Centro de Gestao e Estudos Estrategicos ? Brazil (CGEE)
Information
  • Date submitted: 31 Oct 2011
  • Stakeholder type: Major Group
  • Name: Centro de Gestao e Estudos Estrategicos ? Brazil (CGEE)
  • Submission Document: Download
Keywords: Data (2 hits),

General Content

a) What are the expectations for the outcome of Rio+20, and what are the concrete proposals in this regard, including views on a possible structure of the Outcome document?

UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
RIO+20
INPUTS FOR COMPILATION DOCUMENT
SUBMISSION 1: MAJOR GROUPS ? OTHER ORGANIZATIONS
ORGANIZATION: CENTRO DE GESTÃO E ESTUDOS ESTRATÉGICOS ? CGGE COUNTRY: BRAZIL
THE DRYLANDS TOWARDS RIO+20: A GLOBAL CHALLENGE
In order to raise awareness in regard to the special conditions of the world Drylands (arid, semi-arid, dry subhumid), a process called ICID was organized by a group of international and national stakeholders (National and Sub-national Governments, non-Governmental institutions and international organizations), with the objective of contributing to the agenda, discussions and decisions of the UNCSD ? United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, also known as Rio + 20.
ICID stands for International Conference on Climate, Sustainability and Development in Drylands. As it is known, the Drylands are the object of the UNCCD ? United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification and to Mitigate the Effects of Droughts. The ICID process and the UNCCD itself, which resulted from the Rio 92 Summit, are justified by the fact that the Drylands comprise 40% of the land area of the globe, 30% of the population and the great majority of the poverty of the world. At the same time, they have a great contribution to world food production and a great potentiality to contribute to the world sustainable development. However, these regions lack priority in international and sometimes national decision making.
The first ICID was held in Fortaleza, Brazil, in January 1992, with a participation of 45 countries and international organizations, as a contribution to the Rio 92. The second ICID, called ICID + 18, was also held in Fortaleza, in August 2010, as a contribution to Rio + 20. The third ICID, called ICID + 19 Argentina, was held in Mendoza, Argentina, in September 2011. And the ICID + 19 Africa was held in Niamey, Niger, in October 2011, also as a contribution to the Rio + 20 Conference.
More than 2,300 scientists and policymakers from 80 countries and all continents, including public officials, natural and social scientists, representatives of the private sector and international agencies, including the UNCCD, the World Bank, Bilateral Agencies and others, and members of non-governmental, private sector and other civil-society organizations, met in Fortaleza ? Brazil (ICID+18, 2010). In Mendoza, Argentina, the ICID+19, 2011 gathered more than 300 participants from Latin American and European countries and from international organizations. And in Niamey, Niger, the ICID+19 Africa, gathered more than a hundred participants from several African
countries (especially from the Sahelian region), from Brazil, Argentina and France. The UNCCD participated in all ICIDs.
All three ICID Conferences exchanged scientific information and policy lessons of the past two decades about sustainable development in Drylands around the globe and offered policy recommendations for consideration at the Rio+20 Summit in 2012. Besides the scientific contribution, each ICID produced a policy oriented Declaration (Declaration of Fortaleza, August 2010; Declaration of Mendoza, September 2011; and Declaration of Niamey, October 2011), with recommendations for international and national policy makers and for society in general, aiming at raising awareness and promoting the sustainable development of, and eradicate poverty in the Drylands regions. The complete text of the three ICID Declarations is attached to this document.
Since the first ICID was held in 1992, human-induced global warming and environmental changes and their consequences for human and ecosystems well-being are now widely accepted as fundamental development issues.
The purpose the set of ICID Conferences was to assess the situation of Drylands regions (arid, semi-arid and dry subhumid lands) in order to foster sustainable development and the fight against poverty, land degradation and desertification in the Drylands. From this analysis, participants have reached conclusions and adopted action oriented recommendations addressed in particular to the Rio + 20 Summit in 2012.
The participants in the ICID conferences suggest that the agenda of the Rio + 20 could devote a special chapter to the discussion of the challenges and potentialities of the Drylands, given their importance in terms of population, poverty, development gap, and environmental assets.
EXPECTATIONS
The Drylands worldwide contain the largest concentrations of poverty and suffer the greatest pressures on their natural resources such as water, soils, and biodiversity. Their populations are extremely vulnerable to the adverse consequences of environmental changes related to climate variability and change, and are among the least able to cope effectively with them. Desertification alone, as a symbol of environmental threats in the Drylands, adversely affects the livelihoods of one billion (1,000,000,000!) people.
Although significant advances continue to be made in scientific knowledge and public understanding concerning the interactions among climate, environmental sustainability and socio-economic development and despite progress and the best of government intentions, the challenges continue to increase and constrain efforts to effectively reduce poverty, mitigate and adapt to climate change and achieve sustainable development and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
Past errors, poorly conceived policies, and exploitative practices have resulted in environmental and social conditions that are not easily reversed without substantial and sustained development efforts that require increased national and international financial support. Declining productivity in the Drylands of their natural resources, the prevalence of poverty and significant inequities as well as institutional weaknesses are expected to be worsened by climate variability and change.
The world?s Drylands possess many important assets, including rich social, cultural and biological diversity. They are responsible for more than 20% of food production around the globe.
The sustainable development of Drylands, through improved governance, enhanced livelihoods and greater voice, empowerment, and political representation of their populations (especially the poor), should be the foremost objective of local to international action.
Climate-sensitive development interventions from local to global must be substantially increased paying special attention to the needs of women, children and the elderly, throughout the Drylands.
?Win-Win? opportunities to cope with global warming must be identified and pursued, especially climate adaptation tactics and strategies that reduce local vulnerability, increase resilience and build assets of the poor. Efforts are needed to develop greater institutional capacity for managing climate variability today in the context of projected climate changes (e.g., greater emphasis on improved climate and environmental monitoring networks, drought preparedness planning based on a risk-based management approach, development of appropriate decision-support tools, and improved information delivery systems to aid decision making). Efforts must promote access to land and to markets, as well as effective civil-society grassroots participation in decision-making, implementation, and evaluation of development activities.
The sustainable development of the drylands and the combat to land degradation and desertification should be fostered, through the incorporation of the environmental, social and economic dimensions in development planning and implementation.
The United Nations should urgently consider the current plight of the Drylands, including the risks to global security associated with the growing impoverishment and food insecurity, increasing vulnerability to natural disasters and climate change, and rising conflicts and violence in Drylands regions.
Previous financial pledges by industrialized countries to support sustainable development efforts must be met. Existing institutional arrangements and financial instruments must not only be strengthened but must become more efficient. Disbursement of concessionary resources from recently established Climate Investment and Adaptation Funds, for example, should be accelerated, and local and national institutional absorptive capacities strengthened to effectively utilize these resources.
Regular exchange including scientists, decision and policymakers dealing with the drylands should be encouraged.
Short, medium and long term strategies are necessary to better monitor implementation of actions against land degradation and desertification. In this regard, a zero net land degradation target should be set.
Beyond Rio + 20, the MDGs that will be defined for the period following 2015 should pay special attention to the Drylands and consider them as a target with a high-level of priority.
b) What are the comments, if any, on existing proposals: e.g., a green economy roadmap, framework for action, sustainable development goals, a revitalized global partnership for sustainable development, or others?

Mechanisms should be strengthened through integrated action to arrest and avoid land degradation, to mitigate the effects of droughts, fires and floods, to conserve soil and water resources and biodiversity, and to resiliently adapt to climate change and its consequences. In addition, mechanisms to financially compensate local communities for the environmental protection services they provide must be identified and implemented. Multilateral and bilateral development agencies can play an important role.
Investment opportunities should exploit the comparative advantages of drylands areas such as solar power generation, as well as other alternative and renewable energy sources (including hydropower, wind, and biomass). They should also support techniques for rainwater capture, improved sanitation, wastewater reuse in irrigation and low carbon, resource saving and environmentally-friendly activities. Such investment would enhance energy and food security by the improved efficient management of demand for water through adequate pricing and other means. The integration of water basins should also be considered
There is also the need to recover degraded areas, strengthen the management and sustainability of existing and newly protected areas and to prevent environmental deterioration of those that are as yet well preserved. Drylands regions should catalogue and prioritize the various sustainable uses and conservation of biodiversity.
Synergies among global, national, regional and local interventions to mitigate and adapt to climate change, conserve biodiversity, and curb desertification should be maximized. Interactions among and with the three Rio Conventions (UNCCD, UNCBD, UNFCCC) should be integrated with broader domestic and international efforts to foster quality of basic education, combat poverty and promote sustainability.
Enhancing climate-sensitive sustainable development activities will require additional financial resources. Part of these costs should be absorbed by national economies, but, because of the global public goods nature of these issues, a larger share of the needed incremental financing should come from industrialized countries.
Contextualized quality education at all levels should be a priority, cooperatively supported by all agencies involved. In addition to a high-return investment in human
capital, this should be viewed as the need to raise the awareness of local populations about the linkages among climate change, poverty and sustainability. This will ensure an effective voice, empowerment and representation in public decision-making regarding the future of Drylands regions. Specific Drylands education policies should be developed. The priority focus should be on the youth of both genders beginning with early childhood development. They have the most at stake and will become the next wave of policy and decision makers.
The path to sustainable development requires a greening of the economy of the drylands, as is the case in other regions. The green economy approach should fully incorporate needs for sustainable land management and not be used as trade barriers against exports coming from developing countries.
Renewable energy (solar, wind, biomass) should be enhanced in the Drylands. Developing countries are encouraged to take advantage of financial opportunities offered by existing or emerging mechanisms such as the ones derived from the Rio Conventions process (carbon market, GEF enabling funds, etc.). Likewise, activities on agroforestry and water resources, including underground aquifers, should be fostered in the context of cooperation for development policies.
c) What are the views on implementation and on how to close the implementation gap, which relevant actors are envisaged as being involved (Governments, specific Major Groups, UN system, IFIs, etc.);

The concerns of Drylands peoples are often poorly represented in international, national and local policy processes. Good governance of the Drylands will also bring knowledge, cultural values, needs and aspirations of local inhabitants into multi-level policy and decision-making.
An integrated multidisciplinary climate research, observation, modeling and applications program should be implemented to inform resource managers, policy makers, planners, educators and local populations about adaptation to the consequences of a changing climate.
While information technology and knowledge based on the complex causes and effects of climate variability, extremes and change have advanced significantly during the past two decades, significantly greater inputs from the social sciences are needed, especially to focus on the social and political causes of vulnerability and resilience as well as the societal impacts of climate variability and climate change.
The gap caused by a mismatch between scientific and technological investigation related to the Drylands along with knowledge about production systems on the one hand, and the prevailing system of decision-making and environmental and local governance, on the other, should be eliminated. New Science and Technology (S&T) knowledge must be developed in existing and new Drylands institutions. Sustainable development efforts must respect the cultures of indigenous, traditional and other local populations that have inhabited these regions for centuries.
Drylands knowledge networks should be enhanced with two basic objectives: (i) scientific and applied research: exchange of information, discussion of methodologies,
communication of scientific discoveries and joint development of research activities; and (ii) participatory planning and action: create a forum for exchanging experiences among specialists, government authorities and civil society.
Governance of sustainable development in the drylands should be strengthened at different levels, by enforcing the implementation of the multilateral environmental agreements (MEA) and supporting national and local policies, inter alia through: i) taking into account traditional knowledge, cultural values, needs and aspirations of local inhabitants; ii) reinforcement of regional cooperation between States directly or by means of dedicated organizations such as APGMV and river basin organizations; iii) use of different policy means, including the empowering of local populations and facilitating their access to land. These measures must be consistent with cultural values and customary laws as appropriate.
International cooperation should be encouraged since better coordination of development programs improves their efficiency. South-south cooperation and tripartite (South, North, South) cooperation should be especially fostered. South?South cooperation, notably when it implies developing and emerging countries, like Brazil, is powerful because some emerging countries have already experimented with success policies to fight poverty, land degradation and desertification. Tripartite cooperation, which involves developing, emerging and developed countries, should also be encouraged. International donors and lenders ? States, Financial Institutions, foundations, corporate philanthropists ? should pay special attention to the needs expressed by organizations directly involved in the combat against desertification, bearing in mind the principles of the Paris Declaration.
d) What specific cooperation mechanisms, partnership arrangements or other implementation tools are envisaged and what is the relevant time frame for the proposed decisions to be reached and actions to be implemented?

Convene a ?Drylands Summit on Sustainable Development? to refine policy options for Drylands worldwide. Inputs from ICID+19, Niamey 2011, and those of the proposed Drylands Summit would enhance discussion of the importance of Drylands issues in the Rio+20 Conference agenda. Summits for other eco-regions should also be identified and convened.
A new strategic geo-political Drylands Initiative, if not alliance, can be developed to coordinate efforts to address common climate, development and sustainability related problems, prospects and opportunities.
Generate support for development and implementation of community-level knowledge-based strategies to educate children, adults, policy and decision makers, including parliamentarians, and the media, about the obvious as well as hidden implications of climate and environmental changes In the Drylands.
Efforts to improve scientific cooperation devoted to the drylands should be promoted at all levels.
This could be reached by the development of Science, Technology & Innovation (STI) initiatives located in Drylands countries, by enhancing regional and continental centers of excellence on topics concerning drought and desertification.
This could also be reached in Drylands regions through the activities of existing and new networks and observatories devoted to integrated approaches on climate change, land degradation and desertification, migration, health, sustainable development experiences, e.g.
Exchange and share of information and Data related to the drylands should be facilitated among scientists and should be used by policy makers.
We should encourage interdisciplinary research programs (inputs from social sciences are particularly needed). Indeed they are well tailored to take into account all the impacts ? social, economic and environmental ? of measures and policies fighting desertification and promoting sustainable development in drylands.
Research activities should provide local expertise about drylands management.
Research activities should contribute to training and capacity building in the drylands regions.
Moreover, scientific knowledge and dissemination towards the private sector and civil society ? mainly throughout the educational system ? should be improved. Information, models and policies related to drought and desertification should be enhanced.
Research activities should lead to usual outputs - such as scientific publications - but also to specific outputs that could be used directly by policy makers and other stakeholders.
Efforts should be done in order to assess the state of the art about research devoted to the drylands, including with the use of impact indicators.
The links between research and innovation should be strengthened as well as public-private partnership. The development of biotechnologies and ecological intensification using the diversity of local biological resources should be promoted.
Specific Elements
a) Objective of the Conference: To secure renewed political commitment for sustainable development, assessing the progress to date and remaining gaps in the implementation of the outcomes of the major summits on sustainable development and addressing new and emerging challenges.

Contributions could include possible sectoral priorities (e.g., (e.g., energy, food security and sustainable agriculture, technology transfer, water, oceans, sustainable urbanization, sustainable consumption and production, natural disaster preparedness and climate change adaptation, biodiversity, etc.) and sectoral initiatives that contribute to integrate the three pillars of sustainable development could be launched and endorsed at Rio+20.

N/A
b) Green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication: views regarding how green economy can be a means to achieve sustainable development in its three dimensions, and poverty eradication; what is its potential added value; experience to date, including what has worked and how to build upon success, what are the challenges and opportunities and how to address the challenges and seize opportunities, and possible elements of an agreement in outcome document on a green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication

N/A
c) Institutional framework for sustainable development: Priorities and proposals for strengthening individual pillars of sustainable development, as well as those for strengthening integration of the three pillars, at multiple levels; local, national, regional and international.

N/A
d) Any proposals for refinement of the two themes. Recall that Resolution 64/236 describes the focus of the Conference: "The focus of the Conference will include the following themes to be discussed and refined during the preparatory process: a green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication and the institutional framework for sustainable development".

N/A

Full Submission

UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT RIO+20 INPUTS FOR COMPILATION DOCUMENT

SUBMISSION 1: MAJOR GROUPS ? OTHER ORGANIZATIONS

ORGANIZATION: CENTRO DE GESTÃO E ESTUDOS ESTRATÉGICOS ? CGGE COUNTRY: BRAZIL

THE DRYLANDS TOWARDS RIO+20: A GLOBAL CHALLENGE

In order to raise awareness in regard to the special conditions of the world Drylands (arid, semi-arid, dry subhumid), a process called ICID was organized by a group of international and national stakeholders (National and Sub-national Governments, non-Governmental institutions and international organizations), with the objective of contributing to the agenda, discussions and decisions of the UNCSD ? United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, also known as Rio + 20.

ICID stands for International Conference on Climate, Sustainability and Development in Drylands. As it is known, the Drylands are the object of the UNCCD ? United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification and to Mitigate the Effects of Droughts. The ICID process and the UNCCD itself, which resulted from the Rio 92 Summit, are justified by the fact that the Drylands comprise 40% of the land area of the globe, 30% of the population and the great majority of the poverty of the world. At the same time, they have a great contribution to world food production and a great potentiality to contribute to the world sustainable development. However, these regions lack priority in international and sometimes national decision making.

The first ICID was held in Fortaleza, Brazil, in January 1992, with a participation of 45 countries and international organizations, as a contribution to the Rio 92. The second ICID, called ICID + 18, was also held in Fortaleza, in August 2010, as a contribution to Rio + 20. The third ICID, called ICID + 19 Argentina, was held in Mendoza, Argentina, in September 2011. And the ICID + 19 Africa was held in Niamey, Niger, in October 2011, also as a contribution to the Rio + 20 Conference.

More than 2,300 scientists and policymakers from 80 countries and all continents, including public officials, natural and social scientists, representatives of the private sector and international agencies, including the UNCCD, the World Bank, Bilateral Agencies and others, and members of non-governmental, private sector and other civil-society organizations, met in Fortaleza ? Brazil (ICID+18, 2010). In Mendoza, Argentina, the ICID+19, 2011 gathered more than 300 participants from Latin American and European countries and from international organizations. And in Niamey, Niger, the ICID+19 Africa, gathered more than a hundred participants from several African countries (especially from the Sahelian region), from Brazil, Argentina and France. The UNCCD participated in all ICIDs.

All three ICID Conferences exchanged scientific information and policy lessons of the past two decades about sustainable development in Drylands around the globe and offered policy recommendations for consideration at the Rio+20 Summit in 2012. Besides the scientific contribution, each ICID produced a policy oriented Declaration (Declaration of Fortaleza, August 2010; Declaration of Mendoza, September 2011; and Declaration of Niamey, October 2011), with recommendations for international and national policy makers and for society in general, aiming at raising awareness and promoting the sustainable development of, and eradicate poverty in the Drylands regions. The complete text of the three ICID Declarations is attached to this document.

Since the first ICID was held in 1992, human-induced global warming and environmental changes and their consequences for human and ecosystems well-being are now widely accepted as fundamental development issues.

The purpose the set of ICID Conferences was to assess the situation of Drylands regions (arid, semi-arid and dry subhumid lands) in order to foster sustainable development and the fight against poverty, land degradation and desertification in the Drylands. From this analysis, participants have reached conclusions and adopted action oriented recommendations addressed in particular to the Rio + 20 Summit in 2012.

The participants in the ICID conferences suggest that the agenda of the Rio + 20 could devote a special chapter to the discussion of the challenges and potentialities of the Drylands, given their importance in terms of population, poverty, development gap, and environmental assets.

EXPECTATIONS

The Drylands worldwide contain the largest concentrations of poverty and suffer the greatest pressures on their natural resources such as water, soils, and biodiversity. Their populations are extremely vulnerable to the adverse consequences of environmental changes related to climate variability and change, and are among the least able to cope effectively with them. Desertification alone, as a symbol of environmental threats in the Drylands, adversely affects the livelihoods of one billion (1,000,000,000!) people. Although significant advances continue to be made in scientific knowledge and public understanding concerning the interactions among climate, environmental sustainability and socio-economic development and despite progress and the best of government intentions, the challenges continue to increase and constrain efforts to effectively reduce poverty, mitigate and adapt to climate change and achieve sustainable development and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Past errors, poorly conceived policies, and exploitative practices have resulted in environmental and social conditions that are not easily reversed without substantial and sustained development efforts that require increased national and international financial support. Declining productivity in the Drylands of their natural resources, the prevalence of poverty and significant inequities as well as institutional weaknesses are expected to be worsened by climate variability and change.

The world?s Drylands possess many important assets, including rich social, cultural and biological diversity. They are responsible for more than 20% of food production around the globe.

The sustainable development of Drylands, through improved governance, enhanced livelihoods and greater voice, empowerment, and political representation of their populations (especially the poor), should be the foremost objective of local to international action.

Climate-sensitive development interventions from local to global must be substantially increased paying special attention to the needs of women, children and the elderly, throughout the Drylands.

?Win-Win? opportunities to cope with global warming must be identified and pursued, especially climate adaptation tactics and strategies that reduce local vulnerability, increase resilience and build assets of the poor. Efforts are needed to develop greater institutional capacity for managing climate variability today in the context of projected climate changes (e.g., greater emphasis on improved climate and environmental monitoring networks, drought preparedness planning based on a risk-based management approach, development of appropriate decision-support tools, and improved information delivery systems to aid decision making). Efforts must promote access to land and to markets, as well as effective civil-society grassroots participation in decision-making, implementation, and evaluation of development activities.

The sustainable development of the drylands and the combat to land degradation and desertification should be fostered, through the incorporation of the environmental, social and economic dimensions in development planning and implementation.

The United Nations should urgently consider the current plight of the Drylands, including the risks to global security associated with the growing impoverishment and food insecurity, increasing vulnerability to natural disasters and climate change, and rising conflicts and violence in Drylands regions.

Previous financial pledges by industrialized countries to support sustainable development efforts must be met. Existing institutional arrangements and financial instruments must not only be strengthened but must become more efficient. Disbursement of concessionary resources from recently established Climate Investment and Adaptation Funds, for example, should be accelerated, and local and national institutional absorptive capacities strengthened to effectively utilize these resources.

Regular exchange including scientists, decision and policymakers dealing with the drylands should be encouraged.

Short, medium and long term strategies are necessary to better monitor implementation of actions against land degradation and desertification. In this regard, a zero net land degradation target should be set.

Beyond Rio + 20, the MDGs that will be defined for the period following 2015 should pay special attention to the Drylands and consider them as a target with a high-level of priority.

COMMMENTS

Mechanisms should be strengthened through integrated action to arrest and avoid land degradation, to mitigate the effects of droughts, fires and floods, to conserve soil and water resources and biodiversity, and to resiliently adapt to climate change and its consequences. In addition, mechanisms to financially compensate local communities for the environmental protection services they provide must be identified and implemented. Multilateral and bilateral development agencies can play an important role.

Investment opportunities should exploit the comparative advantages of drylands areas such as solar power generation, as well as other alternative and renewable energy sources (including hydropower, wind, and biomass). They should also support techniques for rainwater capture, improved sanitation, wastewater reuse in irrigation and low carbon, resource saving and environmentally-friendly activities. Such investment would enhance energy and food security by the improved efficient management of demand for water through adequate pricing and other means. The integration of water basins should also be considered There is also the need to recover degraded areas, strengthen the management and sustainability of existing and newly protected areas and to prevent environmental deterioration of those that are as yet well preserved. Drylands regions should catalogue and prioritize the various sustainable uses and conservation of biodiversity.

Synergies among global, national, regional and local interventions to mitigate and adapt to climate change, conserve biodiversity, and curb desertification should be maximized. Interactions among and with the three Rio Conventions (UNCCD, UNCBD, UNFCCC) should be integrated with broader domestic and international efforts to foster quality of basic education, combat poverty and promote sustainability.

Enhancing climate-sensitive sustainable development activities will require additional financial resources. Part of these costs should be absorbed by national economies, but, because of the global public goods nature of these issues, a larger share of the needed incremental financing should come from industrialized countries.

Contextualized quality education at all levels should be a priority, cooperatively supported by all agencies involved. In addition to a high-return investment in human capital, this should be viewed as the need to raise the awareness of local populations about the linkages among climate change, poverty and sustainability. This will ensure an effective voice, empowerment and representation in public decision-making regarding the future of Drylands regions. Specific Drylands education policies should be developed. The priority focus should be on the youth of both genders beginning with early childhood development. They have the most at stake and will become the next wave of policy and decision makers.

The path to sustainable development requires a greening of the economy of the drylands, as is the case in other regions. The green economy approach should fully incorporate needs for sustainable land management and not be used as trade barriers against exports coming from developing countries. Renewable energy (solar, wind, biomass) should be enhanced in the Drylands. Developing countries are encouraged to take advantage of financial opportunities offered by existing or emerging mechanisms such as the ones derived from the Rio Conventions process (carbon market, GEF enabling funds, etc.). Likewise, activities on agroforestry and water resources, including underground aquifers, should be fostered in the context of cooperation for development policies.

IMPLEMENTATION

The concerns of Drylands peoples are often poorly represented in international, national and local policy processes. Good governance of the Drylands will also bring knowledge, cultural values, needs and aspirations of local inhabitants into multi-level policy and decision-making.

An integrated multidisciplinary climate research, observation, modeling and applications program should be implemented to inform resource managers, policy makers, planners, educators and local populations about adaptation to the consequences of a changing climate.

While information technology and knowledge based on the complex causes and effects of climate variability, extremes and change have advanced significantly during the past two decades, significantly greater inputs from the social sciences are needed, especially to focus on the social and political causes of vulnerability and resilience as well as the societal impacts of climate variability and climate change.

The gap caused by a mismatch between scientific and technological investigation related to the Drylands along with knowledge about production systems on the one hand, and the prevailing system of decision-making and environmental and local governance, on the other, should be eliminated. New Science and Technology (S&T) knowledge must be developed in existing and new Drylands institutions. Sustainable development efforts must respect the cultures of indigenous, traditional and other local populations that have inhabited these regions for centuries.

Drylands knowledge networks should be enhanced with two basic objectives: (i) scientific and applied research: exchange of information, discussion of methodologies, communication of scientific discoveries and joint development of research activities; and (ii) participatory planning and action: create a forum for exchanging experiences among specialists, government authorities and civil society.

Governance of sustainable development in the drylands should be strengthened at different levels, by enforcing the implementation of the multilateral environmental agreements (MEA) and supporting national and local policies, inter alia through: i) taking into account traditional knowledge, cultural values, needs and aspirations of local inhabitants; ii) reinforcement of regional cooperation between States directly or by means of dedicated organizations such as APGMV and river basin organizations; iii) use of different policy means, including the empowering of local populations and facilitating their access to land. These measures must be consistent with cultural values and customary laws as appropriate.

International cooperation should be encouraged since better coordination of development programs improves their efficiency. South-south cooperation and tripartite (South, North, South) cooperation should be especially fostered. South?South cooperation, notably when it implies developing and emerging countries, like Brazil, is powerful because some emerging countries have already experimented with success policies to fight poverty, land degradation and desertification. Tripartite cooperation, which involves developing, emerging and developed countries, should also be encouraged. International donors and lenders ? States, Financial Institutions, foundations, corporate philanthropists ? should pay special attention to the needs expressed by organizations directly involved in the combat against desertification, bearing in mind the principles of the Paris Declaration.

TOOLS

Convene a ?Drylands Summit on Sustainable Development? to refine policy options for Drylands worldwide. Inputs from ICID+19, Niamey 2011, and those of the proposed Drylands Summit would enhance discussion of the importance of Drylands issues in the Rio+20 Conference agenda. Summits for other eco-regions should also be identified and convened.

A new strategic geo-political Drylands Initiative, if not alliance, can be developed to coordinate efforts to address common climate, development and sustainability related problems, prospects and opportunities. Generate support for development and implementation of community-level knowledge-based strategies to educate children, adults, policy and decision makers, including parliamentarians, and the media, about the obvious as well as hidden implications of climate and environmental changes In the Drylands.

Efforts to improve scientific cooperation devoted to the drylands should be promoted at all levels.

This could be reached by the development of Science, Technology & Innovation (STI) initiatives located in Drylands countries, by enhancing regional and continental centers of excellence on topics concerning drought and desertification.

This could also be reached in Drylands regions through the activities of existing and new networks and observatories devoted to integrated approaches on climate change, land degradation and desertification, migration, health, sustainable development experiences, e.g. Exchange and share of information and Data related to the drylands should be facilitated among scientists and should be used by policy makers.

We should encourage interdisciplinary research programs (inputs from social sciences are particularly needed). Indeed they are well tailored to take into account all the impacts ? social, economic and environmental ? of measures and policies fighting desertification and promoting sustainable development in drylands.

Research activities should provide local expertise about drylands management.

Research activities should contribute to training and capacity building in the drylands regions.

Moreover, scientific knowledge and dissemination towards the private sector and civil society ? mainly throughout the educational system ? should be improved. Information, models and policies related to drought and desertification should be enhanced.

Research activities should lead to usual outputs - such as scientific publications - but also to specific outputs that could be used directly by policy makers and other stakeholders.

Efforts should be done in order to assess the state of the art about research devoted to the drylands, including with the use of impact indicators.

The links between research and innovation should be strengthened as well as public-private partnership. The development of biotechnologies and ecological intensification using the diversity of local biological resources should be promoted.
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