richness of life and mind and the costs and risks that have not been considered previously visible, new indicators are necessary in addition to the existing indicators such as the efficiency of resources and energy and carbon dioxide emissions. In particular, it is considered extremely important to reflect the economic value of ecosystem services, such as green accounting, in the national accounting system to recognize the negative impact of development on the natural environment. Concerning natural capital in particular, it is important to introduce the idea of the speed of regeneration and incorporate it into the method of evaluating natural capital, in addition to its stocks and resource productivity. Along with physical and objective social evaluation indicators, subjective indicators such as the satisfaction of people as key players in life are necessary. However, it has been argued that the ?richness of life? cannot be measured by a uniform indicator as it depends largely on the values of people. The indicators should include one that measures the achievement of gender equality through the green economy. 3.2 Proposals on the Institutional Frameworks for Sustainable Development 3.2.1 Problems in the International and Domestic Organizational and Institutional Frameworks for Sustainable Development and Ways to Improve Them Differences in emerging issues and the existing policies have made the U.N. system outdated, and the Rio+20 should serve as an opportunity to allow for discussions on the institutional frameworks that should be enhanced. The institutional frameworks for sustainable development require an institutional design that reflects the changes of the times, and the following three points are important as the basic points of view. The first is the importance of multilevel governance. Sustainable development needs to be addressed not only by the United Nations alone but also at all of the multilateral, regional, national, local and RCE levels. The second is the importance of the participation by multi-stakeholders. Sustainable development cannot be left to governments alone. It is also necessary for various other stakeholders to participate in the process and decision-making. The third is the recognition that we cannot rely on the United Nations to solve all problems. As for institutional reform, it is necessary to clarify the goals of the reform plan, vision and time axis. We cannot expect to develop an effective institutional design unless we address the whole spectrum of problems, including institutions, instead of dealing only with institutions. There also is an urgent necessity to build international governance concerning water, food, energy, resources and radioactive contamination. For agricultural operators in particular, food self-sufficiency is most important for security as well, and therefore the vision and system on which the primary industry can be established are of importance. Food and water are fundamental to human beings, and priority should be given to the building of the system that can safeguard the bare-minimum livelihood. The five options presented by the U.N. Environment Program (UNEP) indicate only the broad direction and are not necessarily adequately specific proposals, making the comparative evaluation of the options fundamentally difficult. What is necessary at the present stage is to give more concrete shape to the five options. For example, there could be a variety of ways to strengthen the UNEP, the U.N. Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and the U.N. Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD). Since the five options are all related to reform of the U.N. organizational structure, it is likely to take considerable time to implement them and their effects emerge only over the medium and long term. U.N. reform can be expected to be effective only when it is carried out in tandem with appropriate measures taken not only by national governments and international organizations but also at multi levels involving regions, states, localities and all other stakeholders. Theoretically, the five options are not mutually exclusive. For example, the establishment of the World Environmental Organization (WEO), one of the options, and reform at ECOSOC and the CDS can be supported at the same time. Also, post-reform ECOSOC can be converted into an umbrella organization for sustainable development, for instance, into the Sustainable Development Council (SDC) as already discussed. The functional strengthening of the UNEP can include the conversion of the UNEP into the WEO in the future. Criteria for evaluation of the specific options should not be limited to the facilitation of sustainable development but also give importance to efficiency. It is also necessary to take the political feasibility into account. Regarding the strengthening or turning into a specialized agency of the UNEP, there were opinions that it would be wrong to believe that turning the UNEP into a specialized agency would solve everything and reform of the UNEP should focus on making existing programs, for example, economic and social development policy, chiefly environment-oriented and the enhancement of environmental assessment and public awareness-related activities, leaving capacity-building to other more suitable organizations, while others argued that the strengthening of the UNEP should take precedence or that the functions of the WEO should be clarified. 3.2.2 Specific Proposals Concerning the International and Domestic Organizational and Institutional Frameworks for Sustainable Development Promotion of environmental policy integration (EPI) for sustainability: In order to enhance the synergy effects between environmental and development policies and their implementation, further efforts should be exerted at national levels. Environmental policy integration (EPI) for sustainability is one of effective methods. This represents a deliberate attempt to give precedence to environmental conservation before exchange conditions arise between environmental, economic and social goals. In particular, what is needed is a system based on the ?principle of complementarily? where the policy integration by local governments that can present specific proposals on problems for which policies should be integrated is welcomed and respected. Adjustments between conventions: Systems are segmented under many multilateral conventions, etc., and adjustments between them are insufficient. Most environment-related conventions are regional conventions that have different memberships, and it is deemed difficult to make adjustments between them. As for global conventions (such as the Chemicals Convention, the Convention on Biodiversity and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna), cooperation among their respective Secretariats is proceeding, and such an approach is more realistic. Strengthening of the partnership between the United Nations and Bretton Woods and other institutions: U.N. agencies need to strengthen the partnership with international institutions that are promoting international cooperation for sustainable development. Strengthening of the monitoring function: It is necessary to strengthen the check and balance function by citizens regarding sustainable development. As for radioactive contamination, it is necessary to strengthen specialized international institutes, including NGOs, with the functions of monitoring internal exposure and other health damage from radioactive contamination and the environment and presenting recommendations. Promotion of the bottom-up approach: What is being fundamentally questioned in the institutional frameworks is the leadership. Instead of placing expectations on the leadership provided by a specific country, what could be considered is the direction of enhancing the status of governance by people who can offer effective solutions to problems through, among others, the bottom-up approach (at the levels of local governments, NGOs, business corporations and industries, and regions). Building of the multilevel governance: Global standards are being developed by the clout of multi-stakeholders, rather than under decisions by the heads of state or intergovernmental agencies (Example: ISO16000). Multilevel governance that can cover the whole range of areas is important. Building of a system that encourages corporate reform: It is necessary to build a mechanism that can promote responsible investment by business corporations. Systems that promote corporate social responsibility (CSR), such as environmental accounting, etc., are important, and the U.N. Global Compact can be commended as the first step. Strengthening of compliance and enforcement of laws: Laws and regulations reflecting unique conditions of respective countries are one of very important tools to put policies related to the environment and development into action. Without effective compliance and enforcement of these laws and regulations, policy measures designed for human health and sustainable development would be doomed to failure. It is important to continuously strengthen compliance and enforcement of relevant laws in regions, states and local governments through the sharing of developed countries? best practices by developing countries, etc. To that end, the capacity building for law enforcement by developing countries and international support are essential. Building of a funding mechanism for ensuring sustainable development: In order to enhance the effectiveness of institutions involved in sustainable development, ensuring the additional financing and effective utilization of existing funds is of great importance. National governments need to beat their brains and build a funding mechanism for ensuring sustainable development. Enhancement of private-sector participation: As we cannot hope for much increase in contributions to the United Nations, it is important to incorporate business corporations into the framework in order to make good use of private-sector funds for sustainable development, for example, to extract funds from global corporations. It is also necessary to further transmit specific environmental activities (best practices) of business corporations globally. While there already exist mechanisms to appropriately monitor and keep close tabs on activities of global corporations in some areas (for example, the Bank for International Settlements), such mechanisms are necessary in all areas related to sustainable development. Building the governance structure with stronger local autonomy in mind: With the clear recognition that local governments (big cities, in particular) are major players in climate policy measures and that local governments rich in natural resources are major players in biodiversity policies, the governance structure that reflects these facts must be built up. It is necessary to urge local governments for proactive actions and establish the new function of supporting and facilitating international cooperation between local governments. We should consider how to position international networks of local governments and big cities, such as the ICLEI-Local Governments for Sustainability (ICLEI) and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group (C40), and we should also allow local governments? access to environmental and climate funding programs of the World Bank, regional development banks, the Global Environmental Facility (GEF), Climate Investment Funds (CIF) and the Green Climate Fund (GCF), and programs for utilization of know-how of advanced local governments, in order to support international cooperation between local governments. Integration with policies to promote gender equality: As gender equality and empowerment of women are essential to promote sustainable development, it is necessary to promote institutional mechanism to enhance collaboration among the organizations and divisions that are responsible for gender equality and sustainable development. Establishment of a new global convention: As a specific proposal, we should consider the establishment of a regional or global convention that put into action the ideas in line with Principles 10 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and the ensuing Aarhus Convention developed by the U.N. Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). It would give legal authority access to information by citizens and citizen groups, and promote accountability and dialogue with stakeholders by effectively realizing multilevel governance. Promotion of forecast science for enhancing responsiveness to variability: In order to enhance responsiveness to variability and reduce the uncertainty concerning social systems in the dynamically changing global environment, proactively promote the Global Forecast Service. The accurate understanding about regional impacts of such fundamental problems as climate change, biodiversity and water can lead us to government policy planning and better disaster prevention particularly in developing counties. That scientific information on the earth is offered in an easy-to-understand and open manner and provides multi-stakeholders with the real beginning of key solutions to global environmental issues. This will be made possible with the networks of Japanese universities and research institutions taking the initiative and business corporations offering technologies. It is also important to establish places for sharing scientific knowledge about disasters (including health hazards) and exchanging views. 4. Member of the Japanese National Preparatory Committee for Rio +20 [UNDESA/DSD: Please download the original document to see this Table]