Switzerland
Information
  • Date submitted: 1 Nov 2011
  • Stakeholder type: Member State
  • Name: Switzerland
  • Submission Document: Download
Keywords: Renewable energy (3 hits),

Full Submission



Reference: K402-0239 / 28 October 2011

Submission by Switzerland for UNCSD 2012 (Rio+20)

Summary ................................................................................................................................................ 2
Green Economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication ............................ 3
1 Context ....................................................................................................................................... 3
2 A roadmap for a green economy ................................................................................................. 3
2.1 Vision ...................................................................................................................................... 5
2.2 Objectives and targets ............................................................................................................. 6
2.3 Green economy toolbox .......................................................................................................... 8
3 Governance structure for the roadmap and means of implementation ....................................... 8
Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development ............................................................................ 9
1 Context ....................................................................................................................................... 9
2 Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development (IFSD) .................................................... 9
2.1 IFSD Functions ........................................................................................................................ 9
2.2 Elements for reforming international sustainability governance ............................................ 10
2.3 Further IFSD reform elements ............................................................................................... 12
2.4 National and local governance .............................................................................................. 13
2.5 Linking the two UNCSD focus topics..................................................................................... 14
3 International Environmental Governance (IEG) ........................................................................ 14
3.1 IEG core functions ................................................................................................................. 14
3.2 Elements of an IEG reform package ..................................................................................... 15
Annex 1: Areas for greening the economy ............................................................................................ 18
Annex 2: International environmental governance core functions ........................................................ 29


Submission by Switzerland for UNCSD 2012 (Rio+20)

Summary

While the Rio Declaration, Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation remain highly relevant, Switzerland proposes to renew the commitment for sustainable development through the following measures regarding the two main themes of the Rio+20 conference:

Concerning ?green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication? Switzerland is of the view that main outcomes for the theme green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication should be an international green economy roadmap and the commitment of countries to develop a national green economy action plan. The international green economy roadmap should consist of two levels: At the policy level, the green economy roadmap needs to contain a common vision, common objectives as well as concrete targets for the transformation towards a green economy. This roadmap should apply for the international community as a whole, whereas differentiated responsibilities and solutions for each country apply. At the operational level, the green economy roadmap needs to bring together best practices and tools in order to meet the targets and to implement green economy.

Internationally agreed objectives and targets which will create the enabling conditions and make the transformation towards a green economy operational and measureable should be formulated in particular in the following areas: Commitment to formulate national green economy action plans; measurement of progress towards a green economy; ecological market transparency and trade; fossil fuel subsidies reform; sustainable public procurement; education for green economy; sustainable agriculture and food security; sustainable energy; sustainable water management; sustainable management of fragile ecosystems; resource efficient and cleaner production; trade in sustainable biodiversity products and services; ; and education for green economy.

Switzerland further considers that the Rio+20 conference should agree upon comprehensive reform measures for improving the institutional framework for sustainable development. We propose to reform international sustainability governance by measures which address the following elements:
Relevant agenda and policy guidance; establishing a peer review mechanism; more effective involvement of civil society (amongst others through involvement of civil society representatives in the bureau and holding a multi-stakeholder forum); presentation of national commitments for sustainable development in support of candidacies; and regular high-level segments. We propose to put this reform in practice by replacing the CSD with a Global Sustainability Council (GSC) as a subsidiary organ of the UN General Assembly (no amendment of the Charter necessary).

We further consider it crucial for the Rio+20 conference to settle on an ambitious reform package for strengthening international environmental governance which includes the following elements: Universal membership of IEG anchor institution; ensuring oversight, guidance and coordination of MEAs through IEG anchor institution; enhanced synergies within clusters; UN system-wide strategy for environment; system of assessed contributions for the IEG anchor institution which increases the total volume of available resources; better link of environmental policy making and financing; system-wide capacity-building framework for environment; increasing capacity of the IEG anchor institution at the regional level; and strengthen the science-policy interface.

We further propose to renew the political commitment for national and local sustainable development governance including through the development or renewal of sustainable development strategies or the access of information and the participation of civil society in decision making. Switzerland welcomes the idea of universal Sustainable Development Goals. They should build on the experience of the MDGs and address all dimensions of sustainable development and their interconnectedness. Rio+20 can make important contributions in this regard.

Green Economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty Eradication

1 Context

The world faces major environmental and social challenges. The growing world population and changing consumption and production patterns increase the pressure on natural resources and the environment. Furthermore, there are growing social disparities. The current economic structures, rules and activities are not able to respond to these challenges in a way that leads the world into a sustainable future. Since we have only one planet to live on, a green economy that takes into account the earth? limits and pro poor development is essential for our common future.

Switzerland welcomes the thematic focus of the Rio+20 conference on ?green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication? and is convinced that it provides a unique opportunity for the international community to agree upon clear and focused steps for achieving the transformation towards a green economy that contributes to the implementation of sustainable development.

The transformation should be based on the understanding that growth progressively needs to be qualitative and overall welfare of society needs to be increased. The Rio+20 conference should demonstrate that a green economy provides solutions for taking natural resource use and its environmental and social impacts on a long term basis into account. The conference should also advance the understanding that a resource efficient economy creates green jobs in sectors of all levels of development and that it contributes substantially to national competitiveness. In doing so, the Rio+20 conference should also contribute to achieving greater equity and to addressing poverty in developed, middle income and developing countries and renew the commitment of the international community to support developing countries in their sustainable development pathway.

The implementation of green economy will need international cooperation as well as coordinated action at the local and regional levels, based on the Rio Declaration from 1992 and the guiding principles contained therein. Besides action at the governmental and intergovernmental levels, the inclusion of the private sector and civil society is vital. The transformation towards a green economy will lead to changes in the way we produce and consume goods and services and therefore needs action and contribution from all participants of the economic system such as producers, consumers, investors, procurers, politicians, decision makers ? all of us.

The international community should not miss the opportunity to send clear messages on green economy at the Rio+20 conference. At the same time, it should showcase major steps already being implemented towards a green economy. In Switzerland, for example, important efforts are already being undertaken in order to increase resource efficiency and to support green economy in its international cooperation. Examples are the governmental green economy action plan, waste management industry?s efforts for recycling and closed resource cycles or the food industry?s responsiveness to the demand for environmentally friendly produced food to name only a few. Important initiatives also exist at the international level as for example on sustainable consumption and production, discussions in the WTO committee on trade and environment or the standardization for information on environmental information and Switzerland?s support to developing countries and emerging economies in the fields such as sustainable agriculture and rural development, climate adaptation or water and sanitation.

Another important initiative in this regard is the World Resource Forum that took place in Davos from 19 to 21 September 2011. Switzerland welcomes its outcome as an important contribution to the green economy debate and in particular shares the call for clear objectives, targets and instruments to implement green economy. Scientific background to the natural resource question in the context of green economy is delivered by the International Resource Panel.

2 A roadmap for a green economy

Switzerland is of the view that main outcomes of the Rio+20 conference for the theme green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication should be an international green economy roadmap and the commitment of countries to develop a national green economy action plan.

Such a roadmap is the best available instrument to lay out the path towards a green economy and also to ensure the implementation of the commitments made regarding green economy at the Rio+20 conference. We propose to establish a roadmap with a time horizon of 20 years (2032).

With regard to the national green economy action plans, it is evident that there is no one size fits for all for a green economy. Every country will define its own action plan according to its own needs, priorities and political processes. The green economy activities should be developed in the context of the broader sustainable development framework such as for example the national sustainable development strategies. There will be important differences between countries:

Low income countries will have to focus on poverty reduction and the provision of basic services needs as housing, food security, sanitation, education, and health. Pro poor economic growth and particularly job creation is priority. A green economy strategy can help to integrate the preservation of important ecosystem services, a sustainable approach to rural development and a low emission pathway into their economic strategy.

Middle income countries are rapidly developing infrastructure, are building up governance systems and have an expanding private sector. Green economy can help them to integrate resource efficiency and social security considerations in their investments. In doing so they can pioneer ways to decouple economic growth and resource use and can gain international competitiveness in a low carbon economy.

High-income countries face the challenge to rapidly shrink their resource use and consumption level while preserving economic and social stability. A green economy can help the to prioritize areas of transformation and address opportunities.

An internationally agreed roadmap shall support countries in the development and implementation of their national green economy action plans. The green economy roadmap should consist of two levels, one being the policy and the other the operational level. At the policy level, the green economy roadmap needs to contain a common vision, common objectives as well as concrete targets and timelines for the transformation towards a green economy, committing countries to launch concrete and coordinated efforts in various fields and to create enabling conditions for a green economy. At the operational level, the green economy roadmap needs to bring together best practices and tools in order to meet the targets and to implement green economy. The different starting points and situations of countries have to be taken into account for the implementation of instruments and measures that lead to a green economy.

An international roadmap can help in promoting exchange, cooperation and capacity building, facilitating the scaling up and the availability of innovative technologies and resources and open the way for new and innovative partnerships, as private public development partnerships, triangular and southsouth cooperation and global multi-stakeholder initiatives.

As a matter of fact, the Ministerial Conference ?Environment for Europe? held recently in Astana made a very similar proposal by concluding: ?A useful and practical outcome for the Rio+20 Conference could be an internationally agreed roadmap for the green economy. Such a roadmap should consist of a political and an action-oriented part. The political part should consist of a political commitment for accelerating the transformation to the green economy. The action-oriented part should consist of a toolbox with concrete instruments and measures and a clear distribution of work and responsibilities.?

The green economy roadmap should be guided by the Rio Principles set out in the Rio Declaration from 1992 which remains highly relevant as well as relevant human and social rights and gender equality. The political chapeau as well as the instruments and measures should further make use of existing work and draw from the groundwork and experience of relevant global activities on green economy as e.g. the range of possible policies indentified in the UNEP Green Economy Report, the OECD Green Growth Strategy, as far as applicable both in a developed and developing country context, and other international processes. Corresponding activities at the national level, for example in the context of national sustainable development strategies, can also be valuable sources, The following chart illustrates the idea of the roadmap:

2.1 Vision

The vision of the green economy roadmap should provide an outlook on how a green economy should look like in the future. The vision should reflect a common understanding of the concept of green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication and should give directions for transforming towards a more sustainable society. It should take into account the need for overcoming the reliance on fossil fuels and for a sustainable use of natural resources which has to lead to an absolute decrease of global resource use and to an absolute decoupling of economic growth from resource use and environmental degradation. It should not only reflect need for ecological and social changes in our society and in the global economy, but also the role of technology gains which increase resource efficiency. And it must lead to welfare gains, poverty eradication and equity in order to be an effective means for achieving sustainable development.

In this context, Switzerland proposes to work on the basis of an open and flexible understanding of green economy. Green economy should not be understood as a substitution for sustainable development, but as a practical instrument for its implementation. Green economy offer specific approaches to address the nexus between economy and environment while substantially contributing to social equity, poverty reduction, well-being and the provision of a sound social protection and security system. In this regard, green economy is also an important approach for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. The alignment of a green economy with the key principles of sustainable development is for example well illustrated in the description used in the UNEP Green Economy report:

?[-] green economy [is] one that results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities. In its simplest exSubmission pression, a green economy can be thought of as one which is low carbon, resource efficient and socially inclusive. In a green economy, growth in income and employment should be driven by public and private investments that reduce carbon emissions and pollution, enhance energy and resource efficiency, and prevent the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. These investments need to be catalysed and supported by targeted public expenditure, policy reforms and regulation changes. The development path should maintain, enhance and, where necessary, rebuild natural capital as a critical economic asset and as a source of public benefits, especially for poor people whose livelihoods and security depend on nature.?

2.2 Objectives and targets

The objectives of the green economy roadmap concretize the vision in different fields of action and make it operational and measureable. The objectives are to be attained by the international community by 2032 in view of accomplishing the transformation towards a green economy. The targets define specific intermediate steps that lead towards the vision and the fulfilment of the objectives along the timeline. All countries shall cooperate to the global objectives and targets in a spirit of global partnership, while at the same time common but differentiated responsibilities apply in view of different contributions to global environmental degradation. It is most efficient if countries choose the instruments and measures appropriate for their situation in order to reach the targets and objectives and, hence, to contribute to a green economy.

Enabling conditions for a green economy support the green economy transition and the continued effort to eradicate poverty. This does not only include the establishment of sound regulatory frameworks, the employment of taxes and market-based instruments for sustainable investments as well as for setting the prices right for consumers and producers (prices should reflect the scarcity of natural resources and internalize external cost), the limitation of governmental spending in areas that deplete natural capital, and other important areas of actions for governments, but also the strengthening of international governance and cooperation. In this regard Switzerland recalls the following:

Setting the right prices for natural resources is central to a green economy while securing access and tenure right of the poor to natural resources.

Ecological and natural resources are the base of our economies and efforts in their preservation and restoration are central,

International trading system as well as investment treaties should contribute to the implementation of a green economy and be coherent with environmental and social interests.

That investments in new technologies, technologies transfer and infrastructure need a longterm perspective and public and private investments.

The importance of sound scientific knowledge on the natural resources situation and on poverty and social development impact as a base for targets and action as well as the role of training and innovation.

Poverty and environmental degradation are intrinsically linked and one cannot be resolved without addressing the other.

Green Economy contributes to job creation whereas the increase in green jobs will be central for employment in the future.

Social equity and the provision of sound social security systems as well as the corresponding social and policy monitoring mechanism are needed to ensure that a green economy is to the benefit of all levels of society in developed, emerging and developing countries.

Switzerland believes that the commitment of every country to develop and implement a national green economy action plan is a crucial step towards a green economy. However, the international agreed roadmap needs to establish objectives and targets for the international community as a whole in order to achieve a green economy. They are listed below and are further specified in Annex I:

Proposals for an enabling environment

National green economy action plans Objective: Implementation of green economy measures and mainstreaming in economic planning in order to create the framework and determine the necessary steps for the transition. Action plans will be in line with the sustainable development framework, respect its principles and social aspects.

Comprehensive measurement of progress towards a green economy: measurement of the total environmental impact of production and consumption Objective: To report the progress towards a green economy, all countries should inform on the total environmental impact of their consumption and production by adopting a life cycle perspective and further developing their sustainable development measuring instruments.

Ecological market transparency and trade Objective: Information on environmental impacts of products are available and market actors are able to differentiate between ecological and non ecological products.

Fossil fuel subsidies reform Objective: Phase out, over the medium term, inefficient fossil fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption and undermine sustainable development, while mitigating adverse impacts on vulnerable groups.

Proposals for important sectoral and specific areas

Sustainable public procurement Objective: Countries? public procurement on national as well as on sub-national level respects sustainability criteria.

Sustainable agriculture and food security Objective: A sustainable agro-food system with increased resilience, that ensures food security for all, maintain availability of natural resources, provide decent livelihoods and income for farmers and rural populations.

Sustainable energy Objective: The transformation of the global energy system to ensure access to affordable, clean and sustainable energy resources for all.

Sustainable water management Objective: Secure water supply by ensuring sustainable water management and use.

Sustainable management of fragile ecosystems (mountains, drylands, forest, small island) Objective: Ensure sustainable management of fragile ecosystems such as mountains, drylands, and forests to secure livelihood for their population, to avoid environmental degradation and to strengthen the potential to provide ecosystem services at local, regional and international scales.

Resource efficient and cleaner production Objective: Improve resource productivity and environmental performance of businesses and other organisations over the whole life cycle process, and thereby contribute to sustainable industrial development and sustainable production and consumption.

Trade in sustainable biodiversity products and services Objective: Developing countries rich in biodiversity recognize biotrade as a valuable instrument in the transition to a green economy and develop selected biodiversity sectors under biotrade strategies.

Education for green economy Objective: Promotion of green economy skills in relevant education which is leading to a mainstreaming of green economy throughout the whole economy and fostering innovation at all levels.

2.3 Green economy toolbox

In order to assist and support countries in the definition and implementation of their respective national green economy activities and achieving the green economy objectives and targets, the roadmap includes a toolbox. This toolbox describes instruments and measures that can, respecting the national circumstances in the different countries, be applied in order to achieve the transformation to a green economy. The toolbox is managed by the mechanism described in chapter 3 of this section. Nevertheless, it has to be highlighted that the toolbox should be flexible in application and continuously adapted to the changing environment.

Already today we have a multitude of instruments that, when implemented, contribute to the change towards a green economy. Governments have a central role in creating the right framework for creating incentives, where market-based policies are important tools to get the prices right for natural resources.

The actual change, however, is made by all economic actors, producers and consumers in particular, which should not only be incited by governmental incentives alone. The instruments in this toolbox, therefore, should respect the target group and the circumstances in the different industries, countries, and regions.

The instruments and measures that Switzerland considers crucial for a green economy are outlined in Annex 1 of this submission. This is a non-exhaustive list with priorities for Switzerland. Switzerland invites other parties to complete the toolbox with instruments and measures for a green economy of their priorities as well as objectives of their interest. Additional instruments should meet the following criteria: The instruments within the toolbox should be thematic, covering broad areas and with a multistakeholder participation. They should take a life-cycle approach and use a mix of instruments to achieve shifts in economic behaviour. While they should be global in focus, they should be flexible in order to be adaptable to different needs, priorities and capacities.

3 Governance structure for the roadmap and means of implementation

In order to accompany the implementation, a governance framework and means of implementation for the green economy roadmap need to be identified at the Rio+20 conference. On the one hand, the governance structure for the green economy roadmap needs to include a clear defined review and monitoring mechanism. The implementation measures for a green economy carried out through the instruments in the toolbox will be significantly improved through regular reviewing and monitoring of activities undertaken and results achieved. The design of the monitoring and review mechanisms needed for the green economy roadmap needs to be addressed in the context of the discussion on the international framework for sustainable development.

On the other hand, a governance structure and means of implementation for the operational part of the green economy roadmap, i.e. the toolbox, are needed. In setting up the structure, one needs to take into account that the toolbox for implementing green economy should be flexible in application as well as in its content in order to take into account the different starting points and specific needs of countries as well as to account for the developing environment.

For the administration of the green economy toolbox and support of the national and international implementation a dedicated support structure should be established and insert itself in the sustainable development governance structures. The various international organizations should contribute according to their mandate. The responsibilities of the support structure would include:

management of the green economy toolbox, inclusion of new instruments and evaluation of ongoing and planned activities, provision of information clearing-house services such as advice to countries on implementation of instruments, referral of requests for information to relevant sources, and assisting in matching the demand for participation in programs and support from countries;

facilitating resource mobilization, financial and technical support and capacity building; as well as

identifying remaining or emerging needs at all levels.

There is already substantial expertise, knowledge and resources available in different countries as well as in different UN agencies and the IFI?s as well as regional institutions that can contribute to the implementation of the green economy roadmap.

Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development

1 Context

In order to achieve sustainable development we also need an appropriate institutional framework. It is important to address both governance in each of the dimensions of sustainable development and governance for sustainable development in a holistic manner. Sound governance in all these areas is needed in order to advance on the path of a sustainable development at the international, regional, national and local levels.

At the international level, governance for sustainable development is fragmented and often inefficient. The Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD), established after the UNCED in 1992, has not succeeded in playing the role it was meant to play and involving all relevant actors. There is a need for stronger global governance for sustainable development. Switzerland welcomes the considerable attention that has already been given to strengthening international environmental governance (IEG).

While addressing governance for sustainable development in a holistic manner, we nevertheless are of the opinion that IEG deserves a special attention. Furthermore, the Rio+20 conference must seize the opportunity for strengthening the commitment for national and local governance for sustainable development, as the achievement of sustainable development objectives crucially depends on the implementation ?on the ground?.

We also see these as the main areas where comprehensive reform measures should be agreed at the Rio+20 conference. In this submission, Switzerland follows the principle that form follows function. At this stage, Switzerland therefore puts the main emphasis on improvements that are needed for the institutional framework on sustainable development to better perform its governance functions and not on transforming these improvements in form related proposals. The latter will be done in the course of the intergovernmental negotiations.

2 Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development (IFSD)

2.1 IFSD Functions

Based on an analysis of relevant documents such as Agenda 21, Resolution 47/191 establishing the Commission for Sustainable Development and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation JPOI, the following IFSD functions can be identified:

a) Dialogue and exchange of best practices: Fostering a dialogue among all relevant stakeholders such as national and local governments, UN entities, civil society including business and other relevant international, regional, national and local bodies, exchange experiences and best practices, and mobilize all relevant stakeholders

b) Policy guidance: Provide recommendations and policy guidance (including on the normative level) on sustainable development, respond to new challenges, and take into account new scientific findings

c) Coordination and coherence: Coordination and coherence within the UN system, between the UN system and relevant entities outside the system, strengthening the role of the UN for sustainable development

d) Implementation: Foster sustainable development by encouraging relevant activities on the national and sub-national level such as national strategies for sustainable development amongst others through capacity building, technology transfer and financing

e) Monitoring: Monitoring the implementation of Agenda 21, JPOI and other relevant decisions on sustainable development as well as reporting from national sustainable development activities.

Within the United Nations system there is a wide range of entities responsible for fulfilling one or several of those IFSD functions such as the General Assembly (GA), the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD), programmes such as UNEP and UNDP, specialized agencies and the Secretary General, be it through the Chief Executive Board (CEB) or other management boards. In addition, treaty bodies, United Nations Economic Commissions, governments as well as civil society contribute to the institutional framework for sustainable development.

The result is that the framework for sustainable development is highly fragmented and lacks of coherence. It is thus not able to fulfil the above mentioned functions in a satisfactory manner. Switzerland therefore expects the Rio+20 conference to use its political significance and give momentum to an ambitious proposal for a strengthened international sustainable development governance.

In the following, Switzerland therefore proposes concrete elements to improve the institutional framework for sustainable development. First, we focus on the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) and its functions as Rio+20 is the time to review this entity established twenty years ago in Rio.

We come to the conclusion that the proposed reform elements are best realized when replacing the CSD by a new Global Sustainability Council (GSC). In a second step, we propose some further elements to improve IFSD, independently from the CSD or GSC.

2.2 Elements for reforming international sustainability governance

2.2.1 Agenda setting and policy guidance

The agenda setting should be based on fundamental documents on sustainable development such as Agenda 21, the Rio principles and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation as they remain relevant foundations for international sustainable development policy. However, it is important that the international sustainability agenda has a certain flexibility in order to allow discussions on current developments as well as emerging issues. In addition, duplication of specialized processes should be avoided in order for the policy guidance to have an added value.

The flexibility of the agenda could be achieved by a decision of the bureau on the focus of the agenda of the following year. The decision should be based, amongst others, on new scientific findings. In order to avoid duplications, the discussion of a topic that is already covered in a specialized process should focus on the sustainable development aspects. In addition, each agenda item should profit from the input of relevant UN entities providing latest insights into specialized processes and systemwide developments. These changes would not only allow to improve the fulfilment of the policy guidance function but also the coherence within the UN system.

2.2.2 Regular high-level segment on sustainable development

Annual or biannual open-ended cross-sectoral sessions on sustainable development should allow for a policy dialogue on the highest level. The outcome could be a Ministerial Declaration. It would allow for renewing the commitment for and focus on sustainable development and would also allow for targeted policy guidance.

2.2.3 Peer review mechanism

Switzerland proposes to introduce some type of state driven peer review ? designed as an open interactive dialogue with the state being reviewed. All UN member states would be periodically reviewed (universality). The peer review provides an opportunity for states and civil society to highlight successes.

Likewise, it should give opportunity to raise questions and express concerns on shortcomings of national policies and their implementation.

We perceive the peer review process as a review among equals and thus as a learning exercise for all stakeholders. The peer reviews would have the following objectives:

Universality, thus addressing sustainability issues in all countries all over the world;

Assessing positive developments and challenges with regard sustainability issues faced by states;

Sharing best practices between states and other stakeholders;

Encouraging states to fulfil their commitments and to explain their policies;

Addressing concrete needs and obstacles;

Helping countries to improve their performance on sustainability by providing references and recommendations;

Fostering national dialogue on sustainability among all relevant stakeholders and increase coherence in national efforts for sustainability; and

Stimulating greater involvement of the public in sustainability discussions and decision making.

Strengthening international and national communication for sustainable development.

An appropriate peer review would improve accountability through an improved monitoring system. It would thus foster an effective implementation. It would permit to take stock, discuss and capitalize on different states? efforts and experiences on their pathway to sustainable development. It would allow a dialogue among all relevant stakeholders and strengthen the communication of sustainable development.

2.2.4 Involving civil society

Critical to the achievement of sustainable development and more specifically to the implementation of Agenda 21, JPOI and other relevant decisions is the commitment not only from national governments but also from local governments and civil society. Access to information, participation in decision making and collaboration with civil society for the implementation of sustainable development is crucial. The two following reform elements (2.2.4 and 2.2.5) therefore contain specific proposals how to better include civil society on the international level. However, the collaboration and inclusion of civil society is also important for peer review (see 2.2.2) and for national as well as local governance (see 2.4).

2.2.5 Civil Society representation in the Bureau

Switzerland is convinced of the importance to involve civil society in the work of the bureau. We propose to take into account the experiences from the following two examples: In the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management SAICM model, civil society representatives are observers in the bureau. In the case of the Committee on World Food Security, there is an Advisory Group consisting of civil society representatives assisting the bureau. These models allow the bureau to foster sustainable development in particular by a more active involvement of civil society. This would allow for an pertinent agenda setting, a more meaningful dialogue among all relevant stakeholders and relevant policy guidance.

2.2.6 Multi-stakeholder forum

A multi-stakeholder forum should be established that allows exchanging best practices among all relevant stakeholders such as governments, international organizations, UN entities, and civil society including business. This exchange of best practices should be kept distinct and separate from the peer review mechanism. However, it would complement it as it would allow an exchange of best practices from different stakeholders. In addition, new partnerships and collaborations could be established.

2.2.7 Presentation of national commitments for sustainable development in support of candidacies to a seat

Based on a country?s own assessment of the national sustainable development framework and eventual shortcomings and gaps in implementation, countries aiming for a seat in the reformed CSD/Global Sustainability Council would present national commitments in order to underline their motivation for a membership. In these national commitments, countries could list concrete activities to be undertaken at the national, regional and international level and ambitious goals they want to achieve during their term. Switzerland is of the view that this would foster the implementation of the sustainable development agenda. the review of such individual commitments could be included in the peer review and would allow setting individual and concrete bench marks for the monitoring system.

2.2.8 Establishment of a Global Sustainability Council (GSC)

The above mentioned reform elements could be realized most effectively by establishing a Global Sustainability Council (GSC). This Council could be created afresh, without amending the UN Charter, as a subsidiary organ of the UN General Assembly and as a substitute of the CSD. By incorporating the reform elements outlined in chapters 2.2.1 ? 2.2.7 in its design, the new council will be more authoritative and effective than the current CSD and would be able to effectively encounter the shortcomings of current IFSD. However, additional measures might be necessary and more detailed discussions on this matter need to take place in the course of the negotiations.

2.3 Further IFSD reform elements

2.3.1 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Switzerland welcomes the idea of universal Sustainable Development Goals. A set of goals can be an effective tool for improving governance that complements institutional measures. Such a tool can guide countries in the implementation of the sustainable development agenda and provide a framework for international cooperation within the context of a multilateral review and monitoring framework. Such goals can also lead to better coordination and coherence as they allow focusing the activities of UN entities and other relevant actors and facilitate cooperative and coordinated action towards common priorities.

The Sustainable Development Goals should build on the experience of the MDGs and address all dimensions of sustainable development and their interconnectedness. They should be comprehensive and universal in scope, reflect the need for further poverty eradication, development and equity, address the planet?s boundaries as well as the challenges of sustainable management and equitable access to its resources, and should also address the social dimension. They should remain concrete enough for providing a useful tool in practice, have targets and enable data collection to monitor progress, be limited in number, and easy to communicate.

In order to define new goals, experience from the various fields should be taken into account. They should build on the Millennium Development Goals and their evaluation, the Global Environmental Outlook Report 5, which will assess the state of the environment based on agreed environmental goals and which will be published in early 2012, the Report of the Secretary-General?s Advisory Group on Energy and Climate Change as well relevant reports on social aspects. The process for the detailed elaboration of the SDGs needs to be clarified, but it should in any case be based on relevant expertise and scientific facts and should be led by the UN secretariat, whereas intergovernmental negotiations must be avoided.

2.3.2 Sustainable development in the CEB

While acknowledging that it is the prerogative of the UN Secretary General to organize the Secretariat and in the performance of his duties he shall not seek or receive instructions from any government, the conference should encourage the SG to review the CEB and if deemed to be an added value establish a high-level committee within the CEB focusing on sustainable development issues. It would promote the streamlining of the activities of the entities represented in the CEB on the newly developed Sustainable Development Goals, on relevant documents such as Agenda 21 or JPOI, and on decisions taken by the reformed CSD.

2.3.3 Evaluate, capitalize and scale up the Delivering as One pilot initiative

To strengthen the coherence of the system and to ensure development results on all levels the Delivering as One pilot initiative has to be evaluated, capitalized on and scaled up. Bringing together partner countries, donors and UN country teams with a greater sense of common purpose is crucial to foster the sustainable development agenda.

2.3.4 Enhancing resilience to natural and man-made disasters

The world has seen an increase in the frequency and severity of natural and man-made disasters that severely affect lives, livelihoods and the environment. The impact of these disasters, including degradation of vital ecosystems, creates additional vulnerabilities, which in turn undermine the attainment of sustainable development and thus affect disproportionally the world?s most vulnerable populations.

Identifying lessons from disaster risk management and taking them into account in policy making can be an important avenue for contributing to a more sustainable development. However, the patchwork of agreements, institutions and guidelines to arrange environmental emergency response at the national and international level leads to fragmentation which needs to be overcome in order to make the multilateral system more robust and effective.

Linkages and coordination between emergency response, early recovery and development need to be improved from the onset of an emergency. Recognizing the inherent link between humanitarian and environmental emergencies and their negative impact on sustainable development, environmental emergency aspects should be an integral part of planning and implementation in development, risk reduction, prevention, preparedness, humanitarian response and recovery. The impact of natural and man-made disasters on industrial facilities should be incorporated into risk reduction strategies and multi-hazard contingency planning.

Switzerland proposes:

to establish an appropriate international framework that addresses fragmentation by coordinating among national, regional and international and thematic governance systems for responding to environmental emergencies;

to establish and operationalise national multi-hazard management plans in all countries for prevention, preparedness, and response that address environmental emergencies; and

to reinforce significantly national and regional response capacities to enable them to adequately respond to environmental emergencies without the need for international assistance.

2.4 National and local governance

Agenda 21 and JPOI already stress the importance to not only focus on the international sustainable development governance, but also on the regional, national and local level. Many of the elements proposed in Agenda 21 chapter 28 as well as paragraphs 38.29-38.40 and in JPOI paragraphs 158- 167 such as national sustainable development councils remain highly relevant and their implementation should be fostered, amongst others through capacity building of both governments and civil society.

Based on Agenda 21 and JPOI, Switzerland implemented domestically the elements below. They proved to be helpful for fostering sustainable development on the national and local level. We therefore propose to reiterate their importance in the Rio+20 outcome document:

Anchor sustainable development in the constitution or laws

Develop and implement national and/or local sustainable development strategies

Implement coordination mechanism within the government, across all relevant ministries

Strengthen vertical coordination mechanism for including also local governments

Establish and enforce rights of the public to access information and to participate in decision making for sustainable development

Monitoring progress on sustainable development through indicators and data collection

Evaluation of projects and policies

Adopt appropriate communication for sustainable development as a governmental instrument and spread best practices

While renewing the political commitment, the focus in all these areas of governance for sustainable development must lie on further increasing their institutionalization; mainstreaming and integrating them in the general governance mechanisms of the respective governments; concretization including clear and measurable targets; providing sufficient resources; defining quality standards; promoting exchange of experience; and an active communication to the relevant target audiences including also the wider public.

The national and/or local sustainable development strategies should be references for other relevant strategies such as national Green Economy action plans. The different relevant strategies should be harmonized and synergies promoted under the umbrella of sustainable development.

Improved participation of civil society depends upon strengthening the right to access information, building civil society capacity to exercise this right, as well as clarifying governments? duties to proactively disclose information. In addition, it is important to enable civil society to be actively engaged for sustainable development amongst others by incorporating their specific knowledge and practical know-how on sustainable development into national and local policy making.

2.5 Linking the two UNCSD focus topics

Switzerland proposes a Roadmap as an outcome for the second theme of Rio+20 ?Green Economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication?. The discussions of the governance structure of this roadmap should be linked to the IFSD discussions. For example, the proposed monitoring and review mechanism of the roadmap should be linked with the peer review mechanism proposed as an element of the newly established Sustainable Development Council.

3 International Environmental Governance (IEG)

3.1 IEG core functions

The Consultative Group on International Environmental Governance established by the UNEP Governing Council in 2009 identified the following IEG core functions:

a) Creating a strong, credible and accessible science base and policy interface

b) Developing a global authoritative and responsive voice for environmental sustainability

c) Achieving effectiveness, efficiency and coherence within the United Nations system

d) Securing sufficient, predictable and coherent funding

e) Ensuring a responsive and cohesive approach to meeting country needs

Thus, an internationally agreed common understanding exists on the functions to be delivered by the IEG framework. The Rio+20 conference should build on this. Switzerland therefore expects the Rio+20 conference to agree upon a package of reform measures that will allow the institutional framework to better perform the IEG functions as outlined above.

In the following, elements of such a reform package are identified. These reform elements focus on the functional aspects and are meant to become part of the reform package in the context of any of the form-related aspects that will be agreed upon. The elements are partly based on the system-wide strategies identified by the second Consultative Group on International Environmental Governance in its Nairobi-Helsinki Outcome, yet they are developed further and complemented with other reform measures that need become part of the final reform package.

3.2 Elements of an IEG reform package

3.2.1 Universal membership of IEG anchor institution

In order to fulfil its function of serving as an authoritative and responsive voice for international environmental matters, the IEG system needs a strong anchor institution. Due to the plenitude of actors such as international organizations and multilateral environmental agreements with their own governance and membership structures, universal membership of the main governing body of the environmental anchor institution is crucial. Only a universal body can effectively serve as the principal forum for international environmental policy making and for ensuring coherence.

3.2.2 Oversight, guidance and coordination of MEAs through IEG anchor institution

In order for the IEG anchor institution to be able to serve as the global authoritative and responsive voice for international environmental matters, its role of providing oversight, guidance and coordination of MEAs needs to be recognised. The MEAs regulate each a certain environmental policy field and oversight in this regard is done by its respective governing body. Yet, the IEG system as a whole is not effective, if potential inefficiencies of or even conflicts between environmental regulatory regimes cannot be identified and addressed. The Rio+20 conference should therefore ascertain that the governing body of the IEG anchor institution is meant to provide oversight, guidance and coordination of MEAs with a view to avoiding or, where necessary, addressing potential inefficiencies and conflicts among the different regulatory regimes.

3.2.3 Enhanced synergies within clusters

In order to achieve effectiveness, efficiency and coherence on international environmental matters within the UN system, the international community needs to commit to a more synergistic development of the international environmental system at the Rio+20 conference. It is necessary to make much better use of synergies between existing instruments. The steps already undertaken in this regard for improving coordination and cooperation among the three major chemicals and waste conventions should be commended. At the same time, it should be decided to deepen the coordination and cooperation among the three conventions to other fields - such as joint decision-making or joint resource mobilization - and to also broaden it by involving other instruments of the chemicals and waste cluster.

Likewise, it should be decided to also realize synergies between compatible instruments of other clusters such as biodiversity. Learning from the successful example of the chemicals and waste cluster, it should be agreed to, in a first step, strive for the delivery of joint services within other clusters too in order to increase the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the IEG system. Furthermore, the principle should be agreed that any future international environmental instrument should make use of existing synergies to the largest possible extent.

3.2.4 UN system-wide strategy for environment

The Rio+20 conference should also agree on the need for the development of a UN system-wide strategy for the environment. Such a strategy will be a practical tool for increasing the effectiveness, efficiency and coherence of the UN system in environmental matters. The strategy needs to clearly establish the priority themes and activities, clarify the division of labour and assign the respective roles and responsibilities for the many actors within the UN system.

3.2.5 System of assessed contributions for the IEG anchor institution which increases the total volume of available resources

Sufficient, predictable and coherent funding needs to be secured for implementing international environmental policy. Funding for the international environmental system needs to be provided through a combination of assessed and voluntary contributions from governments as well as funding from other sources. It is crucial that the funding base of the IEG anchor institution is adequate to its mandate. The Rio+20 conference should agree on the establishment of a system of assessed contributions to the IEG anchor institution which at least equals the current overall level of contributions to the Environment Fund. The system of assessed contributions needs to based on the principle that all states shall cooperate in a spirit of global partnership to conserve, protect and restore the health and integrity of the Earth's ecosystem, while taking into account their different contributions to global environmental degradation as well as their economic capacities.

3.2.6 Better link of environmental policy making and financing

An important measure for securing sufficient, predictable and coherent funding which should be recognized by the Rio+20 conference is the need for establishing a stronger link between global environmental policy making and financing. It is also important to improve the cooperation and coherence among financing mechanisms and funds for the environment, with the aim of helping to meet the need for new and additional funding to bridge the policy-implementation gap through new revenue streams for implementation. The conference should also agree to better track international financial flows and volumes.

3.2.7 System-wide capacity-building framework for environment

Capacity-building for implementing international environmental policies on the ground is key to their success. There are many players within and outside the UN system who need to be involved in this endeavour in a coordinated manner. The Rio+20 conference should therefore resolve to develop a system-wide capacity-building framework for the environment to ensure a responsive and cohesive approach to meeting country needs, taking into account the Bali Strategic Plan for Technology Support and Capacity-Building. The framework should be targeted at strengthening national capacities required to implement multilateral environment agreements and agreed international environmental objectives.

3.2.8 Increasing capacity of the IEG anchor institution at the regional level

The IEG anchor institution does not need to have its own national country presence, but it is important to ensure a strategic engagement at the regional level. Likewise, the environmental expertise within UN country teams should be strengthened including through the IEG anchor institution.

3.2.9 Strengthen science-policy interface

Science is key for effective international governance of the environment. The Rio+20 should therefore take measures for further strengthening the science-policy interface, building on existing international instruments such as the Global Environment Outlook process, international environmental assessments, scientific panels and information networks as well as well as other existing platforms. It should be agreed to facilitate cooperation in the collection, management, analysis, use and exchange of environmental information, the further development of internationally agreed indicators, early warning, alert services, assessments, the preparation of science-based advice and the development of policy options.

Annex 1: Areas for greening the economy

Within this framework of a roadmap for a green economy Switzerland proposes objectives, targets and instruments in the areas mentioned underneath. Switzerland invites other countries and agencies to identify the subjects of their own interest with the respective objects, targets and instruments. The different levels of elaborateness are no sign for the subject?s importance.

Proposals for an enabling environment:

National green economy action plans

The implementation of green economy has to happen on a regional, national and local level. Therefore, national green economy action plans shall be developed by each country until 2014 according to their national priorities and needs. These action plans should be developed in the context of the broader sustainable development framework and the national SD strategies and mainstreamed in economic planning. In developing countries they are consistent with the MDGs and poverty eradication strategies. Part of national strategies will be also areas of regional cooperation..

Objective

Implementation of green economy measures and mainstreaming in economic planning in order to create the framework and determine the necessary steps for the transition. Action plans will be in line with sustainable development principles and respect social aspects.

Targets

a) Countries develop within 2 years national action plans for the green economy transition

b) These action plans are implemented within 10 years

c) Countries are invited to submit regular updates as with the SD strategies

d) A system of peer learning and peer review is established at international level to showcase progress and stimulate learning

e) Action plans are submitted to an ex-ante and ex-post evaluation

Comprehensive measurement of progress towards a green economy: measurement of the total environmental impact of production and consumption

Sustainable development requires a comprehensive measurement of welfare. Welfare means more than the market value of production and consumption. In the long run natural resources have to be managed sustainably respecting planetary boundaries, social aspects to welfare such as homecentered services have to be considered. Measuring progress towards a green economy has to reflect, amongst others, if total environmental impacts of consumption and production are within these boundaries. This information should be presented in a form as compact and strong as the indicator for economic activity, GDP.

While recognizing the social aspect for a comprehensive measurement of progress towards a green economy, this proposal by Switzerland concentrates on the environmental aspect. Work on environmental impacts of consumption and production is undertaken for example by the European Joint Research Centers (JRC), the EEA, the Global Footprint Network, the university of California, the TNO institute, Netherlands and the Norwegian NTNU. Swiss research in this field is part of the Swiss government's decision on a green economy of October 2010.

In addition, the monitoring of the development towards a green economy has to include indicators on the total natural resource use, on resource efficiency, on natural capital and ecosystem services as well as monetary indicators, e.g. on environmental taxes and subsidies and information on the economic importance of the environmental goods and services sector. Work is underway in the international statistical community, in particular for the development, under the auspice of the UN, of the System of Environmental-Economic Accounts8 (SEEA), which is consistent with the System of National Accounts (SNA). It is important to coordinate and harmonize further activities in this field in the context of existing national and international environmental and statistical institutions, systems and measurement initiatives for sustainable development.

Objective

To report the progress towards a green economy, all countries should inform (bearing in mind overall measurement initiatives for sustainable development),

on the total environmental impact of their consumption and production, adopting a life cycle perspective, and

on other relevant issues such as resource use and efficiency, natural capital, ecosystem services as well as monetary aspects, e.g. environmental taxes and subsidies and the economic importance of the environmental goods and services sector.

These information needs to be internationally comparable, and based on methods that are recognized by the environmental and statistical community. They have to be systematically included in the political decision making processes.

Targets

a) By 2013, an institutional setup as well as a working plan is defined for the conduction of the work to reach the objective, defining the lead institution as well as the way to achieve an agreement on one easily usable method or at least different comparable methods. The work has to be coordinated in the context of existing national and international institutions and systems.

b) Starting at least in 2014, the UN informs regularly in its own reports on the world's progress towards a green economy, in particular on total environmental impact of production and consumption.

c) By 2020, half of all nations worldwide report on their progress towards a green economy, in particular on their environmental impact of consumption and production, taking into account all relevant environmental issues along the whole life cycle of products.

d) By 2050, all nations report in a comparable manner on their progress towards a green economy, in particular on their environmental impact of consumption and production, taking into account all relevant environmental issues along the whole life cycle of products.

Tools

A tool for implementing a comprehensive measurement of progress will build on existing work and the close collaboration with the institutions active in this field. This tool will be agreed on within the institutional setup respecting the proposed timelines.

Ecological market transparency and trade

Sustainable consumption and production is central to a green economy. Environmental and social aspects need to be respected in economic activities in order sustainable development can be assured. This means that information on the social and environmental impact of production be available in order economic actors take them into account. Ecological market transparency takes only into account the environmental aspect whereas Switzerland recognizes the need for information on the social impacts.

Information on the environmental impact of products supports environmentally sound decisions on the consumer level (including professional consumers such as public and private procurers) as well as on the political level. Decisions in favour of a green economy are possible only when resource efficient products can be differentiated from resource intense products. Consumers? demand for sustainably produced goods and services is increasing and political pressure for sustainable production and consumption rising. Ecological product information that covers the whole life cycle and all relevant environmental impacts are therefore supportive in order to lower the environmental pressure from production and consumption. This information needs to be comparable within but also between different product groups in order environmental aspects can be included into every level of the decision making process. The necessity for a change in consumption behaviour is illustrated by the fact that consumption grows faster than population.

Ecological product information and, hence, environmental labelling is a concrete opportunity for all countries to contribute to the protection of the environment and to enhance resource efficient production and consumption. In the mid- and long-term this contributes to supply security of natural resources and prevents social conflicts. In this regard ecological market transparency contributes to the social dimension of sustainable development. These days value chains stretch across different countries and regions and final goods are shipped around the globe. The provision of environmental information of products is therefore linked to international trade and development. In this context it is indispensible that the international trade system recognizes the need for environmental information on a product level and allows for the differentiation of products using product and process method (PPMs) criteria at the border. A condition for this be the creation of internationally recognized standards.

The international trade system is part of the enabling conditions for a green economy that do not hinder, but create additional trade and, hence, contribute to a green economy. Market transparency helps also countries to exploit their comparative advantages in natural resources and, therefore, do not have to increase pressure on already scarce resources. In the end, trade flows will be increased while specializing in sustainable consumption and production. An international trade system that accounts for the different production methods of goods and services is therefore essential for securing our natural resource base. Nevertheless, the importance of combining and balancing environmental protection with safeguarding market access has to be kept in mind. The international system has to ensure no hierarchy between the trade and environment system.

Objective

Information on environmental impacts of products are available and market actors are able to differentiate between ecological and non ecological products.

Targets

a) Countries develop strategies in favour of increasing ecological market transparency concerning products

b) Countries implement strategies on ecological market transparency and raise environmental information for consumers, retailers, producers and governments (public purchasers)

c) Internationally recognized standards for enhanced environmental information are developed

d) Green economy is supported by the international trade system while enabling market transparency and, hence, allowing for a differentiated treatment of like-products using process and production method criteria based on internationally recognized standards.

Tools

Different international initiatives exist that contribute to ecological market transparency. These are among others the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, UNEP eco-labelling initiative, European Food Sustainable Consumption and Production Round Table, method to calculate the ecologic footprint of products by DG Env and JRC IES and the French Grenelle de l?Environnement.

The international community has to ensure that the international trade system, in particular the WTO, accounts for the green economy transition. Regarding trade agreements on a bilateral and regional basis the OECD (Joint Working Party on Trade and Environment) has expertise on best practices and is continuing the work on in this regard. At the same time the multilateral trading system (WTO) should evolve in this direction and continue work for increasing mutual supportiveness between trade, environment and development.

Fossil fuel subsidies reform

In 2009 more than US$400 billion was spent globally on subsidies for fossil fuels, a key source of emissions contributing to global warming. Production subsidies, such as subsidies for coal production, inhibit innovation and the development of cleaner technologies, and they reduce incentives to produce and use fossil fuels more efficiently. This occurs amid growing global concern about energy security.

Consumption subsidies which intend to lower the price of fossil fuels are no better. For example subsidies for transport fuels are seldom effective in assisting the people they are designed to help. The essential energy needs of vulnerable groups must be met. But there are better ways to do this than through universal fossil fuel consumption subsidies which benefit richer people more, because they use more fossil fuels.

IEA and OECD research indicates that removing subsidies could reduce global emissions by up to 10% by 2050. There would also be good news on the energy security front. Universal phase-out of fossil fuel subsidies by 2020 would cut global primary energy demand by 5%, equal to the current consumption of Japan, Korea and New Zealand combined.10 A cut in demand of this magnitude would help reduce the risk of future oil shocks and smooth-out energy price volatility.

Objective

Phase out, over the medium term, inefficient fossil fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption and undermine sustainable development, while mitigating adverse impacts on vulnerable groups.

Targets

a) A center of competence is determined to coordinate actions for fossil fuel reforms by 2015

b) Countries report on their subsidy expenditure by 2017

c) Countries with fossil fuel subsidies implement measures to reduce fossil fuel subsidies by 2022

d) Fossil Fuel subsidies are phased out by 2027

Tool

Reporting: Countries commit to regular, ideally annual, reporting of subsidy expenditure and the actions taken to reduce subsidies. A peer review process to regularly review progress towards reform will be included in the governance mechanism of the roadmap. All reports and reviews to be publicly available to achieve greater transparency.

Technical assistance underpinned by research and development and sharing of tools to achieve reform: Technical assistance, including the availability of research and development materials to help countries design and implement reform and put in place safeguards to protect vulnerable groups during the transition period. This will include sharing tools and providing advice on how to implement social policies that ensure the poor receive support, such as targeted cash transfers or the redistribution of funding saved from subsidies, to compensate vulnerable groups for energy price increases.

Technical assistance can be provided directly by governments or through organisations such as intergovernmental organisations, development banks or NGOs.

Proposals for important sectoral and specific areas:

Sustainable public procurement

Sustainable public procurement (SPP) is an important driver to bring forward the agenda on sustainable consumption and production and to enlarge markets for sustainable products. Thus, SPP is a substantive driver for green economy. In most countries the government is the largest single buyer.

Governments can, by implementing sustainable public procurement on a day to day basis, lead by example. It also allows to spend taxpayers money in a responsible way. Besides the fact that SPP allows ? when taking life cycle thinking into account ? saving money in the long term it helps to foster innovation and allows firms to be competitive on the global market. SPP contributes to use natural resources efficiently, reduce environmental impacts, reduce CO2 emissions and contributes to human well being and social justice. In this manner, SPP adds substantially to a green economy.

Objective Countries? public procurement on national as well as on sub national level respects sustainability criteria.

Targets

a) 25 countries implemented sustainable public procurement within (2017)

b) 60 countries implemented sustainable public procurement within (2022)

c) 120 countries implemented sustainable public procurement within (2027)

d) All countries implemented sustainable public procurement within (2032)

Tools

Marrachech Task Force approach to SPP and UNEP SPP capacity building programme

Sustainable agriculture and food security

Greening the economy with agriculture refers to increasing food security (in terms of availability, access, stability and utilization) while using less natural resources, through improved efficiencies throughout the food value chain. The agroalimentary systems contribute substantially to a green economy. At the same time a transformation of these systems is essential to feed the growing world population with an expected nine billion people in 2050 on one hand and to preserve the nature and natural resources (climate, energy, land, water, biodiversity, etc) on the other hand. The instruments and priorities can differ between developed and developing countries respecting the different regional realities.

Objective

A sustainable agro-food system with increased resilience, that ensures food security for all, maintain availability of natural resources, provide decent livelihoods and income for farmers and rural populations.

Targets

a) Sustainable intensification of food and agriculture systems:

- efficiency increase of food and agriculture systems with high ecological footprint;

- productivity increase of food and agriculture systems with low ecological footprint.

- reduction of post-harvest losses and food-waste;

- area of land reserved for agricultural food production ( Voluntary Guidelines for the Responsible

Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests).

b) Increased environmental and economical resilience of agro-food systems and delivery of public goods:

- countries with PES policies or other financing instruments;

- improved market and stocks information;

- reduction of trade distorting measures and environmental harmful subsidies;

- decrease of freshwater use for agriculture;

- increase soil fertility and agro-biodiversity.

c) Maintain in the rural and mountain areas enough employment in agriculture and related sectors, and increase livelihood, while focusing on small-scale farmers and women:

- Income difference between urban and rural areas;

- countries with right to adequate food policies;

- Investments into smallholder production systems;

- Investments in Infrastructure to facilitate access to markets.

Instruments

Payment for ecosystem services and remuneration of good agricultural practices.

Information for sustainable products (labels) and promotion of sustainable consumption.

Harmonized methods for life-cycle analysis, water and energy use.

Ratified relevant International Treaties (International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, Nagoya ABS Protocol).

Phase-out use and production of highly toxic pesticides (HTPs).

Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS).

Research and development in agro-ecology and of adapted technology.

Technology transfer, capacity building.

Improve trade of environmentally-friendly technologies.

Implementation of the voluntary guidelines of good governance to land and natural resource tenure.

Establishment of Principles or responsible agriculture investments (RAI) for FDI.

Appropriate and effective protection of intellectual property rights, including a legal framework enabling the protection of collective rights for geographical indications.

Full-cost pricing of food, energy and water.

Internalizing cost of resource depletion, environmental degradation, pollution and ill-health.

Green public procurement (ex. school catering services).

Investment in infrastructure and public services in rural areas.

Provision of global public goods by investing in agriculture research and technology.

Ensure small holder and female farmers and oriented agriculture extension system.

Address post harvest loss along the value chain.

Investment in infrastructure to assure access to markets.

Sustainable Energy

The lack of energy access is a major constraint to economic development for many countries. In focusing on access as well as on efficiency and renewability important win-win opportunities can be seized. There is an opportunity for developing countries to leapfrog current systems in order to achieve access to cleaner, affordable and reliable energy. This change will require shifts in the regulatory schemes, major infrastructure investments and technological innovation and the scaling up of appropriate technologies. A focus should be given on the urban energy situation ? where the impact is highest due to the considerable potential of increased energy efficiency in areas such as district heating, transport and buildings ? as well as on decentralized sustainable energy production. Objective The transformation of the global energy system to ensure access to affordable, clean and sustainable energy resources for all.

Targets

a) Achieving universal access to modern energy services

b) Improving energy efficiency by 40%

c) Producing 30% of the world?s energy from renewable resources

Tools

Promoting rural electrification through decentralized sustainable energy systems

Development and scaling up of appropriate technology for energy efficient appliance of basic needs as cooking, lightening, communication

Local lending and micro-finance for energy efficiency and Renewable energy

Promoting municipal energy management (model Energy Cities)

Promoting energy efficient appliances through consumer information systems (top ten model)

Building standards on energy efficiency

Energy efficiency standards of cars mandatory

Promotion of public metropolitan transportation systems

Feed in tariffs for Renewable energy

Reforms of regulatory system and of tariff structure

Promotion of innovative technologies

Innovative investment mechanism for deployment of new technologies

Sustainable water management

Together with climate change, water is becoming the most pressing environmental and social issue of the 21st century. Global water use has been growing at more than twice the rate of population growth in the last century and it is estimated that more than 40% of the people on our planet are now affected by water scarcity. Moreover, some 2.6 billion people don?t have access to basic sanitation infrastructure.

According to FAO projections, a total of 1.8 billion people will be living in countries or regions with absolute water stress by 2025 and almost two-thirds of the world?s population could be living under water stressed conditions.

Objective

Secure water supply by ensuring sustainable water management and use.

Targets

a) Secure access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation in urban and rural areas

b) Promote water saving technologies in the agriculture and industrial sector

c) Adopt a integrated water resource management based on a water catchment area

Tools

Scale up water saving technologies in agriculture and sanitation

Transboundery water cooperation and water diplomacy

Human rights based approach to water

Integrate water footprint into norms

Promote private sector investment into the water and sanitation sector

Promote safe water reuse

develop voluntary water benefit market (similar to carbon market)

Water tariff and governance reform

PES for water services of users in catchment areas

Sustainable management of fragile ecosystems (mountains, drylands, forests)

Fragile ecosystems cover a large part of the world?s surface: 25 % are mountains, 20% drylands and one third is forests. Those fragile systems perform important ecosystem services for much wider areas. Mountains for example store and provide water for more than half of the world population. As a mountainous country Switzerland is specially committed to the sustainable management of mountain areas and would thus like to share its knowhow and experience on the global level. Mountains are highly vulnerable to global changes, such as climate change. They are also home to people and indigenous communities who have developed sustainable uses of their resources. Many communities are marginalized, sometimes with high poverty rates, exposure to natural risks or even food insecurity. If those regions face heavy degradations or fail to generate services, the costs to the local, national, and global community could be severe.

The new opportunities offered by a green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication for investments in ecosystem services (e.g. freshwater, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration), Renewable energy and the creation of jobs find a particularly suitable field of implementation in fragile ecosystems such as mountains.

The purpose is to increase the potential to provide important quality goods and services to populations and to avoid increasing pressures on an already fragile environment and scarce resources. To achieve this target a balanced approach of economic, environmental, and social development must be pursued, along with appropriate policies and institutional measures.

Objective

Ensure sustainable management of fragile ecosystems such as mountains, drylands, and forests to secure livelihood for their population, to avoid environmental degradation and to strengthen the potential to provide ecosystem services at local, regional and international scales.

Targets

a) A sustainable management of mountain areas that promotes their role as providers of ecosystems services.

b) A sustainable management of drylands that struggles against desertification and soil erosion.

c) A sustainable use and protection of forests.

Tools

internalise costs and benefits of conserving fragile ecosystems in national wealth accounting (GDP), resource allocation, and development plans.

promote concrete mechanisms such as access and benefit sharing and property rights, to reward and compensate communities for the conservation and provision of ecosystem services.

promote governance systems that take into account the unique characteristics and high vulnerability of fragile ecosystems, based on knowledge and participation of indigenous communities

promote interaction between urban areas and fragile peripheral areas by strengthening regional and local institutions, supporting capacity building, communication technologies

promote niche and quality products and services of fragile ecosystems through mechanisms such as branding, labelling and standards.

promote transboundary aspects of ecosystem services through better regional cooperation, collaborative institutional partnerships and a strengthening of upstream-downstream linkages.

Resource efficient and cleaner production

Cleaner production methods and practices generate multiple benefits for a green economy, including mitigation of greenhouse gases, adaptation to climate change, response to the increasing scarcity of water, soil, materials and other natural resources, provision of decent jobs and halting the environmental degradation. A resource efficient production programme accelerates the application of preventive environmental strategies to processes, products and services to increase efficiency and reduce risks to humans and the environment.

Through capacity building countries can contribute to the dissemination of knowledge on how to increase resource efficiency in the production process as well as over the whole life cycle of products.

SME are in most countries the most important part of the economy. Hence, it is of utmost importance that cleaner production be implemented in these firms where budget for ecological innovation is sometimes missing. National Cleaner Production Centres (NCPCs) deliver services to business government and other stakeholders in their home country and to assist them with the implementation of cleaner production methods, practices, policies and technologies.

The support for NCPCs should be increased in order the rise the outreach of knowledge for cleaner production methods. At the same time, countries should support the creation of new NCPSs in their countries, where appropriate. The network of NCPCs should be accepted as strategic implementing partner ("climate technology network") for climate technology transfer in the context of the new technology mechanism negotiated under the UNFCCC.

Objective

Improve resource productivity and environmental performance of businesses and other organisations over the whole life cycle process, and thereby contribute to sustainable industrial development and sustainable production and consumption.

Targets

a) 60 countries have well established National Cleaner Production Centers until 2020.

b) Until 2020, three regional (MENA; Latin America; Asia) and one global knowledge management systems for NCPCs are fully operational

c) 20% increase in industrial resource efficiency until 2020

Tool

UNIDO-UNEP Resource Efficient and Cleaner Production Program (RECP) with balanced governance structure (UNIDO, UNEP, donors, NCPCs, private sector), series of technical manuals and demand oriented services.

Trade in sustainable biodiversity products and services

BioTrade encompasses activities related to the collection, production, transformation, and commercialization of goods and services derived from native biodiversity (species and ecosystems) under the criteria of environmental, social and economic sustainability. BioTrade simultaneously generates business opportunities, growth and sustainable livelihoods for rural populations, while allowing the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.

BioTrade

contributes to greening the economic sectors that are based in biodiversity, by supporting its use under sustainable practices, and reducing poverty by generating additional income and employment.

generates business opportunities that promote the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity

greens different sectors of the economy by developing sustainable sector strategies through the use of the BioTrade value chain methodology and tools for guiding businesses in implementing practices that respect the environment and promote rural development.

Objective

Developing countries rich in biodiversity recognize Biotrade as a valuable instrument in the transition to a green economy and develop selected biodiversity sectors under BioTrade strategies.

Targets

a) 15 countries implement BioTrade strategies for selected biodiversity sectors. Sales of Bio- Trade companies and the land under BioTrade practices has increased by %(tbd) (2013)

b) 18 countries implemented BioTrade strategies for selected biodiversity sectors. Sales of Bio- Trade companies and the land under BioTrade practices has increased by % (tbd) (2015)

c) 20 countries implemented BioTrade strategies for selected biodiversity sectors. Sales of Bio- Trade companies and the land under BioTrade practices has increased by % (tbd) annually (2020)

d) 30 countries implemented BioTrade strategies for selected biodiversity sectors. Sales of Bio- Trade companies and the land under BioTrade practices has increased by % (tbd) annually (2030)

Tools

The commercialization of biodiversity-based products can be regarded as a tool in the transition to a green economy. UNCTAD Biotrade Initiative, BioTrade principles and criteria and its technical guidelines (e.g., sustainable management plans, resources assessments, value chain development), Bio- Trade impact assessment system

Education for green economy

Mainstays of a green economy are education, research, innovation, as well as trainings on the transformation of companies towards a viable and sustainable way of doing business, but also educational initiatives to allow companies to transform towards viable economic models:

Vocational training and green job qualifications are essential for welfare, to reduce poverty, to promote new green jobs, and to fight (youth) unemployment.

Higher education provides the scientific qualifications of academic jobs within a green economy.

Green industries and organizational strategies in the know-how transfer with science, trade unions and NGOs support the transformation towards a green economy.

Training with leaders of global and regional players (green leadership), with leaders from business consultants (green business consulting) and with leaders of HRM (green human development) allow companies to transform towards a green economy. Objective Promotion of green economy skills in relevant education which is leading to a mainstreaming of green economy throughout the whole economy and fostering innovation at all levels.

Targets

a) 25 first moving countries have developed strategies to integrate green economy into their educational system by 2017, whereas implementation has started.

b) 60 countries have developed educational green economy strategy and started to implement it by 2022.

c) 120 countries have developed strategies to integrate green economy into their educational system and are implementing it by 2027.

d) All countries have green growth strategies for their educational system and are implementing it by 2032.

Tools

a) Green skills for green jobs and poverty eradication

Initial and continuing vocational training are key to establishing professional skills in a green economy, improving the employability of workers, creating new jobs in green markets, and in fighting poverty, and in promoting welfare. This includes promoting strategy and investment in green skills for green jobs through coordinating economic, labor, and educational strategies for a green economy. Developing green skills profiles for labor markets at global, national, and regional level (competence centres: ILO, green skills department, CEDEFOP, inter alia) and green skills response in vocational training while promoting vocational training in green markets on the basis of the strength of the national vocational trainings system and with the help of experts from the green economy, particularly in countries with high unemployment, emerging and BRIC-countries.

b) Sustainable universities for a green economy

In teaching, research and practice universities provide students with qualifications to shape a green economy, develop sustainable economic models that protect resources, reduce global poverty, and promote welfare. University leaders for green economy (UL GreenEconomy) commit to establishing the green economy in teaching, research and innovation in the accreditation standards and curricula of MBA courses. The corresponding activities must not replace but insert themselves in education for sustainable development activities and processes. Sustainable finance is particularly relevant while strategies, accreditation tools, curricula, research and operation are developed with a view to their contribution to a green economy in all academic fields relevant for sustainability (engineering, architecture, agriculture, forestry, traffic engineering, etc.). Competence centres: International Association of Universities IAU, University Leaders for a Sustainable Future ULSF, Sustainable Campus Network ISCN.

c) Green economy sector training and transfer initiatives

Industry and corporate platforms (councils, groups), as well as know-how transfer in cooperation with trade unions and the civil society boost investments in green economy sectors. This includes Investment Needs Assessment Education in Economy Branches Integration of education, vocational education and training into green economy sector programs and the establishment of innovation incentives/funds ?Green industrial and professional associations to strengthen green industry policies? as well as green science and transfer platforms among sustainable universities and industry initiatives Furthermore, economic sectors and civil society involvement is central.

d) Business transformation for a green economy

Green business leadership, green business consulting and sustainable human development support global, national, and regional companies in their transformation towards a green economy. Important are training programs for leaders (CEOs, board members) of global and national companies strengthen their commitment to implement plans for a green economy and training of green business consultants where national and international business consultants receive trainings on green economy change and transformation projects. Further, training green human development in business through the support of HR consultants on international and national level with training programs for change and transformation processes towards green economy.

Annex 2: International environmental governance core functions

International environmental governance core functions as contained in the outcome document of the Rome meeting of the Consultative Group of Ministers or High-level Representatives:

a) Creating a strong, credible and accessible science base and policy interface

i. Acquisition, compilation, analysis and interpretation of data and information

ii. Information exchange

iii. Environmental assessment and early warning

iv. Scientific advice

v. Science-policy interface

b) Developing a global authoritative and responsive voice for environmental sustainability

i. Global agenda setting and policy guidance and advice

ii. Mainstreaming environment into other relevant policy areas

iii. Promotion of rule making, standard setting and universal principles

iv. Monitoring, compliance and accountability for agreed commitments and building related capacity

v. Dispute avoidance and settlement

c) Achieving effectiveness, efficiency and coherence within the United Nations system

i. Coordination of policies and programmes

ii. Efficient and effective administration and implementation of Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs)

iii. Facilitating interagency cooperation on the environment

d) Securing sufficient, predictable and coherent funding

i. Mobilising and accessing funds for the global environment

ii. Developing innovative financing mechanisms to compliment official funding sources

iii. Utilising funding effectively and efficiently in accordance with agreed priorities

e) Ensuring a responsive and cohesive approach to meeting country needs

i. Human and institutional capacity building

ii. Technology transfer and financial support

iii. Mainstreaming environment into development processes

iv. Facilitating South-South, North-South and triangular cooperation
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