Japanese Stakeholders for the Promotion of Sustainable Development
- Date submitted: 31 Oct 2011
- Stakeholder type: Major Group
- Name: Japanese Stakeholders for the Promotion of Sustainable Development
- Submission Document: Download
Full SubmissionThe Japanese National Preparatory Committee for Rio +20 and its Activities Given UN Resolution 64/236, the Japanese National Preparatory Committee for Rio +20 was established on Wednesday, July 13, 2011 as a voluntary gathering of a wide range of stakeholders with an interest in Rio +20, including the 9 major groups mentioned in Agenda 21, in order to promote dialogue for Rio +20 between stakeholders in Japan. The co-Chairs of the Japanese National Preparatory Committee for Rio +20 were selected at its first meeting on July 13, 2011. The Japanese National Preparatory Committee for Rio +20 hosted workshops with the purpose of sharing information and exchanging views on the issues of Rio +20 to reflect a wide range of Japanese stakeholders? input in the preparation of the zero draft of the Rio+20 outcome document. The opinions and recommendations of the Japanese National Preparatory Committee for Rio +20 are summarized below in this proposal. Key Messages from Japanese Stakeholders Expecting Political Commitments to Develop a Sustainable International Society for the 21st Century Our Lessons learned from Experiences from the Great East Japan Earthquake, Tsunami, and the subsequent Nuclear Power Plant Accident The global environment has, despite great efforts, deteriorated in the 20 years since the Rio Summit was held, while the global economy and most regional economies are floundering. We believe that now is the time to take action in cooperation with the peoples of the world so that future generations are not exposed to significant environmental risks or ecological crises and can live a comfortable and healthy life. Amidst this backdrop, people live in Japan experienced the unprecedented Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami and subsequent nuclear power accident in March 2011. During the reconstruction process, Japan is striving to build a resilient society that is considerate of the local environment, economy, society and cultural values. Japan has also received massive amounts of assistance for its reconstruction effort from countries around the world. We sincerely appreciate this international assistance. Based on the lessons learned during the reconstruction process in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake we, Japanese multi-stakeholders convey the following message for Rio +20. All countries that use nuclear power as well as international society must learn from this accident and take fundamental measures to strengthen nuclear power safety. Reviews concerning the future direction of nuclear power and shifts to renewable energy policy should be held with participation from a wide range of domestic and international actors. In addition, radioactive contamination spread from the nuclear power accident has polluted foodstuff, water, the ocean and soil, threatened economic activities and the sound daily life of the people, and has forced local residents to evacuate their homes. This experience has taught us that 21st century society must be firmly grounded in systems that ensure environmental conservation and ecosystem services, which form critical infrastructure that is at the very heart of human survival. The spirit of transnational and trans-regional gKyoujyo (mutual assistance)h illustrated in the wake of the earthquake and tsunami represents the exact stance required to build a sustainable society. Japan would like to provide as reference to the discussions on sustainable development in Rio +20 the example of ggreen reconstruction1h in which the sustainable use of natural capital2 has been used as part of the earthquake reconstruction effort that is seeking to quickly restore the core industries of the disaster-affected areas, including agriculture, forestry and fisheries, while balancing biodiversity conservation with development, based on the traditions and culture of these local areas. Japan retains energy saving, environmentally sound and recycling technologies that are among the best in the world today and also has a track record of social systems such as the energy efficiency top-runner approach and the pledge and review system. There is also the fact that Japanese earthquake-resistant technologies, safety management systems, and disaster prevention measures also functioned during the Great East Japan Earthquake, as evidenced by Shinkansen bullet trains stopping safely as well as earthquake resistance technologies and safety management practices in high-rise buildings living up to their potential. We would like to further improve Japanese world-leading technologies and supporting social systems, further deepen understanding, diffusion and capacity building both in Japan and internationally, and, by doing so, make contributions to the development of a sustainable world. We Japanese Stakeholders Expect the Following Political Commitments to be Adopted as the Outcome of Rio +20 1) Add culture as the fourth pillar of sustainable development and promote multi-layered initiatives: In order to develop a sustainable global community in the 21st century, we must attain a uniform sustainability based on multifaceted and multilayered relationships as well as add culture to the other pillars of the environment, economy and society. We need to learn from the wisdom and traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples and history rooted in local communities and the countries, such as, for example, actions embodied by the Japanese term gMottainaih or the spirit of the indigenous Ainu people that deeply reveres nature, as well as value cultural diversity and work together with the many different stakeholders that make up the global community while respecting one another. The promotion of above-mentioned multilayered initiatives is essential for sustainable development. 2) Promote sustainable development under social justice and steadfast principles: The principles that should be shared by all peoples and countries of the world are essential to the realization of a sustainable society. Specifically, these principles include respect for human rights as set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the achievement of social justice across generations, genders and regions, control of the law, the disclosure of public information to the public, promotion of participation of women, children, youth and other socially vulnerable groups in the policy making processes, the assurance of transparency in policy formulation, implementation, oversight and evaluation, the decentralization of power and local sovereignty, the polluter-pays principle and the beneficiaries-pay principle, the establishment of decision-making rules based on scientific knowledge incorporating precautionary principles, and in particular the need for thorough, multifaceted screening of existing and new technologies. 3) Stabilize the economic infrastructure needed for sustainable development as soon as possible: In order to achieve sustainable development globally and eradicate poverty, we need to build a sound economy within the capacity of the current / future global environment, as well as make the transition from currently battered global economy to a new stable growth path as soon as possible. To that end, it is essential to rectify the skewed international distribution of capital, resolve, in particular, domestic fiscal deficits and balance of international balance of payments , as well as internationally regulate speculative money that has brought about disorder in international financial markets and unjustly inflated the international price of crude oil and mineral resources, which are the cornerstones of economic and industrial activities, as well as foodstuff essential to the daily life of humankind. 4) Develop a system internationally to conserve the natural environment and utilize natural capital in a sustainable manner: The globalization-driven competition for/exploitation of resources such as fossil fuels, mineral resources, fishery resources, water resources and forest resources has, depending on the region, amplified diplomatic tension between countries as well as the threat of armed conflict. In addition, the deterioration of natural capital is progressing due to the climate change and loss of biodiversity. In aiming to conserve the natural environment and utilize natural capital in a sustainable manner, biodiversity conservation on a worldwide scale (specifically, the achievement of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets), respect for the decision-making process of local communities, a major shift to lifestyles of sustainable consumption, and the establishment of sustainable production structures that make the production of environmentally and economically balanced products and services mainstream are desirable. In addition, with regard to the utilization of natural capital, there is also a proposal to use natural capital3 based on the gUser Recovery Principleh and we expect that discussions surrounding this proposal will broadened. 5) Build a system in recognition of diverse values where all people can equally participate and collaborate: Together with reviewing and exploring a possibility to expand the major groups of Agenda 21, it will be important for all major groups and other stakeholders, while avoiding a dichotomy in each country and international society, to reaffirm their individual roles for sustainable development and transfer this reaffirmation into action based on deeper awareness of diverse values and perspectives achieved through multi-stakeholder dialogue. Governments must also recognize this importance and quickly push forward with building an environment to strengthen multi-stakeholder-led international collaboration and cooperation frameworks. These same efforts are required at the intergovernmental level as well. We Japanese Stakeholders Recommend the Following Policy Measures to Build a Sustainable Global Community We Japanese Stakeholders recommend the following policy measures for all countries to implement for achieving the aforementioned domestic and international policy targets on a global scale. i) New energy vision required for the 21st century and the mechanisms to guarantee this vision (a) Enhance energy and resource efficiency, encourage R&D on technologies for renewable energies, such as biomass, geothermal, small hydroelectric, (expand) existing hydroelectric, photovoltaic (sunlight), concentrated solar heat, and wind power; maximize use and utilization of renewable resources; and, implement the necessary policies (subsidies, tax benefits, consortiums, international collaboration, etc). (b) Promote international policy initiatives to disseminate the best available technologies and best practices throughout the world. (c) Enhance nuclear power safety based on international standards, including reviews of the appropriate timing for decommissioning reactors, and ensure the proper disposal of nuclear waste. In addition, there are different opinions on the future of nuclear power, calling for a quick and planned exit or leaveing nuclear power open as an option. ii) Promotion of low-carbon and sound material-cycle and biodiversity considering city and urban planning based on the unique characteristics and initiatives of local communities (d) Promote related local government measures (land use, construction, transportation, energy, etc.) to create the above city. (e) Use IT and advanced technologies hat have a minimal impact on the environment. (f) Build a sound material-cycle urban society through the advanced use of resources. (g) Promote local production for local consumption. Encourage cooperation between producing and consuming areas of food, water and energy producing areas and consuming areas, as well as support intercity cooperation both domestically and internationally to promote technology transfers. (h) Develop partnerships with the national government to undertake above-mentioned policy measures ((d)-(g)) iii) Mechanisms to ensure employment and economic stability aimed at establishing a stable economic infrastructure (i) Increase the number of jobs that contribute to the environment and biodiversity (green jobs) and implement job-creation measures in conjunction with the shift in industrial structure (just transition). (j) Build mechanisms for increasing the employment of men and women, especially young people at small and medium-sized businesses, social enterprises, and in underdeveloped regions. (k) Promote measures to address the future rapid transition to an aging society in developed countries and most countries in Asia (tax and financial benefits for increasing the employment of senior citizens, etc.). iv) Promotion of the UN Decade on Biodiversity, attainment of mainstream biodiversity and revitalization of agricultural, fishing, and mountain villages (l) Share good practices from around the world in terms of conserving and recovering ecosystems, using biological resources in a sustainable manner, the fair and equal distribution of benefits resulting from the use of genetic resources, providing appropriate monetary resources and encouraging capacity building. (m) Implement appropriate policies effectively and make biodiversity mainstream through policy linkages based on biodiversity and the dissemination of the meaning and value of biodiversity as well as take a precautionary approach to decision making. (n) Help agricultural, fishing, and mountain villages facing economic difficulties to recover and appropriately manage their natural resources of agricultural, fishing, and mountain villages. (o) Promote the multifaceted use, appropriate control and sustainable management of forests. v) Continual implementation of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development and establishment of mechanisms that encourage active and responsible actions by consumers (p) Develop human resources through the promotion of school education, social education, and training in business companies based on the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (Decade of ESD) and formulate a concrete action plan to be implemented after the Decade of ESD. (q) Promote civic education for consumers to encourage responsible and active actions that lead to a shift in industrial structure as well as develop information to support this. Develop mechanisms to prevent greenwash, such as receiving evaluations from third-parties. vi) Develop and implement tools such as indicators that support new approaches to sustainable development (r) (p) Evaluate the contributions of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and compile a roadmap to achieve an international consensus/realization of development targets and indicators for 2015. (s) Develop indicators to measure the quality of life and social justice as a substitute for conventional GDP growth indicators. (t) Establish sustainability indicators that include natural capital stock, resource productivity and reproduction speed. (u) Promote a mainstream shift to a low-carbon industrial structure where the production of services, products, environmentally sound technologies, and zero waste contribute to the conservation and recovery of the natural environment. Support technological innovation such as the wider application of IT to achieve this. (v) Develop regions based on local production for local consumption, and help maintain and innovate traditional cultures and arts. vii) Implement innovative financial mechanisms that provide the necessary funding to those in need (w) Offer tax incentives and preferential treatment in financial services to small and medium-sized businesses and regions with delayed development. (x) Give priority to the distribution of investment capital that contributes directly or indirectly to poverty reduction and sustainable development. (y) Secure funding for sustainable development through greening of finance. viii) Disseminate environmentally sound technologies and products throughout the world (z) Promote the mutual transfer of appropriate environmentally sound technologies (based upon the consent of local communities). (aa) Incorporate environmentally sound production technologies, products and services into the social system of countries (use of eco point and top-runner programs). Progress since the Rio Earth Summit and Remaining Challenges 20 years have passed since the first Rio Earth Summit. Since then, the Cold War ended, the world entered the 21st century, emerging economics countries have risen to the forefront, and globalization has progressed. As a result, the structure of the world system has undergone significant change. Following the 1992 Earth Summit, the intensification of globalization and global market competition in world trade, foreign direct investment and the capital markets has accelerated the movement of people, goods, capital and information as well as had both positive and negative effects on a worldwide scale. The result of globalization has been robust economic growth, yet in developed country and developing country alike the number of hungry is increasing sharply due to a rise in the unemployed, in particular the rise in the unemployment rate among youth, and soaring food prices. In the two decades since the first Rio Earth Summit, the East Asia and Pacific Regions have drastically increased income levels and significantly improved education, water and sanitation thanks to direct investments from foreign countries and an increase in exports. On the other hand, however, income and regional disparities within each of these countries have grown more serious, while mainly Africa and least developed countries have been left behind from the globalization of the world economy due to poverty, low levels of social development and the lack of infrastructure development. Furthermore, the world faces serious challenges on a worldwide scale never seen before that include the deterioration and loss of biodiversity on a worldwide scale, a squeeze on energy and natural resources as well as the degradation of the environment, each in conjunction with the rapid urbanization and economic growth taking place around the world, climate change and the increase in greenhouse gas emissions. The Rio Declaration, Johannesburg Declaration and action plans have been announced in order to address these global issues, but the progress of each has been significantly delayed. On the other hand, the MDGs have been established, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity enforced, and the frameworks of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification Particularly in Africa, United Nations Forum on Forests and the WSSD Type II partnership model set up. Initiatives such as the Decade of ESD and the UN Decade on Biodiversity have also been launched, illustrating that perspectives on social development have grown more emphasized compared to 20 years ago. Yet, sufficient monitoring and evaluations are not taking place today. Therefore, international and domestic monitoring and evaluation systems need to be strengthened going forward. (a) International economy: Globalization has resulted in a structure where the economic crisis of one country can rapidly lead to an world economic crisis. The global financial crisis that 7 reverberated around the world following the Lehman Shock in 2008 showed that the results of efforts toward sustainable development made by all countries are greatly impacted by external factors. Furthermore, turmoil in financial markets is negatively affecting the real economy. (b) Poverty: According to the UN MDG Report 2011, the global poverty rate is expected to decline to under 15% by the year 2015, which achieve the MDG target of 23%. Although significant improvements were seen in East Asia and Latin America, more than half of the population in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa remain stuck in poverty. Specifically, the impacts from soaring food and energy prices as well as climate change has caused the living situation of people live in poverty to become even more grave. (c) Health Care: Improvements in the health of the poorest children have lagged behind in particular. According to a UN MDG Report, nearly one quarter of all children in developing countries were underweight in 2009, with the condition of the poorest children the most serious. Children from the poorest households in developing countries are more than two times as likely as children from the most affluent households to die before their fifth birthday (d) Sustainable Consumption and Production: Visible advancements have been seen in sustainable consumption and production in developed countries thanks to the development of 3R-related legal systems in Japan and Europe, the development of designs for the environment (DfE), designs for recycling (DfR) and recycling-related technologies as well as awareness-raising activities. In particular, consumer activities geared toward resource saving and environmental conservation perspectives are steadily growing, having been fostered through consumer education, such as providing and illuminating correct information concerning the effects (merits and demerits) consumer activities have on environmental and urban issues. In contrast, in developing countries production and consumption has increased sharply on the back of economic growth, which has caused huge amounts of waste and resulted in the greater consumption of resources. (e) Climate Change: A certain degree of progress was made with technology transfers to developing countries and the requirement of greenhouse reductions by developed countries after the Kyoto Protocol came into effect. Despite the establishment of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change at the Rio Earth Summit based on the awareness of the need to urgently take measures against climate change, however, negotiations and efforts under the Kyoto Protocol and the Convention have lagged. Other issues have arisen such as the United States refusal to ratify the Kyoto Protocol, even though it is the worldfs second largest emitter of CO2 emissions from energy use, or the sharp increase in greenhouse gas emissions from the economic development of emerging countries such as China.the worldfs largest emitter. With demand heightening for the promotion of worldwide efforts, a new framework must be built based on emerging issues. Climate changes have also progressed around the world, with countermeasures fast becoming an urgent issue. 8 (f) Biodiversity: The Convention on Biological Diversity has grown to 193 members, while the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety has been developed (Nagoya-Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol on Liability and Redress to Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety were adopted in October 2010) and the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets concerning biodiversity conservation have been agreed upon. Japan, in particular as Chair of the Convention on Biological Diversity by next COP, retains the responsibility to promote efforts itself. However, global assessments, such as the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Global Biodiversity Outlook indicate that the situation surrounding biodiversity is still deteriorating. (g) Water and Sanitation: Global water problems have grown more serious after the start of the 21st century due to climate change, urbanization, population increases and the deforestation and forest degradation that help cultivate water resources. Massive droughts, declining groundwater levels, lake pollution and water sanitation are causing human suffering. The worldfs population has grown by 3.7 times over the past 100 years, but water demand has grown by some 7 times over this same period. Water and sanitation are the basic human right of all people and represent basic infrastructure for gender equality, education and preventing epidemics, yet there are many countries in Africa, the Middle East and Asia where the outlook indicates difficulty in attaining the MDGs. (h) Forests: Forest issues vary from one country to another,. while individuals are less aware of the mutual relationships involving these issues. We welcome the efforts of countries and international organizations at all levels, as well as international initiatives for promoting sustainable forest management based on the gnon-legally binding instrument on all types forestsh (NLBI) and the Multi-Year Program of Work (MYPOW) passed at the UN General Assembly in January 2008. However, we are deeply alarmed by the continuing loss of 13 million hectares of forests with multi-functionality per year due to land-use change, forest fires, natural disasters, and illegal logging. Based on awareness that forest deforestation and forest degradation are closely related to global issues in the three Rio Conventions, the efforts of the international society are required to reverse this trend. (i) Hazardous Chemical Substances and Hazardous Wastes: Regulations on the use of hazardous substances in electrical and electronic devices have been tightened over the past several years, as progress has been made in reducing the use of hazardous substances in these devices. However, developing countries have yet to create a legal framework and governing structure for recycling, and reports have been made about health hazards occurring as a result of improper recycling practices. Many developing countries have achieved rapid economic growth without sufficiently developing monitoring systems for the processing of hazardous waste, with this disposal fast becoming an issue in these countries. Furthermore, Japanfs recent nuclear power accident has brought the issues surrounding the final treatment and disposal of spent 9 nuclear fuel into the spotlight. (j) Energy: The expansion of rural electrification and decentralized energy systems incorporated into the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation remain as before as issues. While advancements have been made in the use of renewable energy in certain developed countries and developing countries, most countries continue to face challenges in increasing their use. In addition, many issues remain that need to be examined in order to promote the greater use of renewable energy, including the proper speed of this promotion as well as the scale of costs and approaches to defraying these costs, while also anticipating use will be expanded over the long term. In addition, with regard to the assessment of nuclear power, which had been seen as a prized energy source due to increasing energy consumption, the exhaustion of fossil fuels and climate change, opinions will largely differ among stakeholders regarding future approaches concerning its use. (k) Women and Gender: Womenfs employment opportunities remain limited, a large income disparity by gender remains, and women are the majority of the poor both in developing and developed countries and it continues to be a major issue. In addition, gender equality has not achieved in terms of education and capacity building and, especially, participation in decision making. (l) Childrenfs and Youth Education: The fact that the enrolment rate for primary education.one of the MDG targets.increased significantly shows that MDG targets are attainable where there is a strong political will and funding arrangements are available. On the other hand, however, we need to note that 76 million children do not enjoy primary education. Under the Decade of ESD, there was a rise in the number of countries that had begun to incorporate ESD into their national education policies and curricula especially for primary and secondary education, as well as sustainable development and environmental strategies. Yet there are still many countries where specific ESD policies or strategies are not in place and dissemination of ESD is an issue. On the other hand, actors do exist that fulfill the function of education and raising awareness- in a variety of forms outside formal education, but analysis and assessment of these actors remains inadequate. We must reaffirm the importance of adult and lifelong education, and take comprehensive actions to improve linkages and cooperation among ESD, school education, and social education. (m) Rights of Indigenous Peoples: The rights of indigenous peoples were greatly furthered at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. This was illustrated, for example, by the fact that the Convention on Biological Diversity clearly specified Indigenous and Local Communities (ILCs). At the UN General Assembly in 2007, the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) was historically adopted, and it clearly stipulated that the inherent fundamental freedom and human rights of indigenous peoples shall be respected on the basis of international law. In Japan, the House of Representatives and House of Councilors in 2008 recognized the Ainu people as an indigenous people in Japan. A report issued in 2011 by the Experts Committee on Approaches to Ainu Policy, which was set up by the Japanese government in 2009, stated, gFuture Ainu policy should be developed based on the recognition that the Ainu people are an indigenous people and that the government bears a deep responsibility to promote their culture, and grounded in the Constitution of Japan.the supreme law of the nation.and the meaning of the UN DRIP as a general guideline for policy approaches to indigenous peoples.h (n) Measures against Natural Disasters: The UN International Strategy on Disaster Reduction was established to carry on the activities of the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction from the 1990s, while the UN World Conference on Disaster Reduction adopted the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) 2005 to 2015 and the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction was set up to effectively and efficiently promote the HFA. This indicates that a framework has been built for international cooperation in the face of natural disasters. On the other hand, as illustrated in the Global Review of Disaster Reduction Initiatives 2011, we have once again recognized that we must build an agile and strong society that can respond to natural disasters in order to cope with gemerging vulnerabilitiesh derived from the complexity of technologies and mutual dependence found in todayfs society, such as the gcomplex disasterh of earthquake, tsunami and subsequent nuclear power accident that occurred as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake. (o) Funding Sources and Funding Mechanisms: Excluding certain countries in Europe, other countries around the world will likely be unable to achieve the target of ODA totalling 0.7% of GNI by the year 2015. At the Gleneagles Summit, Japan promised to increase its ODA spending between 2005 and 2009 by 10 billion dollars compared to 2004 levels, but its poor economy, stringent budgetary restrictions, large repayments of ODA loans from some debtor countries, and a lack of political will has meant that its current ODA spending has fallen 3.6 billion dollars below the pledged amount. (p) Employment and Labour: The global financial crisis that begun in 2008 has provided a widespread impact on vulnerable areas such as youth, the elderly, and minority groups, depriving them of many employment opportunities. It is absolutely necessary to create stable, quality jobs to fundamentally improve the global jobs crisis. In June 2009, the International Labor Conference adopted the gGlobal Jobs Pacth. The deteriorating quality in employment must be revitalized while also seeking the formation of new global governance, amplifying both multilayered and enterprising job polices as well as social safety nets, and surveying the expansion of what is considered gDecent Workh(the availability of employment in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity). Furthermore, in addition to the specific issues listed above, existing conventions are not being challenged. In fact, dilemmas found within the agenda itself are also becoming predominant. For example, the bio-fuel promotion policy put forth by Europe and the United States as a greenhouse gas reduction policy triggered an inflow of speculative money, which had lost its bearings following the Lehman Shock, into the futures market. This incited a worldwide price increase for food and as a result placed pressure on the lives of the poor. In order to offer global solutions, Japan has also moved forward with various initiatives. The Japanese government proposed the gUnited Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Developmenth at Rio+10 in 2002, illustrating the notion of providing security for human beings4 that it recognized to be necessary during the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis. Japan contributed funding, technologies and human resources for the development of Asian countries.. This resulted in a measure of legitimacy from other countries. On the other hand, because of the recent economic downtown and a lack of political will, Japan has yet to achieve the internationally agreed goal of allocating 0.7% of GNI to ODA spending. 1.2 Emerging issues 1.2.1 Emerging issues of the World We are under pressure to address emerging issues as well. Particularly important issues include energy, food security (the stable supply of food, the issue of genetically modified food), responses to natural disasters, sustainable urban development, and the advancement of aging societies and depopulation. (a) Increase in Global Energy Demands: With energy demands rising globally and the progress of climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions, we need to implement a shift in an energy supply system that is overly dependent on fossil fuels. (b) Water and Food SecurityiStable Supply of Water and Foodj:The increase in drought occurrences around the world is a further indication of the effects of climate change. As speculative money is causing a chain reaction that affects food prices on a worldwide scale, there is growing apprehension conflict occurring between countries over food. Humankind is faced with the issue of ensuring food security throughout the world. Water is an invaluable, fundamental right for the existence of humanity and it is the most basic element for the infrastructure needed for the sustainable development of society. Many countries which are experiencing conflict and destabilization over water should resolve these issues with regional security as their top priority. While areas where food is supplied and where food is consumed undergo globalization and the escalation of food prices by areas plagued by drought have a pervasive effect on the entire globe, not only do water conflicts that arise between areas become an issue, but global security is becoming an issue as well in what is turning into a competitive scramble between countries over food. Water and food security is becoming an even more difficult issue to face as droughts and the degradation of groundwater levels occurs around the world due to excessive water intake caused by climate change, mass consumption, urbanization and population expansion. (c) Response to the Large Number of Natural Disasters: Not only the Great East Japan Earthquake but a rash of natural disasters are occurring around world. There is apprehension that such devastation is spreading due to the impact of climate change. Developed countries are at the forefront of amassing countermeasures against natural disasters, and it is important to disseminate and share this knowledge with the rest of the world. (d) Concentration of Populations in Cities and Growing Demands for Urban Infrastructure: At present, urban populations have already risen to over half of the global population and by 2050 this will rise to 70%. Urban areas are consuming 67% of the worldfs energy and by 2030 this will increase to as high as 74%. In developing and emerging countries, urban construction is progressing at fast pace, producing one megacity after another. However, architectural structures and urban infrastructure being built today will sequester carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption over the next several decades. A huge amount of urban construction and low carbon demands will drive a green economy forward and lead to the expansion of green jobs. (e) Furthering the Needs of New, Sustainable Urban Development: Rural populations moving into urban areas and the growth of populations in cities are increasing at a rapid pace. The emission of greenhouse gas is increasing as urban development and economic activities become more widespread. Therefore, we need urban redevelopment and development programs that are more compact and have less energy consumption. In cities, residences, transportation, and energy supplementation are transforming into more sustainable models. There needs to be a global push for sustainable cities to present how urban development can exist in balance with nature. (f) The Progression of Depopulation and Aging Society: Considering the long-term, aging societies, such as Japan is facing, could gradually become global issues as well. As populations increase, the world will move toward an aging society and we must anticipate new ways to respond. Young people will most likely be the ones to move into cities as described above, so it is conceivable that aging societies will spread in agricultural and mountain regions throughout the world. (g) Constraints due to the Rapid Deterioration and Depletion of Natural Capital: Humanity is ushering in the depletion and degradation of natural capital in exchange for the rapid accumulation of industrial and financial capital. As a result, the rarity of these forms of capital has flip-flopped comparatively, especially in recent years with developed and emerging 13 countries at the heart of a sharp rise in global consumption, wherein the amount of available natural capital per capita is decreasing while being surpassed by the increasing pace of consumption. At this current development pattern, we fear that the world population will no longer be able to support itself by the time it reaches 9 billion. Consequently, we face the urgent task of raising collective awareness among all people based on the need that we discover the extent of the constraints we must subject ourselves to due to the depletion and degradation of our natural capital, as well as the nature of the content, speed, and scale of changes we must make to our development pattern. With international society entering the 21st century in this manner, we need to address prompt resolutions for such deep global issues. We are attempting to resolve these various issues by pushing gsustainable developmenth forward, but in order to do so we need to consider how gdevelopmenth became gunsustainable.h More specifically, the major premise for measures going forward must answer our own questions in a calm and humble manner to both discover the cause for the rise of gover-developmenth and gmal-developmenth and to formulate appropriate countermeasures. In order to construct a sustainable society, we must be compelled to prepare the world stage to face new emerging issues that have not been foreseen during the Rio Earth Summit. 1.2.1 Issues for a the Developed Country of Japan and the Great East Japan Earthquake Issues for the Developed Country of Japan Japan is as gForerunner of Emerging Issues5h facing such as an aging society and newly emerging problems with the environment and energy, many of which are new issues that other countries have yet to experience. While Japan is working to resolve these issues, it is also under pressure to formulate a long-term vision to reach a future ideal of sustainable development to form a gsustainable society.h The Great East Japan Earthquake The Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on March 11, 2011 once again called into question what constitutes a gsustainable society.h On March 11, 2011, Japan experienced one of the worldfs worst natural disasters: a 9.0 magnitude earthquake noted as the fourth largest earthquake recorded in the worldfs history; a 40.5m high tsunami which is the tallest ever recorded in Japanese history. We did not expected such big scale of the tsunami therefore roughly 20,000 people either died or went missing in the wake of the giant wave, extensive environmental and social damage was incurred from the diffusion of nuclear substances in the environment by a nuclear power plant accident, which was later determined to be a level 7 on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). Even now, many afflicted people have little choice but to reside in temporary housing and the reconstruction process following the Great East Japan Earthquake is becoming a considerable challenge for the nation. Experiencing the nuclear power accident has led us to question the overconfidence Japanese society had felt toward our mass consumption of energy, our lifestyles, and our technologies. On the other hand, we must also recognize the fact that, during the Great East Japan Earthquake, the bullet trains performed perfect emergency stops to prevent large accidents, most of the high-rise buildings remained standing, and Japanfs earthquake countermeasure not all but many technologies proved effective. Currently in Japan, people from all over the country are acting warm-heartedly, without looting or rioting, to support the nation in an effort to recover from the earthquake disaster. Amid this, many good practices have emerged thanks to the cooperative efforts of various stakeholders. Local governments and communities, as well as businesses, industries, farmers, labor unions, and cooperatives are making a spirited effort toward reconstruction. NGOs have taken up the role of coordinating by gathering the detailed needs on-site. Youth and children from around the world are working together as volunteers through the NGOs to support reconstruction. Companies and industries are contributing support and making various efforts to restore production activities and the livelihood of their employees as swiftly as possible. Labor unions have been working together on disaster countermeasures, utilizing scale merits to commence rescue and support activities in the disaster area. For example, after the earthquake struck, associations immediately established disaster response headquarters, dispatched advance teams to the disaster areas, collaborated with relevant local associations, secured means of transportation and coordinated local activity centers and shelters. In addition, they administered requests for relief supplies, emergency assistance, and rescue support donations from government bodies, political parties and business federations. Also, a great deal of local governments suffered damage and were unable to offer public services. However, rehabilitation commenced with the unstinting support offered by several other local governments within Japan. Many local governments are endeavoring to conduct reconstruction with the local government as its nucleus while also performing revisions of their damage reconstruction strategy to plan for safe urban development that will ensure that such casualties and property damage never occurs again. In the reconstruction process, we started a lot of activities for sustainable development. The Basic Act on Great East Japan Earthquake Reconstruction (Law No. 76, 2011) and the Basic Guidelines for Reconstruction clearly state the participation of women, elderly, children, and people with disabilities in decision-making process as a basic principle for reconstruction. This enables the needs of vulnerable people to be met. Following the nuclear power accident, Japan is facing a paradigm shift regarding energy. Every single citizen has taken the opportunity to consider anew the importance of the energy problem. Even while opinions are split among stakeholders over whether or not to exit nuclear energy, the general consensus when looking long-term to promote the use of renewable energy with consideration of burden on industries and the people. It should also be noted that Japan could address scarcity of electricity supply in the summer of 2011 by corporate efforts and energy saving actions of citizens. Electricity crisis changed the lifestyles of the people. As addressing the crisis of the disaster and the nuclear power accident, we are taking vital steps for sustainable development as a way to reduce the environmental load by promoting the use of renewable energy and energy conservation. It appears that these experiences for Japan can contribute strongly to the discussion on sustainable development at Rio +20. Several issues have been brought into sharp relief which may serve as a point of reference for the Rio+20 debate on sustainable development, such as reconstruction in the wake of an unprecedented natural disaster, efforts to build anew where so much had been lost, and handling of radioactive contamination from the nuclear accident. 2 Proposal for the Outcome of Rio+20 2.1 Expectations of Rio+20 We believe that many concerned stakeholders in Japan wish to take the opportunity at the Rio+20 to revise the approach for sustainable development, such as the necessity of adding a cultural pillar to existing economic, social, and environmental aspects. It is necessary to review our approach in sustainable development as we keep in mind these changing times. It is especially important to be aware of multiple points of view without becoming too wrapped up in any specific set of values as we to progress with sustainable development by recognizing the difference in values and worldviews of stakeholders involved in the Rio+20 while formulating an ideal model for a sustainable society that may vary in accordance with different locations. The following points listed are of particular importance for the basic approach Japanese stakeholders have in mind for sustainable development: (a) Implement of multi-stakeholder dialogue: Governments should proactively participate in discussions to make the most of this opportunity to work with each stakeholder and give weight to a multi-stakeholder dialogue on both an international and domestic level. The Internet and mailing lists, etc. should be put to practical use in the dialogue in consideration of the silent majority. (b) Respect the views of those whose voices are not loudly echoed within society: An institutional framework for sustainable development must be established through peer study with each stakeholder and by attaining the social participation of citizens. In this regard, we must respect the views of stakeholders whose voices are not weighted within society, such as women, children, minorities, individuals with disabilities, and indigenous peoples. (c) Gender equality: The realization of social justice, including gender equality, must be reaffirmed as a core principle of a sustainable society. The importance of integrating gender perspectives in sustainable development should be clearly addressed in the outcome document of Rio+20. In this regard, equal participation of women in decision-making is vital for sustainable development, so positive actions should be taken to promote it. Gender equality should be ensured when shifting toward renewable and sustainable natural energy use, and the benefits of sustainable energy use should be guaranteed equally between women and men. (d) Global creation that reflects children and youth: The most irreplaceable and precious aspiration for the human race is that we create a peaceful global society where we live together by resolving our issues and sharing a declaration that moves toward mutual knowledge and values. It is future generations who must implement the declarations and promises we make. We need to reflect the views of children and youth in a more positive way and be aware that the issues we are addressing will have a deep impact on the youth of today and the generations that follow. (e) Respect the values and perspectives of indigenous peoples: As we consider development and the future of the environment, we need to place greater importance than we have in the past on the values held by indigenous peoples, such as the Ainu. Those involved in sustainable development must acknowledge that this grim disparity of a priori (bias) exists in peoplefs world views and values. In particular, it is vital that we maintain a sense of fairness and balance so that we will not be over-reliant on the view that sets modern science and market economy above all else. In the time between the UNCED in 1992 and todayfs Rio+20, the United Nations adopted the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in 2007 to strengthen the respect to traditional knowledge and customs6. The countries of the world must respect this declaration of the rights of indigenous peoples in this context. (f) Support the empowerment of local government: There is a necessity to encourage international society to support local governments (institutional back-up) as a way to recognize that the single most vital role for the government is to aspire to shape resilient, low-carbon cities, provide for the conservation of biodiversity, and sustainably develop agricultural and mountain regions for the betterment of society. Stakeholders form accords as they develop a full understanding of overwhelming environmental problems. Advance efforts made by cities and governments push for international agreements as they heighten awareness about green economies and low-carbon societies. In order for the advanced practices of local government to take part internationally, we hope for the foundation of a system that can draw in international support for local government through international societyfs financial assistance for developing countries. (g) Reaffirm the significance of a strong international convention to fully realize the proper care and value of forests: 1.6 billion people, nearly a quarter of the worldfs population, rely on 6Just as in the Ainu proverb that gnothing falls from heaven that does not have its place,h the Ainu people of Japan embrace the idea of showing gratitude and respect toward the intrinsic value of all things for their physicality and attributes, including animals, plants and objects. 17 forests for life, livelihoods, work, and a secure income. With diverse functionality, forests play a key role in handling complex and interlinked global issues in regards to economic and social development, poverty reduction, environmental sustainability, food security and agriculture, energy, water, adaption and mitigation to climate change, the combat against desertification and soil degradation, biodiversity conservation, river basin conservation, and disaster mitigation. In light of this, we must strengthen systems that handle problems affecting forests globally while coordinating with international authorities and a process involving the three Rio Conventions. We must take advantage of the forestsf ability to absorb and accumulate carbon dioxide by promoting sustainable operations, adequate forest management and measures against illegal logging, and measures against deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries. Furthermore, there needs to be systems and mechanisms to improve each individualfs recognition that forest problems differ in each country and that we require a mutually coordinated effort to address such problems. (h) Ensure equal responsibilities and status of all partners: As the world grows ever more diverse, we cannot solve environmental problems if we consider them based on a dichotomy such as north-south problems or between developed and developing countries. If we insist on our opinions from the viewpoint of dichotomy, it will generate alienation with differing viewpoints at a personal level and we will be beleaguered by opposition. To achieve sustainable development, it is important that for stakeholders to understand have an in-depth understanding and care respect each other. It is also needed required to establish rules and environments in which sincere and faithful attitudes are valued. (i) Establish the resolution of environmental problems as a top priority political issue: At the Rio+20, we need to summarize our progress in sustainable development made in Rio and, subsequently, Johannesburg as well. We must confirm what policies exist for the world and countries, and the status of their implementation. We must also confirm that heads of state around the globe are making the resolution of environmental problems a top priority political issue. (j) Reaffirm the role of education: We must set aside the sectionalism among departments and each stakeholder to increase synergies in different areas by restructuring the organizational, institutional, and financial framework that moves across various plans and practices related to gCapacity Building for Sustainable Development.h (For example, ESD, Education for All (EFA), the MDGs, Communication, Education, and Public Awareness (CEPA) activities in various environmental conventions as well as adult education and lifelong learning.) To make these actions more effective, we must reaffirm the importance of the role education will play towards sustainable development and strengthen synergies of these actions. (k) Ensure food security through sustainable agriculture: It is important to establish a food manufacturing system that is focused on biodiversity as well as traditional agriculture and 18 fishing methods that relate to the climates of countries around the world for the sake of food security through sustainable agriculture. (l) Governance and management of natural capital: The inclusion of the governance and management of natural capital in economic propositions is indispensible for the sake of sustainable development. Effective governance must not only be done through government authority but also through the participation and cooperation from a wide spectrum of multi-tiered stakeholders. The people who that are the most cooperative and effective in managing natural capital are the ones who are directly affected by the blessings and disasters that come along with the unique qualities and diverse land and climate of their local environment. Therefore, it is vital that we shift policy maneuvers so that communities have a form of autonomy to help oversee national land. Many stakeholders in Japan think we should re-commit to past declarations in the Rio+20. For example, the Johannesburg Summit contained the assertion that, gWe resolve to swiftly increase access to the basic requirements of clean water, sanitation, adequate housing, energy, healthcare, food security, and the conservation of biodiversity. At the same time, all of us shall work together to consider how to acquire access to financial resources, net profit from market liberalization, ensure capacity building, utilize new technologies to bring about development, and secure methods of technical transfer, human resource development, education, and training for the sake of doing away with underdevelopment for good.h The topic of human resource development in particular upheld the proposal from Japan for the gUnited Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Developmenth that commenced in 2005. Japanese stakeholders offered a proposal to reaffirm the importance of addressing water issues globally, the direction of food rights for independent countries, including developing countries, as extended by the United Nations General Assemblyfs gResolution on the Right to Food,h the FAO World Food Summit, and the World Food Security Committee, and the necessity of education, human resource development, and technology transfers. The nuclear power accident that occurred in Japan is a profound problem that has created a significant catalyst to consider a conversion into a society of sustainable energy. Even within Japan, the topic of denuclearization is subject to a wide range of opinions, such as those who wish to exit nuclear power as soon as possible and those who see no other alternative in our current condition but to be dependent on nuclear power. It is necessary to prepare various data in order for the entire world to reassess all of the risks involved in the development and use of nuclear power. The standards of fairness in competition with other power sources must be brought to light, as well. There is also the view that we should prudently consider an option of promoting locally distributed energy-usage systems, which would entail restructuring of the energy market, rulemaking for structured coalitions, and a review of relevant legal systems. There needs to be a rational and multilateral discussion on the existence of an energy shift, which ensures transparency and the sufficient disclosure of 19 information that is based on fact and logic. Each country should create a mid- to long-term vision that, at its heart, would further the pursuit to streamline renewable energy, energy conservation, and thermal power. Safety should be heightened at nuclear power plants throughout the world by sharing information globally following reviews of safety standards based on a thorough determination of the cause of Japanfs nuclear power accident. We obtained (or may one day learned) expertise and experience about the issues through nuclear power plant countermeasures, such as health care and decontamination, as well as short- and long-term measures following the core meltdown and the radiation leaks that occurred simultaneously. It is notable that we can improve nuclear power management worldwide using the knowledge obtained as assets to be shared globally. Japan wishes to be strongly involved in participating in joint international study initiatives and networks. It has been pointed out how important it is to tie the Rio+20 and the post-2015 targets of MDGs together. Looking back on the past 20 years, it is notable how the development objectives of the MDGs reflect an adequate grasp of the progress made and the issues that remain. It is also notable how this, along with action plans and necessary long-term visions, can work as an appropriate marker of progress while reviewing the post-2015 target of the MDGs. It is important to have a renewed commitment for full collaboration with all affiliated countries aimed at accomplishing the goals of the three Rio Conventions crafted at the Earth Summit (the Convention on Biological Diversity, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, and the International Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification Particularly in Africa). It is agreed upon that the Convention on Biological Diversity, in particular, must reach the Aichi Biodiversity Targets within twenty years, which shall be the year 2020. In addition, the United Nations General Assembly resolved to achieve the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and marked the remaining ten years (2011-2020) as the U N Decade on Biodiversity. It is important that the magnitude of this be noted once more during discussions at the Rio+20. 2.2 Concrete Proposal for Rio+20 Many Japanese stakeholders consider that a common understanding of sustainable development should be included anew in the Rio+20 outcome document, and its essence is stated in the key message at the top of this document. Now, we are required to have a long-term vision of sustainable development and to take concrete actions in accordance with that vision. The proposals from Japanese stakeholders are as follows: a) Proposal for energy: Energy policies are very important for stable economic growth both domestic and overseas, as well as in solving global environmental problems such as climate change. However, it is essential to implement urgent and ambitious measures both for the current and future generations, because it takes quite a long period of time before the effect of implementation can be felt.7 It is expected that each country will set a long-term renewable energy target (e.g. by 2030), and start initiatives and make recommendations to introduce relevant policies and measures to reach their target. Regarding energy supplies, it is necessary to reconsider the total balance of supply and demand, shifting from a policy debate with a supply-side bias to the activation of a policy debate on energy saving at the demand-side (e.g. households and small businesses). In addition, for developing countries where future demand is expected to increase, building a platform for gthinking togetherh is needed, by providing a mechanism for efficient transfer of technologies and know-how for renewable energy. b) Proposal for poverty measures: Realize the security of human rights and empowerment of the poor and vulnerable group of people. In addition, it is necessary to ensure the participation of the citizens of developing countries, especially the poorest, in policy formation, along with the formation of public opinion that supports the idea. By directly approaching poor and vulnerable people, we will form public opinion that supports the implementation of policy that reflects the needs of citizens in developing countries. We should view green economy as ga system that exists by capturing social issues such as poverty alleviation and human rights protectionh and build a process to achieve coexistence, symbiosis, and social justice. c) Proposal for water and sanitation: The water problem is rooted in various factors specific in each region, and to solve this problem, an approach must be selected that is not universal and rational, but delicate and sustainable, appreciating the culture of a particular area. In particular, there is high expectation for local governments in Japan to contribute to developing countries. Difficult problems that developing countries face are the improvement of water and sewage infrastructure, and its operation and maintenance management. In many countries, the central or local government is responsible for the improvement of water infrastructure, its operation and maintenance management, and struggle with the collection of water rates and water leakage problems. The resolution of these water problems requires a maintenance management for the water system as a whole, rather than the latest technologies. Japanese local governments are in the perfect position to respond to this request due to their long term expertise experience in the improvement of water infrastructure and its maintenance and operation. Local government in Japan began the way to the new business of the improvement of water infrastructure and its maintenance and operation in developing countries. Long lasting international contribution is neither mere volunteering nor profit-seeking principle. It is realized over a business with a reasonable profit. Japanese local governments will be the first in the world to carry out this important mission in developing countries, which will have public spirit and be a long run water business. d) Proposal for air quality conservation/climate change: Promise to reach an agreement of a legally binding framework toward the prevention of climate change; after not having realized the agreement in Copenhagen, progress is currently being made on new framework for 2013 and beyond. In the UNFCCC process, we should promise to reach an agreement for fair, ambitious and binding framework, and support the acceleration of UNFCCC negotiation. The sustainability of life on earth is unable to be ensured unless international effort proceeds based on the latest scientific findings and the establishment of an international agreement to climate change measures. Specifically, whether it is developed or developing country, the agreement needs to be reached on the enforcement and a legally binding framework should be adopted as soon as possible for the following points: the responsibility of each country and its significant reduction dependent on each national capacity, financial support, adaptation measures, technology transfer, capacity-building, measures against deforestation and forest degradation for vulnerable developing countries. Sufficient consideration should take place for resilience against serious damages, which could be caused by the extreme climate events associated with climate change that is anticipated to become more serious in the future. In order to achieve this, the Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development (IFSD), which encourages the construction of these societies, is essential. Disclosure of the weather data of each country, which is in progress by the WMO, is also hoped to contribute to the improvement of the predictability of disasters. e) Proposal for the conservation of biodiversity/environment conservation farming and fishery: Towards the achievement of Aichi Biodiversity Targets, the UN Decade on Biodiversity will be actively promoted with the cooperation of the United Nations, international governments and relevant stakeholders. In addition, policy guidance should be made to demonstrate again the characteristic of living with nature traditionally found in the primary industry sector in Japan (environmental conservation agriculture, forestry and fishery); and a new mechanism should be created for agriculturalists, forestry and fishermen who make an effort to follow this direction, as well as their areas, are rewarded through a direct payment system and support from urban residents. f) Proposal for the promotion of agricultureCforestry, and fishery village areas: To promote agriculture forestry, and fishery villages that are stagnating economically, policies that attract human and financial support from urban residents should be developed, creating a revival strategy based on local initiatives using regional natural resources and learning from successful good practices inside and outside the country. The most typical green economy gives meticulous care to the original rich natural resources of the agriculture, forestry and fishery villages using labor-intensive methods, makes production activities economically sustainable, and generates 22 employment. Now, as the depletion of stock resources is becoming a reality, a system design that fundamentally changes the preceded gdevelopment strategyh is required. g) Proposal for strengthening nuclear power safety: Japan aims to share the issues revealed by the accident of the nuclear power plant in Japan with international community as much as possible and prevent further accidents by exchanging information on nuclear power accidents, the risk of radioactive contamination, emergency measures, and permanent measures on a global scale. Simultaneously, there is a need for contributing to the reinforcement of the safety of nuclear power in every country, carrying out the improvement of international cooperation system in case an accident occurs. It is necessary to review and revise the international safety standard based on international scientific research on the adverse effects of radioactivity on human bodies, animals and plants as well as monitoring functions. h) Proposal for achieving gender equality and participation f women: Participation of women in decision-making is essential to respond to the diverse needs. In this context, it is important to provide concrete measures to increase in the participation of women in decision-making, such as, by setting numerical targets with time frame,s incentives, quota systems and cross-compliance. Providing opportunities for capacity building of women is also important to achieve gender equality. i) Proposal for indigenous peoples: The advancement of the rights of indigenous peoples should be the interest of Rio+20. The rights that must be assured include preservation and promotion of the Ainu people including the Ainu language, Ainu culture and religious rights, land right and rights to resources, the rights to education and information, economic and social rights, rights to participation, and the rights to self-determination. These efforts are the responsibility of the Japanese government and these views must be reconfirmed at Rio+20. j) Proposal for children and youth: For the implementation of Rio Declaration, it is essential to realize a global society where everyone is able to receive education as a fundamental human right. Aim to achieve the goal through educational activities for people in every life stage, such as school education, social education, and lifelong learning. It is necessary to promote the above mentioned education in formal, non-formal and informal education through collaborative partnerships between public agencies and NGOs. It is also necessary to significantly increase opportunities for children and youth to express their views and findings in national and local policy making as well as at international conferences . An example of how a child can learn ESD is that recognizing the linkage between local and global issues, a child will carry out such actions that embody the idea of thinking globally and acting locally. Provision of sufficient funds to education sector is also quite important in development countries. k) Proposal for local governments: It has been revealed that active measures by local governments to reduce the environmental impact in cities where population and industries 23 concentrate have brought significant effects; therefore, local governments have an important role to play. However, the need for local governmentsf to address global environmental issues is not yet fully understood. It is important that the international societies clearly requests local governments, such as large cities, to work towards resolving global environmental issues on the basis of outcome document emerging from the Rio+20, in order to encourage more local governments to participate actively. l) Proposal on employment and Trade unions: Establishing the limit of social protection worldwide. It is necessary to clarify the solution to challenges such as abolishing child labor, securing gender equality in the employment opportunities, securing minimum wages, and the minimum standard in the creation of green job, particularly in developing countries. gGreen Job Strategyh is a long-term strategy that aims to increase green and descent jobs by at least 50% by 2015, to progress both countermeasures against climate change issues and the structural change in employment and working conditions simultaneously, and link these to realize a low-carbon society. This strategy should be further promoted and developed, and an international agreement is expected to be formed that shares its challenges and realization. Implementation of education and training as well as assistance in housing and living condition for workers, and maintaining and generating gDecent,h ggreenh and gsustainableh employment, and mediating to find reemployment opportunities are needed. Through these employment measures and an official multi-stakeholder meeting, gJust Transition8h that promotes climate change measures and employment measure simultaneously is needed, and it is expected that an international agreement regarding the sharing and realization of the challenge be formed. It is necessary to set and implement the minimum standard s of green jobs to solve the problems of child labor and, gender equity, and to guarantee minimum wages, especially in developing countries. m) Proposal for funding sources and mechanism: In the situation where financial deterioration is globally worsening, a mechanism for more effective use of private funds should be considered through public-private partnership projects. Also, further promotion of SRI at financial institutions is required for a smooth supply of private funds. As a motivation for this, the progress of the ggreening of financeh is desired, under the United Nations Environment Program Finance Initiative (UNEP FI) rooted in the principles established or under development, and with penetration of the decision making process based on ESG (environment, society, governance) issues under the financial institutions including insurance. Also, a solid framework for more specific monitoring should be created in relation to the target of contributing 0.7% of GNI to the ODA to secure funding to achieve the MDGs. For example, a measure to be considered includes one by which each country is obliged to create a roadmap for achieving its target. In addition, some stakeholders in Japan consider that a gnext generation taxh and ginternational solidarity levyh should be implemented as a budgeted measure that enables a variety of projects related to sustainable development. However, while tax can be a powerful tool for securing financial resources, concrete consideration has to be carried out upon the understanding and agreement of citizens of every level, clarifying the purpose and its use, and through a wide range of discussions. n) Proposal for the improvement of support and development effectiveness: When conducting development, effort should be made to achieve the improvement of the development impact and the effectiveness of aid (as well as the realization of social justice). Government of each country will follow Paris Declaration, Accra Agenda for Action, and in addition of which they should also comply with the agreement that will be established at the High-Level Forum in Busan in December 2011. NGO should make the Istanbul principle (Open Forum CSO Development Effectiveness), which is for enhancing the impact of development, as their standard rules, and strengthen an effort to improve accountability in each group. Moreover, it is also important to involve new actors such as the emerging donors and private sector in discussions to improve the development impact and effectiveness of aid. o) Proposal for strengthening the environmentally sound technology transfer, cooperation and the ability to handle: When considering resource constrains and environmental constraints, it is desirable that various social problems such as poverty and natural disasters faced by developing countries will be overcome, as in the future the economy of many developing countries will grow on development trajectories led by China. On the other hand, earth resource constraints and energy supply constraints will prevent such development. It is the technology to achieve the maximum wealth and social infrastructure with minimum resource consumption that will solve this dilemma. Japanese companies and industries have gained a wide range of technologies such as resources-saving technologies, energy-saving technologies, environmental protection technologies, and also the fundamental technologies for recycling economy through various recycling technologies, in the process of development in the past, overcoming a number of social and environmental constraints including the oil crisis, the recession caused by strong yen, and pollution problems. It is important to improve the sustainability of the earth as a whole, implementing the earthfs resources, energy saving and environmental protection through the diffusion of such technologies to the world and used for economic development of developing countries. Japanese environmentally sound technologies, which are at the global high level, should be transferred while maintaining a win-win relationship with developing countries.9 For a smooth implementation of this transfer, security of intellectual property is crucial. p) Proposal for the promotion of education, public awareness and training: Along with the strong promotion of the Decade of ESD (Education for Sustainable Development), it is necessary to create a mechanism that continue to promote ESD worldwide after the end of the Decade of ESD in 2014. Specifically, it is necessary to formulate the International Action Plan and funding arrangements for implementation, create a mechanism to share information and experiences regarding ESD, undertake capacity building activities for local residents with ownership awareness for their local community, train and support training for local coordinators who promote various cooperation/collaboration among stakeholders working on to building a sustainable society in the area. Such activities need to be carried out through all levels of education and training including school education and social education. Action plans should include ggreen economy education programh and glifelong learning program for sustainable developmenth, capacity building activities to ensure implementation of the UN Declaration on Indigenous Peoples adopted at the UN General Assembly in 2007. Actions should be designed to enhance synergy effect with communication, education, public awareness (CEPA) in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Convention to Combat Desertification. q) Proposal for statistical data for decision-making and information collection: The information needed to enhance the participation of women, youth and other vulnerable groups in decision-making for sustainable development is insufficient. This also hampers identifying the issues underlying sustainable development. So, it is important to collect data that is disaggregated by gender, generation, and other important criteria, and provide it in an accessible manner internationally through the Internet and other media. r) Proposal to establish a decentralized society: The need for a decentralized and resilient society has been suggested to deal with natural disaster and to adapt to climate change. In this process, to pursue a green economy plays an important role, and for the promotion of building such society, institutional framework for sustainable development is essential. Japanese stakeholders suggested that the concept of these societies should be described anew in the Declaration. s) Proposal for conservation of natural resources and sustainable usage: For natural capital with a characteristic of shared material to be used sustainably beyond generations, NGOs suggested to establish the gUser Recovery Principleh, which is centered around the idea that gusers of natural capital are responsible for restoring its original state and its cost in cases where it was used beyond the sustainable paceh, and the involved countries should seek an agreement on the direction of institutionalizing it. t) Proposal on forest: Forest has the effect of carbon dioxide absorption and storage, and this function should be utilized. Also, appropriate forest management and sustainable management should be promoted. Conduct continuous discussion towards a framework with robust legal binding force that leads to the recognition of the importance of forests and a realization of 26 appropriate forest management. In addition, constructing a network and platform at the international citizen level will promote the exchange of human and information, improve the awareness of issues with forests, and generate a need to change behaviors. 2.3 Suggestions on the United Nationfs existing proposals With regard to the green economy road map, it is important that the sustainable use of natural resources and the realization of social justice are shared in the concept of the premise of a green economy. As there are a variety of existing objectives and goals at the UN level, it is necessary to ensure the consistency of them. Considering the indicators to show gdevelopment,h we aim to establish versatile indicators that could become the foundation of the effort by the international community, based on the accumulation from various attempts for sustainability indicators and environment assessment methods. Fundamentally, further consideration among the international community will be encouraged, aggregating the green economy indicators being examined by Satellite System for Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA), OECD and UNEP. As part of such framework for sustainability indicators, we will introduce the concept of regeneration speed and incorporate it as part of the evaluation method of natural capital of the indicators discussed here, in addition to the amount of natural capital stock and resource productivity. It would be meaningless to establish the indicators unless every individual becomes aware of sustainability. For this purpose, the role of ESD is important. Along with an easy to understand presentation, it is necessary to recognize the limitation of numerical targets. 2.4 Suggestion on the ways to close the implementation gap Rights-based approach for poverty alleviation: In reference to Agenda 21 Action Plan and the MDGs, the progress of poverty issues has been particularly delayed. It should be understood that it is not just a problem of low income, but a problem of deprivation of social and political rights, and all the stakeholders need to play a role in guaranteeing the rights of vulnerable groups of people. Namely, further focus on the rights-based approach for poverty alleviation is crucial. Rights in this context include the rights of indigenous peoples, their own original rights stipulated in gthe United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoplesh, and the fulfillment of the rights must be promoted. Promotion of civil participation: In order to fill the gap, not only the government effort but also civil participation is needed. The private sector should be recognized as an important actor that provides solutions. As the negotiation process between countries have come close to the limit, Japanese stakeholders view that the role of the private sector in the process should be clarified upon the understanding of the importance of the private sector. Promotion of the participation of local governments: Whilst local governments possess great potential with regard to the promotion of low-carbon cities and green economy, the understanding and policy making ability between developed and developing countries is not sufficient. In calling to local government for participation in the construction of low-carbon cities from international community, we will be able to promote it and activate the green economy. Effective participation in the construction of cities by local governments can enhance the ability to provide basic public services for the urban poor in developing countries and contribute to the improvement of their living condition. For this policy support and human resources development, cooperation between local governments is most effective. International organizations should develop programs for international cooperation between cities and support them. Ensuring financial discipline: Fiscal deficits in both developed and developing countries have been increasing year by year, and in the present condition the financial gap has been filled by issuing deficit-covering national bonds. As imposing a financial burden to the next generation will lead to injustice between generations, it is necessary to ensure financial discipline that includes taxation as a policy to fill the gap. For example, the idea of utilizing tax to secure funding for the next generation has been shown. Voluntary approach: Japanese companies as well as Japanese industry have had the principle of ggood cooperate citizenh and implemented the environmental voluntary action plan with the mutual understanding and cooperation with the government administration and stakeholders from different fields, recognizing that effort towards environmental issues is an essential requirement for onefs own presence and activities. As the countryfs unique initiatives, so far Japan has accumulated significant achievement in waste management, creating a recycling-oriented society, and climate change measures. Incentives: In planning for sustainable development, there are some opinions that consider not only regulatory approaches but also an approach that encourages effort, such as putting a price on carbon, is also important. A typical example of this is the introduction of an economic approach that utilizes market mechanisms. However, there are also views that in Japan with superior environmentally sound technologies, this approach does not work, and it might make a negative contribution to solving global problems due, for example, to a loss of financial resources caused by further development of the latest technologies. In the introduction of the economic approach, we should consider its purpose to be fulfilled and the way we take the burden, and necessarily gain the understanding and agreement of citizens of every level. It is also important to take an approach that encourages efforts. For example, Japanese stakeholders proposed the following: low-carbon society priority measures for research development for building a recycling society, a review of the regulation of used products to achieve a recycling society, donations that will be implemented to attain the sustainable development of society, activities for social contributions, and priority measures for investment in taxation. 28 2.5 Suggestion on specific cooperation mechanism, partnership arrangement, and implementation tools Financial scheme for the resolution of water issues: In order to solve the problem of the water sector, it is necessary to establish a financial scheme that supports international contributions from private companies in the water sector and promotes the management of water and sewerage services in cooperation with private companies and local governments. Continuous human resources and technological support for the field of operation and management, promotion of small-scale projects such as sector loan projects, and flexible and enterprising suggestions with political initiatives, which are beyond the sector borderlines, are required. In addition, as the experiences of other countries show, problems have occurred because of the privatization of water services, and thus, securing water should be considered a fundamental human right. The launch of dialogue mechanisms and organizations for promoting the UN Decade on Biodiversity and resolving the issues of biodiversity: To achieve the gAichi Biodiversity Targetsh, it is necessary to create a mechanism to strengthen dialogue between the sectors, which has not been sufficient so far. Solutions to the challenges related to the vertically divided administration in each country are needed. Each country should investigate the root causes of biodiversity loss, make efforts to solve them, and should have organizations that hold a clear mission to reflect the outcome in policies. Introduction of a mechanism for promoting responsible voluntary behaviors of consumers: For the resolution of global issues, the role of consumers is important and it is necessary to promote civil education for consumers to encourage their responsible and voluntary behaviors. Furthermore, it is vital to raise each otherfs awareness by environment communication represented under the label of the environment. In order to make consumers interested and influence their daily choice of goods and services, the development of environmental labels, promotion of environment communication and the implementation of environmental education are needed. Promotion of cooperation between programs for youth: For the development of children and youth, a collaborative relationship among youth programs currently promoted by governments, companies or schools and the programs voluntarily run by youth should be established. Specifically, holding a large-scale international conference dealing with comprehensive information and the internet database covering all the programs for youth is vital. While the United Nations takes a lead, governments and global companies will be expected to contribute to provide the necessary resources for these as their social responsibility. Regional centres of expertise on ESD (RCEs): For sustainable development, it is important to have human resources development utilizing various types of educational opportunities such as school education, social education, and corporate training at the local community level. In order to achieve this, mechanisms by which a variety of stakeholders in local communities are able to have more opportunities for collaboration are needed. Such mechanisms will include ones for identification and training of local ESD coordinators, and local knowledge base (RCEs) to promote ESD. Review of the WSSD type 2 partnerships: Requesting a review and report regarding the result and progress of the Type 2 partnership launched at WSSD, as well as considering the role that has been played by the partnership in sustainable development and its future situation, is necessary. 2.6 Roles of stakeholders in the promotion of sustainable development (including greening the economy) Nine major groups were recognized at the Earth Summit in 1992, but its review is a major premise. For example, the groups that play a significant role in sustainable development such as consumers, cooperatives, and education sector should be included. On that basis, it is important that each stakeholder confirms the following roles. Roles of women: Establish women as active promoters of green economy and promote gender equality through a green economy. Role of children and youth: The realization of a sustainable society is an important issue with which the future generations are the concerned party, and therefore, it is essential to have their understanding, cooperation and involvement. In addition to the existing initiatives such as ESD, the capacity building activities of children and youth should be undertaken through all possible means of education/training. The practices of children and youth for their society should be strengthened and we should create a world where the voice of children and youth are better reflected in their societies. To achieve this, support from not only children and youth groups but all the stakeholders is needed. Role of NGOfs: The characteristics of NGOs are to act flexibly and sensitively in a diverse society. For example, in the recovery from the earthquake, NGOs in the affected areas as disaster volunteers made huge contributions in the area where the government did not reach. NGOs also carry out specialized activities for policy recommendation to attempt the economic transformation of existing social system. These NGOs play an important role in policy formation. NGOs play a surveillance role against the actions of government administration and companies that bring the voice of citizens to the decision-making authority (policy recommendations). Moreover, NGOs have a function as a flexible platform for individuals and various stakeholders to form partnerships and for citizens to start voluntary participation in activities. Role of local governments: Local governments have the capacity to advance low-carbon and facilitate a green economy using their authority in the field of urban development, transportation, water and sewage services, waste disposal, education, conservation and utilization of natural resources. Local governments are able to facilitate low-carbon business as a leader in public facilities construction, infrastructure maintenance and public transport management, which could be a major project. They can also promote the improvement of energy-saving functions in buildings in 30 the entire local community, including the private sector and the restriction of GHG emission from economic and industrial activities, with a system that uses a regulatory authority and market mechanisms. In addition, as the government closest to local businesses and consumers, local governments can provide detailed guidance and advice on energy consumption, and are capable of facilitating energy measures for the demand-side thoroughly. Role of trade union: Green job initiative, which was proposed by the ILO in June 2007 with a response to climate change, sustainable society and good quality job creation as its aim, was introduced in the joint report by ITUC, ILO, UNEP and IOE called gGreen jobsh in which it is anticipated to create 20 million new jobs in renewable energy sector by 2030. In order to implement gJust Transitionh that creates gDecent Workh confirmed in the Cancun Agreement, the Japanese Trade Union Confederation (RENGO), the national center of the trade union, along with ITUC of which the RENGO is a member, should work in cooperation with Civil society to encourage democratic social dialogues that propose the way we should deal with the elements which may negatively influence issues such as employment, gender, wages, working conditions, Occupational safety and Health and conduct a follow-up. In view of these needs, the Japanese Trade Union Confederation confirmed at the 59th Central Committee (December 2010) gToward a secure society build around work as its core themeh that showed a image of society and vision to be pursued. Along with the necessity of the genvironmental conservation of the earthh and the gcreation of green jobs,h which are the prerequisite for sustainability, gDecent Work,h gjust distribution of resources,h and gdetente and achievement of peace between countries,h fulfilling the core labor standards are indicated as neckwear in any country. In addition, in August 2011, gGuidelines on Responsible Investment of Workerfs Capitalh was adopted and workers (union members) were requested that they act to contribute to the social formation of a fair and sustainable society, by implementing a responsible investment that encourages socially responsible cooperative action and financial transactions with the contributed funds of workers or funds that workers contributed to. Role of cooperatives: Cooperatives are autonomous organizations that sign up voluntarily to fulfill common economic, social and cultural needs and desires through a business body that is member-funded, co-owned and democratically controlled. Cooperatives have a function that stabilize life and activate communities, and by being rooted in society and encouraging mutual assistance, they play a role in encouraging a sustainable society. Role of companies and industries: Japanese corporations and industry consider the role of Japanese industry should be to apply Japanese superior technologies to the economic development of developing countries and support sustainable development with a minimum consumption of resources and environmental impact. In addition, as the procurement power of the world, greening the supply chain (such as the promotion of environmentally friendly procurement and production) will be advanced actively. In other words, ggreen purchasing,h which is an environmentally sound procurement of materials, including carbon footprint and ecological footprint can be promoted. Role of scientific technology communities: In the process of each stakeholderfs participation in sustainable development, it is important that each of them receives correct information. The scientists are required to play the role that conducts monitoring on the current environmental situation, predicting the future based on the monitoring data, and presenting measures based on the prediction. It is also the role of scientists that they explain such information to the public in an easy to understand manner. Japan in particular is able to contribute to the development of a circumstance for developing countries to work voluntarily on sustainable development, by providing basic scientific data on global environmental issues such as geographic information, greenhouse gas effect, and the situation of biodiversity. Role of educators: For human resources development, the role of educators is extremely important. Higher education institutions such as universities are required to promote ESD for students who are expected to compose of the critical mass of the future society by reorienting their educational curricula. They are also requested to train teachers who understand ESD, and as experts provide advice and other support for local community activities to build a sustainable society. Regarding primary and secondary education, the perspectives of the ESD should be integrated into all the curricula from kindergartens to high schools. It is also necessary to strengthen communication and collaboration among different grades and different levels of schools, and to look for collaboration with local stakeholders. Furthermore, not only teachers but also curators at museums, libraries and town halls as well as interpreters at natural parks are expected to play an active role in promoting ESD in local communities. Role of the media: In promoting sustainable development, it is important to encourage the reform awareness of citizens and companies on which the media has the biggest influence. Defining the media as an important stakeholder and clarifying its role is crucial. In addition, not only the one-way communication as was in the previous model, but mutual communication such as social media that promotes a participatory society is important. Role of individuals: The role of individuals is also important. Every organization in the world is formed by individuals and often an individual belongs to multiple major groups. Individuals are required to have awareness as a consumer in compliance with purchasing for a sustainable green economy, choice of time, and choice of policies. Although individuals have certain roles at work, in private and in community, the key to all the changes is the individualfs action based on firm awareness that they as an individual have the final responsibility. 2.7 Shifting lifestyle to achieve sustainable development Traditionally Japanese people have been committed to the efficient use of resources, following the idea of gmottainaih, which is roughly equivalent to the English expression, gWhat a waste!h To overcome the power crisis in Japan after the earthquake, great cooperation has come from companies that have made energy and peak power saving efforts, in addition to coping through a shift in lifestyle. The lifestyle changes like Japan experienced through cutting lights and actions such as changing clothes to better adapt to weather conditions are important elements in achieving sustainable development. There must be a catalyst that encourages us to change our lifestyles. For example, the development of environmental initiatives locally and nationally that encourage changes in household and individual lifestyles to save resources, save energy, and implement low-carbon models is being considered (e.g. improved eco-point system, introducing and popularizing an eco-community currency, labeling of agricultural/forestry/fishery products and household appliances, the idea of local production for local consumption, developing road infrastructure for the efficient use of vehicles, compiling and sharing of all relevant road transport statistic data for this purpose, promoting public transport usage, and maintaining a transportation and mobility environment that minimizes social costs). In the transformation of lifestyle, the role education plays is also important. It is desirable to strengthen educational activities currently promoted under the Decade of ESD, such as school education, social education, training in business companies and institutions, education for citizens, regional centres of expertise on ESD (RCEs), activities of ESD or ESS (education for sustainable society) in each local society. If the significance of a green economy becomes clear to individuals, it will lead to actions. With the awareness that the final responsibility of sustainable development lies in individuals, it is important to link this to a life style change. 3. Opinions on Specific Themes 3.1 Proposals on the Green Economy in the Context of Sustainable Development and Eradication of Poverty 3.1.1 Priority Areas and Procedures for gGreening of the Economyh Japanese stakeholders recognize the green economy as important in moving forward with sustainable development. The following reasons were cited for the necessity of discussing the green economy: a) As economic activities underlie environmental problems, it is necessary to discuss fundamental problems; b) Biodiversity and natural capital that support economic activities are significantly deteriorating at present. We need an economic mechanism that reflects the cost of the deterioration of natural capital and risk to people, including future generations; and c) Under constraints on resources and climate change, we need an economy that is well aware of these constraints. We regard a low carbon strategy through the development of technologies for efficient utilization of resources and green innovation in infrastructures, including roads and buildings, as an area we should address on a priority basis. It is also essential to proceed with efforts in areas conducive to the promotion of energy saving. (Examples: Development, improvement and diffusion of energy-saving, low-carbon technologies, development and diffusion of long-life materials and products, shift to energy-saving, low-carbon industrial structure and utilization of renewable and natural energy, etc.) It is also desirable to promote the utilization of sustainable ecosystem services based on the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and Nagoya Protocol adopted at the tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD-COP10) held in 2010. The greening of finance and agriculture, forestry and fisheries is also an important issue. Various ideas have been proposed as necessary efforts and procedures for the promotion of the green economy: a) Stability of governance of each country is important in facilitating the green economy, and it is necessary to have a mechanism to promote democratic systems, laws and regulations, free trade and investment; b) Governance of global multinational corporations and financial systems is also important, and initiatives such as ISO26000 should be further promoted; c) Citizens lack the awareness and knowledge of the green economy, and it is necessary to get them across through school education and Civil society; d) Consumption styles not to break down the balance of natural capital should be established; e) Since it is important for each individual to make purchase decisions on the basis of information on the environment, etc., information for such decision-making should be provided; f) Legal system development, administrative system improvement, information disclosure, participation of all stakeholders and third-party monitoring bodies should be ensured; and g) Efforts should be promoted while monitoring progress with the use of appropriate indicators. It is necessary to position the perspective of Communication, Education and Public Awareness (CEPA) as the basis of efforts toward the green economy the international community will make with the holding of Rio+20 as motivation and to encourage the synergy effect between CEPA activities to achieve the Aichi Biodiversity Targets under the Convention on Biodiversity and promote the U.N. Decade on Biodiversity and each countryfs obligations concerning the public awareness, education and training concerning the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the U.N. Convention to Combat Desertification, etc. 3.1.2 Measures Necessary in Each Area to Promote the Greening of the Economy To use utilize natural capital having the nature of common property across generations in a sustainable way, it is recommended to start in-depth discussion on the gUser Recovery Principleh centering on the idea of the user of natural capital being responsible for restoring the original state and paying the cost when natural capital is used beyond a sustainable pace, and considering the direction of institutionalizing that principle in the countries concerned. 34 Given the limits on the environmental capacity of the earth, sustainable development and growth requires the realization of economic growth and creation of employment. In addition, in the present capital market, stabilization of the financial markets is an important factor. In order to promote the green economy, financial instability that could hamper corporate activities poses a major impediment and causes a setback in the driving power. Regulations on excessively speculative investment and regulations to break wild fluctuations would be required. As a prerequisite for the greening of the economy, it is necessary to consider natural capital in terms of the real economy. The World Bankfs ongoing initiative to incorporate ecosystem services into national economic accounting provides a useful reference. It has been demonstrated that tools to promote the greening of the economy are diverse. They are broadly divided into regulations and incentives, management tools and voluntary efforts, and the following tools are considered effective: (a) Regulations: Introduction of the feed-in tariff and other systems for the promotion of renewable energy, utilization of tax systems that reflect costs imposed on gothers,h including future generations, and risks such as the environmental tax and international solidarity levy, and tougher environmental regulations, etc. (b) Incentives: Expansion of preferential tax, financial and fiscal treatment of and commendation systems for business corporations and organizations, etc. that promote the development and diffusion of environment-friendly technologies and products, evaluation and announcement, etc. of efforts by business corporations, appropriate application of accounting standards. (c) Utilization of international standards and guidelines: Utilization of international standards as tools for realizing the green economy is also effective. It is important to position ISO26000 issued in November 2010 as a tool to give shape to the green economy in organizational management and promote it at an international level. (d) Voluntary efforts (Pledge and review): Voluntary efforts to promote the green economy are important as is the formation of systems to support them. The role of consumers is important in promoting the green economy, and to that end, communication between producers and consumers are also important. As an effective tool, it is important to review inadequate points in the existing environmental labeling and improve it globally. International institutions and national governments, as an informational environment for promoting the conservation and sustainable utilization of natural capital, jointly build an international database on available natural capital, etc., in regions of the world and establish the system for monitoring, evaluation and verification of the status of its utilization. In order to promote product design under constraints on resources, launched the Finite Design 35 Initiative to Support a Sustainable Society with the participation of research institutes, product designers, business corporations, traditional craftsmen and consumers, etc., of various countries for such efforts as (1) closer cooperation among institutions concerned with finite design research; (2) development of common product protocols conducive to finite design (develop and share common product protocols concerning processes and parts that serve as the pivots of recycling and reuse); (3) diffusion of the top-runner format; and (4) visualization of the degree of sustainability of natural capital utilization (visualize the degree of sustainability of natural capital utilization by quantitatively showing the amount of natural capital required for the manufacture of goods and services consumers make use of in their everyday life and the gwaiting timeh for their recycling). In order to develop the capital market to support the green economy, urge institutional investors around the world to embrace the Principles for Responsible Investment (PRI) and ask them to enhance the transparency of their investment behaviors. Furthermore, business corporations compile corporate reports that integrate financial as well as sustainability issues, and governments and exchanges institutionalize such reports. Since the green economy based on gender disparity cannot be regarded as sustainable development, strive to promote the green economy on the basis of institutional and organizational cooperation between divisions that promote the green economy and divisions that promote gender equality. 3.1.3 Efforts Necessary to Ensure Economic Growth and Poverty Eradication through the Greening of the Economy Promotion of the green economy means a shift in the direction of growth toward economic growth that breaks out of the resources-depleting growth to date and confirms to the environmental capacity of the earth. Low-carbon and sustainable utilization of resources will become possible, together with economic growth, employment creation and food security, through promotion of new environmentally sound technology development and reconstruction of labor-intensive and sustainable domestic industries. It is also essential for the business community to provide manufacturing and services friendly to the environment and human rights throughout the supply chain. In every effort, it is necessary to develop institutional frameworks that facilitate the poorest segment of the population, particularly poor women in developing countries, to benefit from the green economy. Development of environmentally sound technology, in particular the progress in small-scale power generation technologies based on renewable resources, contribute to the provision of cheap energy to poor people in rural areas. Development of sustainable and responsible agricultural, forestry and fisheries industries is highly likely to similarly contribute to ensuring employment and food for poor people in rural areas who have high dependence on natural resources. Sustainable base of the pyramid (BOP) business is in the spotlight to eradicate poverty from the 36 perspective that supporting people living in poverty in their employment, business launching and livelihood and thereby enhancing their purchasing power should help their economic growth as well as business expansion. It is necessary to help raise the awareness about examples of best practices and develop frameworks of support for BOP business in consultation with stakeholders involved. 3.1.4 Values the Greening of the Economy Brings The greening of the economy should contribute to the realization of low-carbon and sustainable utilization of resources, along with economic growth, employment creation and food security, and should at the same time be conducive to eradication of poverty. Promotion of the green economy should contribute to correcting the existing structural disparity, rather than fixating such disparity. In particular, the aspect of employment creation is highly important. Various countries have set respective employment targets related to the green economy, and Japanese New Growth Strategy calls for employment creation to the tune of 1.4 million jobs. Gender equality should be emphasized in the creation of employment. As the green economy can also nurture sustainable domestic industries and promote the development of alternative resources and alternative energy, it can be expected to enhance the capacity to adapt to surges in prices of food, resources and energy the international community is now confronted with by reducing the dependence on overseas sources of supply. The greening of the economy also allows the gnon-economic valueh to be recognized anew. In addition to the richness of natural capital and selfless cooperation among community members that cannot be measured by the economic value, the cost and risk, etc., imposed upon gothers,h including future generations, in a hard-to-see manner comes under consideration. The greening of the economy prompts changes in peoplefs values and individual choices and also encourages people to seek sustainable lifestyles. 3.1.5 What Are Appropriate Indicators to Make the Richness of Life and Mind and the Costs and Risks Hitherto Unconsidered Visible? In order to make the richness of life and mind and the costs and risks that have not been considered previously visible, new indicators are necessary in addition to the existing indicators such as the efficiency of resources and energy and carbon dioxide emissions. In particular, it is considered extremely important to reflect the economic value of ecosystem services, such as green accounting, in the national accounting system to recognize the negative impact of development on the natural environment. Concerning natural capital in particular, it is important to introduce the idea of the speed of regeneration and incorporate it into the method of evaluating natural capital, in addition to its stocks and resource productivity. Along with physical and objective social evaluation indicators, subjective indicators such as the satisfaction of people as key players in life are necessary. However, it has been argued that the grichness of lifeh cannot be measured by a uniform indicator as it depends largely on the values of people. The indicators should include one that measures the achievement of gender equality through the green economy. 3.2 Proposals on the Institutional Frameworks for Sustainable Development 3.2.1 Problems in the International and Domestic Organizational and Institutional Frameworks for Sustainable Development and Ways to Improve Them Differences in emerging issues and the existing policies have made the U.N. system outdated, and the Rio+20 should serve as an opportunity to allow for discussions on the institutional frameworks that should be enhanced. The institutional frameworks for sustainable development require an institutional design that reflects the changes of the times, and the following three points are important as the basic points of view. The first is the importance of multilevel governance. Sustainable development needs to be addressed not only by the United Nations alone but also at all of the multilateral, regional, national, local and RCE levels. The second is the importance of the participation by multi-stakeholders. Sustainable development cannot be left to governments alone. It is also necessary for various other stakeholders to participate in the process and decision-making. The third is the recognition that we cannot rely on the United Nations to solve all problems. As for institutional reform, it is necessary to clarify the goals of the reform plan, vision and time axis. We cannot expect to develop an effective institutional design unless we address the whole spectrum of problems, including institutions, instead of dealing only with institutions. There also is an urgent necessity to build international governance concerning water, food, energy, resources and radioactive contamination. For agricultural operators in particular, food self-sufficiency is most important for security as well, and therefore the vision and system on which the primary industry can be established are of importance. Food and water are fundamental to human beings, and priority should be given to the building of the system that can safeguard the bare-minimum livelihood. The five options presented by the U.N. Environment Program (UNEP) indicate only the broad direction and are not necessarily adequately specific proposals, making the comparative evaluation of the options fundamentally difficult. What is necessary at the present stage is to give more concrete shape to the five options. For example, there could be a variety of ways to strengthen the UNEP, the U.N. Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and the U.N. Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD). Since the five options are all related to reform of the U.N. organizational structure, it is likely to take considerable time to implement them and their effects emerge only over the medium and long term. U.N. reform can be expected to be effective only when it is carried out in tandem with appropriate measures taken not only by national governments and international organizations but also at multi levels involving regions, states, localities and all other stakeholders. Theoretically, the five options are not mutually exclusive. For example, the establishment of the World Environmental Organization (WEO), one of the options, and reform at ECOSOC and the CDS can be supported at the same time. Also, post-reform ECOSOC can be converted into an umbrella organization for sustainable development, for instance, into the Sustainable Development Council (SDC) as already discussed. The functional strengthening of the UNEP can include the conversion of the UNEP into the WEO in the future. Criteria for evaluation of the specific options should not be limited to the facilitation of sustainable development but also give importance to efficiency. It is also necessary to take the political feasibility into account. Regarding the strengthening or turning into a specialized agency of the UNEP, there were opinions that it would be wrong to believe that turning the UNEP into a specialized agency would solve everything and reform of the UNEP should focus on making existing programs, for example, economic and social development policy, chiefly environment-oriented and the enhancement of environmental assessment and public awareness-related activities, leaving capacity-building to other more suitable organizations, while others argued that the strengthening of the UNEP should take precedence or that the functions of the WEO should be clarified. 3.2.2 Specific Proposals Concerning the International and Domestic Organizational and Institutional Frameworks for Sustainable Development Promotion of environmental policy integration (EPI) for sustainability: In order to enhance the synergy effects between environmental and development policies and their implementation, further efforts should be exerted at national levels. Environmental policy integration (EPI) for sustainability is one of effective methods. This represents a deliberate attempt to give precedence to environmental conservation before exchange conditions arise between environmental, economic and social goals. In particular, what is needed is a system based on the gprinciple of complementarilyh where the policy integration by local governments that can present specific proposals on problems for which policies should be integrated is welcomed and respected. Adjustments between conventions: Systems are segmented under many multilateral conventions, etc., and adjustments between them are insufficient. Most environment-related conventions are regional conventions that have different memberships, and it is deemed difficult to make adjustments between them. As for global conventions (such as the Chemicals Convention, the Convention on Biodiversity and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna), cooperation among their respective Secretariats is proceeding, and such an approach is more realistic. Strengthening of the partnership between the United Nations and Bretton Woods and other 39 institutions: U.N. agencies need to strengthen the partnership with international institutions that are promoting international cooperation for sustainable development. Strengthening of the monitoring function: It is necessary to strengthen the check and balance function by citizens regarding sustainable development. As for radioactive contamination, it is necessary to strengthen specialized international institutes, including NGOs, with the functions of monitoring internal exposure and other health damage from radioactive contamination and the environment and presenting recommendations. Promotion of the bottom-up approach: What is being fundamentally questioned in the institutional frameworks is the leadership. Instead of placing expectations on the leadership provided by a specific country, what could be considered is the direction of enhancing the status of governance by people who can offer effective solutions to problems through, among others, the bottom-up approach (at the levels of local governments, NGOs, business corporations and industries, and regions). Building of the multilevel governance: Global standards are being developed by the clout of multi-stakeholders, rather than under decisions by the heads of state or intergovernmental agencies (Example: ISO16000). Multilevel governance that can cover the whole range of areas is important. Building of a system that encourages corporate reform: It is necessary to build a mechanism that can promote responsible investment by business corporations. Systems that promote corporate social responsibility (CSR), such as environmental accounting, etc., are important, and the U.N. Global Compact can be commended as the first step. Strengthening of compliance and enforcement of laws: Laws and regulations reflecting unique conditions of respective countries are one of very important tools to put policies related to the environment and development into action. Without effective compliance and enforcement of these laws and regulations, policy measures designed for human health and sustainable development would be doomed to failure. It is important to continuously strengthen compliance and enforcement of relevant laws in regions, states and local governments through the sharing of developed countriesf best practices by developing countries, etc. To that end, the capacity building for law enforcement by developing countries and international support are essential. Building of a funding mechanism for ensuring sustainable development: In order to enhance the effectiveness of institutions involved in sustainable development, ensuring the additional financing and effective utilization of existing funds is of great importance. National governments need to beat their brains and build a funding mechanism for ensuring sustainable development. Enhancement of private-sector participation: As we cannot hope for much increase in contributions to the United Nations, it is important to incorporate business corporations into the framework in order to make good use of private-sector funds for sustainable development, for example, to extract funds from global corporations. It is also necessary to further transmit specific environmental activities (best practices) of business corporations globally. While there already exist mechanisms to appropriately monitor and keep close tabs on activities of global corporations in some areas (for example, the Bank for International Settlements), such mechanisms are necessary in all areas related to sustainable development. Building the governance structure with stronger local autonomy in mind: With the clear recognition that local governments (big cities, in particular) are major players in climate policy measures and that local governments rich in natural resources are major players in biodiversity policies, the governance structure that reflects these facts must be built up. It is necessary to urge local governments for proactive actions and establish the new function of supporting and facilitating international cooperation between local governments. We should consider how to position international networks of local governments and big cities, such as the ICLEI-Local Governments for Sustainability (ICLEI) and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group (C40), and we should also allow local governmentsf access to environmental and climate funding programs of the World Bank, regional development banks, the Global Environmental Facility (GEF), Climate Investment Funds (CIF) and the Green Climate Fund (GCF), and programs for utilization of know-how of advanced local governments, in order to support international cooperation between local governments. Integration with policies to promote gender equality: As gender equality and empowerment of women are essential to promote sustainable development, it is necessary to promote institutional mechanism to enhance collaboration among the organizations and divisions that are responsible for gender equality and sustainable development. Establishment of a new global convention: As a specific proposal, we should consider the establishment of a regional or global convention that put into action the ideas in line with Principles 10 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and the ensuing Aarhus Convention developed by the U.N. Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). It would give legal authority access to information by citizens and citizen groups, and promote accountability and dialogue with stakeholders by effectively realizing multilevel governance. Promotion of forecast science for enhancing responsiveness to variability: In order to enhance responsiveness to variability and reduce the uncertainty concerning social systems in the dynamically changing global environment, proactively promote the Global Forecast Service. The accurate understanding about regional impacts of such fundamental problems as climate change, biodiversity and water can lead us to government policy planning and better disaster prevention particularly in developing counties. That scientific information on the earth is offered in an easy-to-understand and open manner and provides multi-stakeholders with the real beginning of key solutions to global environmental issues. This will be made possible with the networks of Japanese universities and research institutions taking the initiative and business corporations offering technologies. It is also important to establish places for sharing scientific knowledge about disasters (including health hazards) and exchanging views.