Stakeholder Forum for a Sustainable Future
Information
  • Date submitted: 1 Nov 2011
  • Stakeholder type: Major Group
  • Name: Stakeholder Forum for a Sustainable Future
  • Submission Document: Download
Keywords: Energy (46 hits),

General Content

a) What are the expectations for the outcome of Rio+20, and what are the concrete proposals in this regard, including views on a possible structure of the Outcome document?

1. Introduction
The total population of the world has just passed seven billion and is continuing to increase. Everywhere people aspire to higher living standards and higher levels of consumption. There is growing concern about the capacity of the world?s natural resources to provide food, Energy and other materials to sustain this growing demand. At the same time the growing scale of human activity is threatening to cause dangerous levels of climate change, increased levels of pollution, destruction of natural habitats and biodiversity.

Operating within planetary boundaries is a necessary precondition for sustainability. But at present the world is pressing harder against ecological limits and we have already breached the safe operating space or boundaries for three of nine key planetary systems (climate change, biodiversity loss and excess nitrogen and phosphorus production). To balance the discussion on planetary boundaries we welcome the initiative of Oxfam to start a discussion on social boundaries.

At present the global economy is not effective in addressing these emerging problems. The drivers of the global economy tend to amplify and exacerbate them. As some fossil fuels become scarcer, more effort is put into developing more marginal sources with more severe environmental and pollution impacts. As pressures on food resources become greater more marginal land is taken and threats to biodiversity become greater. As fish stocks are depleted, fleets travel ever further from their bases threatening collapse of stocks on an oceanic or global basis. The impacts of greenhouse gas emissions, waste and pollution are inadequately controlled and grow ever more severe.

Business as usual is also proving to be ineffective even in its own terms. Pursuit of the wrong kind of growth and the wrong kind of investment has led to economic crisis and stagnation, job losses on a massive scale, and sharply growing inequalities both within and between countries.

In order to avoid catastrophe the operation of the global economy needs to be transformed. All resources need to be used more efficiently, and renewable resources to be substituted for finite non-renewable ones. Renewable resources (e.g. marine fish stocks) need to be managed in a way that ensures that they are indeed renewed. Key habitats and biodiversity need to be conserved. Greenhouse gas emissions and other damaging pollution need to be cut back. Waste needs to be minimised, and reuse and recycling maximised. Vested interests, monopoly power and excessive rewards for the few need to be curbed, with greater equity within and between countries established.

Furthermore, we need to reform existing institutions and create new institutions to deliver this sustainable future. However, form must follow function and it is vital that any new institutional framework is fit for purpose.

All parts of society need to be engaged in the transition, as they will all be affected by the changes. So the transition must be managed in an open and co-operative way that ensures a just and fair transition to the sustainable green economy. We need common value and language and new politics to shape and guide the transition in a harmonious and equitable way. Only then will we create the trust required to build socio-environmental security and resilience, now and into the future.

b) What are the comments, if any, on existing proposals: e.g., a green economy roadmap, framework for action, sustainable development goals, a revitalized global partnership for sustainable development, or others?

6. Supplementary information
6.1. Bonn DPI Declaration ? Sustainable Development Goals
To achieve the goals of Rio + 20 in an ambitious, time-bound and accountable manner, we call upon governments in accordance with human rights, the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, and respective capabilities to adopt the following draft Sustainable Development Goals together with the sub-goals, reasons and clarifications relating to each goal
The goals below are aspirational. While some of these are based on commitments already made by governments and other stakeholders, others are proposed on the basis of advanced thinking among civil society organizations.
SDG ? SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION: By 2020, consistent with the Biodiversity Strategic Plan adopted at the 10th meeting of the Conference of Parties to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (?CBD COP10?), the human ecological footprint is reduced so that it remains within the Earth?s biological carrying capacity. In accordance with the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, we call on nations and populations engaged in wasteful overconsumption to reduce their impacts and help increase the consumption of vital goods and services for impoverished nations and peoples, so they also can enjoy reasonably high standards of living that provide equitable access to health care, decent work opportunities and education.
By 2020, governments should promote production processes that reflect the best available technologies for eco-efficiency, recycling, remanufacturing, reuse of waste materials, product durability and longevity. Wasteful practices such as planned obsolescence are identified and eliminated. Public procurement standards and incentives reward leading corporations that share and disseminate best green practices worldwide. By 2020, the majority of the world?s goods and services are procured by governments from sources certified by objective third parties as sustainably produced.
This goal is tied to the preparation and implementation of sustainability or green economy roadmaps, that consider and address commonly agreed sustainability principles, adopt sustainable development goals in critical areas, and implement governance reforms to foster the transition to a green economy and to improve the institutional framework for sustainable development.
Further, establish a set of Millennium Consumption Goals for the period 2012-2020 towards creating an intergenerational and internationally shared right to equitable consumption opportunities and ensuring quality of life and wellbeing of all people by 2020, while eradicating all kinds and levels of poverty, respecting animal welfare and embedding sufficiency based sustainable economies.
SDG ? SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS, YOUTH & EDUCATION: By 2015, nations commit to the principle of sustainable livelihoods as a right for all people and implement monetary, fiscal and language policies to encourage full and decent work. By 2020, biodiversity and ecosystem service considerations are mainstreamed within existing rural development platforms and initiatives to conserve sustainable livelihoods in indigenous and local communities that depend on natural capital for survival.
By 2015, governments incorporate within development frameworks as a priority, investments in the education, health and employment of young people, who constitute a large proportion of the population of developing countries and face disproportionate levels of poverty, unemployment, gender discrimination and ill health. Governments should support comprehensive policies, youth participation and multisectoral programmes that empower present and future generations to fully and freely exercise their human rights, fulfil their aspirations and be productive citizens.
By 2030, national governments reorient all national aims and objectives towards achieving sustainable societies and will mainstream sustainable development into all national educational policies and curricula.
By 2020, consistent with the Biodiversity Strategic Plan adopted at CBD COP10, governments ensure that people are aware of the values of biodiversity and the step they can take to conserve and use it sustainably.
SDG - CLIMATE SUSTAINABILITY: By 2050, governments should have reached clear pathways towards climate sustainability that regulates the global temperature rise below 1.5 degrees C. Emissions of greenhouse gases should be reduced to 25% of 1990 levels by 2020, 40% by 2030, 60% by 2040 and 80% by 2050. Carbon taxes and tariffs should be in place to provide incentives for low-carbon development and manufacturing, finance GHG emissions reduction projects, REDD+ and other offset mechanisms, and green infrastructure solutions to help vulnerable communities adapt to climate change.
Developed countries, as the main cause of climate change, in assuming their historical responsibility, must recognize and honor their climate debt in all of its dimensions as the basis for a just, effective, and scientific solution to climate change. The above goal shall include the equitable sharing of remaining atmospheric space, considering past use and consumption and mid and long-term emission reduction targets that are in line with what the science requires.
SDG ? CLEAN Energy: By 2030, at least 50% of the world?s Energy supply comes from renewable sources. By 2020 Energy demand is reduced through efficiency and conservation by at least 20%. By 2030 Energy poverty is eliminated by providing universal access to modern Energy services from renewable sources.
SDG - BIODIVERSITY: Governments are urged to honor their commitments to implementing the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, in particular those related to the Green Economy such as Target 2: ?By 2020, at the latest, biodiversity values have been integrated into national and local development and poverty reduction strategies
and planning processes and are being incorporated into national accounting, as appropriate, and reporting systems?; and Target 3: ?By 2020, at the latest, incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity are eliminated, phased out or reformed in order to minimize or avoid negative impacts.? We urge governments to support investments in natural infrastructure and ecological restoration and to facilitate the development of markets that value the regulatory services provided by ecosystems.
SDG ?WATER: By 2030, governments will achieve universal availability of an acceptable quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, adequate sanitation, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies.
This goal is over and above the achievement of the MDGs and other internationally agreed development goals. The right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation shall be recognized as a human right and it shall be the responsibility of all states to respect such right. As an interim goal, by 2015 the proportion of people unable to
reach or afford safe drinking water, and without access to basic sanitation, shall be halved as agreed in the JPOI.
By 2020, local, municipal and national governments and all stakeholders commit to achieve the following intermediate targets:
20% increase in total food supply-chain efficiency ? reducing losses and waste from field to fork;
20% increase in water efficiency in agriculture ? more nutrition and crop per drop;
20% increase in water use efficiency in Energy production ? more kWh per drop;
20% increase in the quantity of water reused;
20% decrease in water pollution;
SDG ? HEALTHY SEAS AND OCEANS (BLUE ECONOMY): By 2020, consistent with the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, governments establish at least 10% coastal and marine areas. By 2030, oceanic dead zones will be recovered by reducing nitrogen runoff from land by 50% or more. By 2020, Marine Protected Areas will be
established in at least 25% of each Exclusive Economic Zones (―EEZ‖) and the high seas in representative networks capable of restoring minimum viable populations of all at-risk stocks, protecting marine biological diversity, and maximizing benefits to commercial and subsistence fishers in surrounding waters. By 2015, the use of bottom trawling, dynamite fishing, electro-fishing, poisons and other unsustainable practices will be eliminated. By 2030, reverse the decline of fish stocks and create sustainable and diverse and abundant fish stocks, supported by healthy habitat to provide for the needs of all users, and by 2015, ban the practice of shark finning.
We also make the following policy recommendations: (a) reduce plastic pollution in the oceans, including by banning or taxing single-use plastics, supporting the use of recycled plastics in new products, and holding manufacturers responsible for plastics through their entire life cycle; (b) establish an international monitoring network for ocean acidification to enable the identification of vulnerable regions and industries and to provide an early warning system for industries already experiencing harm; (c) designate the high seas of the Central Arctic Ocean as a zone for international scientific cooperation, where extractive and polluting activities are suspended until we have a better understanding of the area and the potential effects of such activities; and (d) schedule, as a matter of urgency, an intergovernmental conference to address the multiplying threats to ocean areas beyond the jurisdiction of individual nations.
SDG ? HEALTHY FORESTS: By 2020, all remaining frontier forests are protected from conversion and degradation, consistent with the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity adopted at COP10, with a well-resourced and equably governed REDD+ mechanism in place, which respects the rights and knowledge of indigenous peoples and local communities and other environmental and governance safeguards, to reward developing countries for protection and sustainable management of their forests, not only for carbon capture and storage but for their wider ecological services. A policy of no net loss of forestland, globally and nationally, is also achieved by 2020. At that time, all new forest areas cleared will be offset by ecologically sound restoration of forests in nearby areas. Restoration of over 150 million hectares of cleared or degraded forest landscapes is achieved by 2020, with the creation of millions of new jobs and enhanced livelihoods, improved security and adaptation to climate change.
Reduce deforestation emissions by key corporations and their supply chains committing to avoid the purchase of products that cause deforestation, such as soy or cattle from deforested lands in the Brazilian Amazon, palm oil from deforested agricultural land in Indonesia, or illegal wood and wood products throughout the world.
Additionally, for stakeholders everywhere to undertake and/or participate in large-scale, environmentally and socially responsible reforestation efforts.
Measures proposed under the Clean Development Mechanism (―CDM‖) must be carefully examined by the communities depending on forests for their subsistence, as we see that they favor already important land-grabbing and the destruction of their livelihoods.
At Rio+20, we call on governments to pledge concrete and systematic support and promotion of multi stakeholder managed forest certification systems, in all parts of the world, with particular emphasis on tropical rainforests.
SDG - SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE: By 2030, global agricultural production is transformed from industrial to sustainable. Chemical inputs, herbicides, and pesticides are largely replaced with organic and biological alternatives. Interspersed natural areas are protected and restored as sources of pollination, pest control and soil fertility. Food for export is secondary to food for local consumption. Cultivated crop strains are diversified, as are production techniques and the mix of agricultural producers. Best management practices reduce erosion by 90% and nitrogen runoff by 50% or more. Local ecological knowledge of indigenous peoples, traditional, and local communities is utilized to identify resilient crops and cultivation practices that provide maximum protection against climate change.
This goal should also include sustainable and humane food systems that provide healthy food to meet current food needs while maintaining healthy ecosystems, farmer resilience, and ensure good animal health and welfare that can also provide food for generations to come with minimal negative impact to the environment, through
agro-ecological farming systems. We consider the right to keep their own seeds as an important issue of farming.
A sustainable and humane food system should promote food sovereignty of communities, empower small-scale food producers in food and agricultural governance, and also encourage local production and distribution infrastructures with equal opportunities for men and women farmers, and the important role of youth in this area, and makes nutritious food available, accessible, and affordable to all, while at the same time providing sustainable livelihoods to producers through the payment of fair prices for their products. Sustainable food systems must be based on food sovereignty and the right for small-scale peasants, women?s groups and local communities to plant and exchange their seeds and share their knowledge.
Give strong and increasing support to small scale farming, producing healthy foods through targeted research, extension services and enabling conditions, and wherever possible, vegetarian diets, and to ensure women?s property and inheritance rights.
Recognize and support by all means possible, the important role and special needs of women as the primary producers and purchasers of food, along with the implementation of women?s property and inheritance rights.
SDG - GREEN CITIES: By 2030, cities have developed and are implementing action plans to address transport, public health and environmental needs in a harmonious and integrated way. By 2030, from the local to national, government policies foster compact, mixed-use, pedestrian-oriented, urban development that minimizes Energy use and maximizes residential health and that reflects the concept of a society for all ages. All new buildings meet green building standards by 2030. By 2030, city transport needs are or remain predominantly met by mass transport, walking and bicycling. Quality of life is also improved for residents by 2030, providing access to green buildings with urban rooftop gardens, clean water, clean Energy, waste management systems and sustainable transport. By 2030, urban areas with significant storm water pollution issues reduce impervious surface area by 30% below 2012 levels.
SDG - SUBSIDIES AND INVESTMENT: By 2020 at the latest, consistent with the Biodiversity Strategic Plan adopted at CBD COP10, harmful incentives, including subsidies, for fossil fuel production, unsustainable agricultural, fisheries and forest practices, and those harmful to biodiversity, are eliminated, phased out or redirected to promote renewable Energy, sustainable practices and the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. By 2015, governments commit to a minimum investment of 2% of GDP per year to foster the transition to a green economy, taking into account national socio-economic conditions.
SDG - NEW INDICATORS OF PROGRESS: By 2020, nations supplement or replace GDP with a new measure of sustainable economic welfare based on best available information at that time. Economic performance and the forecasted effects of policy changes will be measured by this new metric. We encourage a process of continuous improvement and refinement of the new measure over time and an international process to set standards and make available common methods and data sources. We also encourage the adoption of several other headline indicators of environmental, economic, social, cultural and linguistic sustainability to provide a measure of progress towards the green economy transition, such as civic participation, improved well-being and achievement of sustainable development goals.
SDG - ACCESS TO INFORMATION: By 2022, governments will enact and implement Freedom of Information laws giving people the right to obtain accurate and truthful information held by their government, especially on the environment. Governments will actively make available to all stakeholders useful, accurate and truthful well-publicized data and information in appropriate formats and languages, including on the internet. These laws should include whistleblower protection and should extend to information disclosure by corporations.
SDG - PUBLIC PARTICIPATION: By 2022, governments need to ensure that voluntarism and citizen engagement are incorporated in all global, national and local action plans for implementation of sustainable development and human well-being, to commit to the creation of an enabling environment for citizen engagement and voluntary action, and will include mandatory public participation in (a) major development project approvals and environmental impact assessment procedures, (b) drafting of national level sustainable development policies, laws and regulations and (c) administrative decisions such as pollution permitting.
SDG - ACCESS TO REDRESS AND REMEDY: By 2022, governments will adopt and implement laws ensuring effective access to judicial and administrative proceedings concerning sustainable development, including redress and remedy. In particular, they will ensure that the costs of such proceedings are reasonable and affordable to affected people and that access to such proceedings is available through expansion of legal standing and other means to interested people and organizations.
SDG - ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE FOR THE POOR AND MARGINALIZED: By 2022, governments will adopt laws that obligate government agencies to take appropriate measures to provide information and engage affected people living in poverty, women and other disadvantaged groups when making sustainable development decisions.
SDG ? BASIC HEALTH: By 2015, to support attainment of the health MDGs, and to contribute to health, well-being and sustainable development, ensure universal access to health care and services, wherever feasible, free at the point of use for women and children, and including sexual and reproductive health, and thus strengthen the resilience of people and communities to the consequences of climate change and environmental degradation.

6.2. Principles of a Fair and Green Economy
For a full discussion on how the Principles were drawn together see: http://www.stakeholderforum.org/fileadmin/files/Principles%20FINAL%20LAYOUT.pdf
1. Equitable distribution of wealth
Promote the equitable distribution of wealth within nations and among nations, to reduce disparities between rich and poor, and achieve social and economic justice, within a sustainable and fair share of the world?s resources and leaving sufficient space for wildlife and wilderness.
2. Economic equity and fairness
Guided by the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, create economic partnerships that would transfer substantial financial and technological assistance to less developed countries, to help minimize the gap between the developed and developing world and support the environmental sustainability of both.
3. Intergenerational Equity
Environmental resources and ecosystems must be carefully managed and safeguarded so as to enhance the value of environmental assets for future generations, thereby equitably meeting their needs and allowing them to flourish.
4. Precautionary Approach
Science should be utilized to enhance social and environmental outcomes, through the identification of environmental risk. Scientific uncertainty of environmental impacts shall not lead to avoidance of measures to prevent environmental degradation. The ?burden of proof? should lie with those claiming that there will not be significant environmental impacts
5. The Right to Human Development
In harmony with the environment is fundamental to the achievement of sustainable development, so that individuals and societies are empowered to achieve positive social and environmental outcomes.
6. Internalization of Externalities
Building true social and environmental value should be the central goal of policy. To this end, market prices must reflect real social and environmental costs and benefits, so that that the polluter bears the cost of pollution. Tax regimes and regulatory frameworks should be used to ?tilt the playing field?, making ?good? things cheap and ?bad? things very expensive.
7. International Cooperation
The application of environmental standards within nation States must be undertaken in a cooperative manner with the international community, based on an understanding of the possible impact on the development potential of other States. Environmental measures relating to trade should avoid unfair protectionism, but overall should ensure that trade supports sustainable resource use, environmental protection and progressive labor standards, promoting a ?race to the top? rather than the bottom.
8. International liability
Acknowledging that actions within national boundaries can cause environmental impacts beyond national jurisdictions, requiring cooperation in the development of international law that allows for independent judicial remedies in such cases.
9. Information, participation and accountability
All citizens should have access to information concerning the environment, as well as the opportunity to participate in decision-making processes. To ensure that environmental issues are handled with the participation of all concerned citizens, institutions at all levels (national and international) must be democratic and accountable, and make use of tools that enable civil society to hold them to account. In this regard, the access to justice by citizens for redress and remedy in environmental matters is a cornerstone of enhancing accountability.
10. Sustainable Consumption and Production
Introduce sustainable production and consumption with sustainable and equitable resource use. Reduce and eliminate unsustainable patterns of production and consumption, i.e. reduce, reuse, and recycle the materials used, acknowledge the scarcity of the Earth resources and implement activities accordingly.
11. Strategic, co-ordinated and integrated planning to deliver sustainable development, the green economy and poverty alleviation.
An integrated approach must be adopted at all levels to expedite the achievement of socio-economic and environmental sustainability through strategic planning with civil society and stakeholders, and across all relevant government departments.
12. Just Transition
There will be costs in making the transition to a low carbon, green economy in the pursuit of sustainable development. Some States and actors are better able to bear those costs than others and are more resilient to transitional changes. In the process of change, the most vulnerable must be supported and protected ? developing countries must have access to appropriate financial and technical assistance, citizens and communities must also have access to new skills and jobs.
13. Redefine Well-being
GDP is an inadequate tool for measuring social wellbeing and environmental integrity. Many socially and environmentally damaging activities enhance GDP ? such as fossil fuel exploitation and financial speculation. Human wellbeing and quality of life, and environmental health should be the guiding objectives of economic development.
14. Gender Equality
Gender equality and equity are prerequisites to the transition to a green economy and the achievement of sustainable development. Women have a vital role to play as agents of change for environmental management and development ? their actions must be rewarded accordingly and their skills enhanced.
15. Safeguard biodiversity and prevent pollution of any part of the environment
Protect and restore biodiversity and natural habitats as integral to development and human wellbeing, and develop a system of governance that protects the resilience of ecosystems to prevent irreversible damage.

c) What are the views on implementation and on how to close the implementation gap, which relevant actors are envisaged as being involved (Governments, specific Major Groups, UN system, IFIs, etc.);

N/A
d) What specific cooperation mechanisms, partnership arrangements or other implementation tools are envisaged and what is the relevant time frame for the proposed decisions to be reached and actions to be implemented?

4. Continued Engagement of Stakeholders
Rio +20 is going to be a multi-stakeholder Summit. Partnerships between the many sectors in society can be developed, created and strengthened in the lead up to Rio+20 and during the conference itself. Each sector needs to recognise the contribution and potential of the others and to seek out new ways of helping and reinforcing each other?s efforts for sustainability.

Governments assembled at Rio could help by recognising and endorsing the various high level declarations and commitments that will be made by the principal sectoral organisations or groupings also assembled at Rio, and annexing them to the final Rio declaration. Each Government should also commit itself at Rio to encouraging and promoting action for sustainable development by all the major groups working for sustainable development at national level in its own country, including regional and local governments, businesses and trade unions, and all the wide variety of non-governmental organisations and other groups.

As each Government develops or renews its own sustainable development implementation strategy after Rio it should also commit itself to working with all these other actors in an open, transparent and co-operative way so as to build effective partnerships for the sustainability transition, and to mobilise the human and financial resources needed to achieve it.

Specific Elements
a) Objective of the Conference: To secure renewed political commitment for sustainable development, assessing the progress to date and remaining gaps in the implementation of the outcomes of the major summits on sustainable development and addressing new and emerging challenges.

Contributions could include possible sectoral priorities (e.g., (e.g., energy, food security and sustainable agriculture, technology transfer, water, oceans, sustainable urbanization, sustainable consumption and production, natural disaster preparedness and climate change adaptation, biodiversity, etc.) and sectoral initiatives that contribute to integrate the three pillars of sustainable development could be launched and endorsed at Rio+20.

5. Sectoral Issues and Challenges
There are also specific sectoral and thematic issues that must be discussed at Rio+20. These issues have reached a point of urgency and require immediate attention. The issues include, but are not limited to:
? The water, Energy and food securities nexus ? Global trends such as population growth and rising economic prosperity are expected to increase demand for Energy, food and water, which will further compromise the sustainable use of natural resources and equitable access. This pressure on resources could ultimately result in shortages which may put water, Energy and food security for the people at further risk, hamper economic development and poverty reduction, lead to social and geopolitical tensions and cause lasting irreparable environmental damage.

Ensuring the resilience of basic ecosystems services through the integration of common challenges and solutions of these securities is vital; which should be coupled with principles of fair and secure access to water, Energy and food for all people.

? The Blue Economy ? Healthy oceans provide tremendous economic, social, and environmental benefits that directly support livelihoods around the globe, and further support life-sustaining processes for the planet. Consideration and inclusion of these services at Rio+20 is imperative to ensure the global community can continue to rely on the marine environment on which it so essentially depends.

Regulation of the marine ecosystems such as international and national standards should be established to ensure sustainability underpins the localized and wider blue economy. The proposed Sustainable Development Council, UNEP and proposed WEO could play a role in this. In particular, regulation could include: licensing for markets; access criteria that relate to conditions for access based on social, environmental and economic impacts could be developed; transparent allocation of fishing quotas; and independent and verifiable measures for quotas and the renewable and sustainable exploitation of marine resources.

Rio can set us on course to cease overfishing and restore fish stocks to ecosystem maximum health. In order to achieve this it is essential that all exploitation of renewable marine resources and commercial fishing must be environmentally, socially and economically sustainable (includes fish, water, coastal ecosystems and reefs); and that non-renewable resources such as oil and gas must have their subsidies phased out.

? Sustainable Agriculture and Food ? There is a need for urgent reform of the global food system. This requires an understanding of the complexities of our planet?s ecosystem services, the way in which they interact with one another and our impacts on them.

UN policies and programmes and Rio+20 provide an opportunity for global leaders to agree on humane and sustainable agriculture policy and practice, with a focus on agro ecological approaches and recognising the fundamental role of small scale farmers in providing food for those most in need, the majority of which are women. In addition to improving the efficiency of food systems and reducing waste, a focus should be on improving production. These goals can be achieved in part through sharing of knowledge, best practice and technology.

Resilient, healthy and localised food systems that are supported by a multi-functional and agro-ecological food production system can be created. Through re-orienting agricultural assistance to prioritise sustainable agriculture practices, by curbing food speculation and price volatility, and by ceasing no patenting of life forms , sustainable agricultural systems can be achieved.

? Renewable Energy - Addressing Energy access through locally appropriate renewable technologies enables development and catalyses a global shift away from fossil fuels. UN initiatives and Rio+20 offer opportunities to build on the extensive research that exists on the most effective way to catalyse the uptake of renewable technology. Meanwhile, outcomes must ensure that the necessary Energy transformation respects the principles of a green and fair economy. Communities and stakeholders must be central to all policies at each stage and on all levels (global, national and local level).

Policy enablers that increase the capacity of national governments to decentralize the Energy system could be developed and international governance that supports the re-shifting of subsidies away from fossil and polluting fuels to clean and renewable fuels must be delivered. The High Level Commission on access to Energy should bbe integrated into the new and existing framework for sustainable development governance.

Development of a Global Feed In Tariff to finance electrification programmes in the global south, would enable the transition to a low carbon Energy system that is 100% renewable electricity and that provides fair and universal access for all from wind, water or solar sources; and universal access to modern Energy services. Development and adoption of specific criteria to achieve this include, affordability, transparent and inclusive decision making, and inclusive ownership models (e.g. cooperatives).

? Green Skills and Jobs ? Lifelong learning and skills that are environmentally sound; socially decent and reflective of the need to transition to the green and fair economy will underpin the development of the green job and skills industry. The employment sector can rapidly expand to allow for the expansion of the industry, goods and services and other related green jobs that is already underway.

National governments could support education and training programmes in the green jobs and skills sector and establish an international monitoring body for green skills and jobs. There is a significant role that investment of taxes into the sector can play, and establishing industrial policies that reflect the core values of green jobs.

Such initiatives can strengthen the drive for regeneration and re-skilling in the sector and create decent, environmentally friendly work creation to bring employment to the vast majority of unemployed across the globe.

? Urbanisation and Planning ? Efficient and inclusive urban mobility is essential for economic and social development since it enables citizens to access goods, services, jobs, markets, education opportunities and social contacts. Yet, urban planning and management has been unable to either cope with the growth thus far or address urban challenges. So without improved capability for urban planning and greater political vision and support, this future increase is likely to cause significant socio-environmental problems for our cities and towns. The rapid urbanisation and growth of cities must be addressed so that there is fair access to resources as well as sustainable resource use.

Through planning compact communities and directing development towards existing communities; providing sustainable transport choices; preserving open space, farmland, natural beauty, and critical environmental areas; and creating a range of housing opportunities and choice quality living for people of all income groups, ages and needs we can rethink the design of the urban landscape. Development decisions must be made in a fair and economically inclusive way to develop systems focussed on the delivery of sustainable development, operating within environmental limits and enabling social justice.

? Sustainable consumption and production - Consistent with the Biodiversity Strategic Plan adopted at the 10th meeting of the Conference of Parties to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (?CBD COP10?), the human ecological footprint is reduced so that it remains within the Earth?s biological carrying capacity. In accordance with the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, we call on nations and populations engaged in wasteful overconsumption to reduce their impacts and help increase the consumption of vital goods and services for impoverished nations and peoples, so they also can enjoy reasonably high standards of living that provide equitable access to health care, decent work opportunities and education.

Governments should promote production processes that reflect the best available technologies for eco-efficiency, recycling, remanufacturing, reuse of waste materials, product durability and longevity. Wasteful practices such as planned obsolescence are identified and eliminated. Public procurement standards and incentives reward leading corporations that share and disseminate best green practices worldwide. By 2020, the majority of the world?s goods and services are procured by governments from sources certified by objective third parties as sustainably produced.

Trade ? Outsourced emissions are a major loophole in current efforts to tackle climate change and build a green economy. International flows of carbon embedded in trade have grown considerably since the original Rio summit, with developed northern nations benefiting unjustly from effectively outsourcing pollution to the global South, and in particular China and India.

Agree to the principle of Clean Trade Agreements. These arrangements, negotiated between states and regions, would come to replace Free Trade Areas and build mutually-agreed carbon constraints into the terms of trade. Clean Trade Agreements would aim to halt the ?race to the bottom? witnessed as globalization has unfolded ? where industry invariably migrates to regions with the least stringent environmental regulations ? and reverse the growth in outsourced emissions.

b) Green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication: views regarding how green economy can be a means to achieve sustainable development in its three dimensions, and poverty eradication; what is its potential added value; experience to date, including what has worked and how to build upon success, what are the challenges and opportunities and how to address the challenges and seize opportunities, and possible elements of an agreement in outcome document on a green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication

2. The Green and Fair Economy
The Green Economy needs to be a fair one, with all that this implies. To this end, the social dimension of sustainable development needs to be given greater emphasis. The basic preconditions for this are: social cohesion, fairness, including inter-generational fairness, fair redistribution and solutions for social problems such as growing inequality, lack of access to a whole range of resources, poverty and unemployment. The transition to a green economy will only be politically acceptable if it is pursued in an equitable way, both within and between countries.

The change needed is big and promising, but it will also be disruptive to some businesses and economic interests. It is therefore essential that everyone should be fully informed and should fully understand the reasons for the changes and be brought into a broad coalition and alliance for change; and that the interests of all those who may be adversely affected in the short-term are properly taken into account.

The work on planetary boundaries, biocapacity thresholds and One Planet Living offer important contributions to understanding the global ecological landscape within which Rio+20 is operating, and can offer compelling support for the need to embark on such a global transition.

The Summit should establish agreement and commitment on the following:
1. Principles to be embodied in the green and fair economy and to guide transition towards it;
2. Quantification of the various dimensions or aspects of a green economy and how to measure progress towards it;
3. Progress on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and incremental targets with key dates by 2015 to act as a successor framework for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs);
4. Measures needed to promote green economy - a toolbox of green reforms;
5. Guiding principles and specific measures needed in key sectors;
6. The just transition - Ensuring fairness within and between countries;
7. Engaging and mobilising stakeholders in the transition;
8. Financing the transition; and
9. The institutions to govern and guide the transition, nationally and internationally.

2.1. Principles for a Green and Fair Economy
Recognising the challenges of this agenda, it is therefore critical that any global agreements that advance progress towards a green economy are governed by an over-arching set of principles that have common currency among governments and stakeholders alike.

There is range of literature that can be drawn upon in the identification of some common guiding principles for the green economy. Rio +20 should pay particular attention to strengthening existing and agreed Principles in such a way as to give a stronger impetus to the key requirements of the green economy. Fifteen in particular have been identified that draw on The Stockholm Declaration, the Johannesburg Declaration, The Earth Charter, The One Planet Living Principles, The Green Economy Coalition (GEC), the Trade Unions Congress? (TUC) ?Just Transition? principles, and nef?s (the new economics foundation) work on the new economy and their Great Transition programme of work and campaign.

1. Equitable distribution of wealth
2. Economic equity and fairness
3. Intergenerational Equity
4. Precautionary Approach
5. The Right to Human Development
6. Internalization of Externalities
7. International Cooperation
8. International liability
9. Information, participation and accountability
10. Sustainable Consumption and Production
11. Strategic, co-ordinated and integrated planning to deliver sustainable development, the green economy and poverty alleviation.
12. Just Transition
13. Redefine Well-being
14. Gender Equality
15. Safeguard biodiversity and prevent pollution of any part of the environment

Section 6 below goes into more detail and gives full explanatory text on each of these principles.

2.2. Specific initiatives
Specific initiatives to enable and promote the Green and Fair Economy include:
? Beyond GDP - The current reliance on economic growth and GDP as an indicator of success has led to perverse outcomes. It has not delivered fair levels of well-being for society or individuals. GDP is an inadequate metric through which to gauge well-being over time. Instead we need to reassess our common values, making decisions that lead to a green and fair economy around what we really value. There is an important distinction between assessing current well-being and assessing sustainability.

? Sustainable Management of Natural Resources and Capitals - The poor management and regulation of natural assets and ecosystems leads to increasingly frequent and severe regional and global crises, and is a major factor behind food, water and Energy insecurity (see Section 3 below for further details on these securities). Outcomes from Rio+20 must ensure that national development strategies take full account of the state of natural assets and ecosystems, and their role in sustaining human and animal well-being and economic activity; actively investing in their conservation and enhancement to avoid a devastating and irreversible global crisis. National ecological wealth accounting should also be integrated into national accounts and sovereign credit rating in order to develop an economic system that maintains and enhances natural capital.

? Fiscal Reform - True environmental costs of production and consumption must be internalised into accounting models in order to address the causes rather than simply the symptoms of environmental degradation. The polluter pays principle should be adopted in practice in standard accounting and reporting practices for both business and governments, so that these costs can be reflected in market valuations and environmental impact assessments. Furthermore, green taxes should be used to incentivise positive behaviours and discourage harmful ones. For example, an internationally agreed mechanism to raise finance from international transport.

A global Financial Transaction Tax (FTT) should be implemented, with a significant proportion of the revenue raised used to support long-term efforts to fight climate change in developing countries and implementing sustainability programmes. Lastly, all subsidies that undermine sustainable development should be eliminated, particularly those underpinning fossil fuel use and unsustainable agricultural and fishery practices.

The Santiago Principles for sovereign wealth funds could be amended to direct funds to sustainable development activities and fiduciary responsibilities could be reformed to realign the systemic process driving short-termism. By shifting fund manager?s incentives away from short-term gains by integrating these long-term principles and frameworks into the market system, sustainability can be built into the financial architecture, which drives investment decisions. In addition the credit rating system could integrate sustainability criteria in line with the principles of the green and fair economy.

? Sustainable Public Procurement ? Governments must use public procurement as a leadership and leveraging tool to promote the Green and Fair Economy. All public procurement contracts should include specifications for labour, well-being and environmental sustainability standards. Regulation could also be implemented to ensure the reuse of waste as raw material for new products to maximize the lifecycle and take action through providing the right incentives for research and development and by driving a cradle-to-cradle approach to manufacturing and industry.

? Global Convention on Rio Declaration Principle 10 ? Access to environmental information, participation in transparent decision-making processes, and access to judicial and administrative proceedings should be basic rights for all, at all levels of decision-making, including local, national and international processes. Rio+20 should support a proposal for a Global Convention on Access to Information based on Principle 10 of the 1992 Rio Declaration. There could also be regional replications of the Aarhus Convention in other parts of the world.

? Convention on Corporate Sustainability ? The convention would operate under, four key principles:
1. Transparency ? companies should be required to integrate material sustainability issues within their report and accounts;
2. Accountability ? there should be effective mechanisms for investors to fold companies to account on the quality of their disclosures, including through an advisory vote at its All General Meeting (AGM);
3. Responsibility ? Board duties should explicitly include setting company?s values and standards and ensuring that its obligations to its shareholders and other stakeholders are understood and met;
4. Incentives ? Companies should state in remuneration reports whether the remuneration committee consider ESG factors which are of material relevance to the sustainability and long term interests of the company when setting remuneration of executive directors; aligning remuneration with the interest of the shareholders, including customers and employees.

Companies should be required to present their Corporate Sustainability Strategy to a separate vote at is AGM. If no report is to be published a justification for this should be produced and this justification should also be put to a vote.

The future convention should draw on experiences and content from the Global Compact, Sustainable Stock Exchanges initiative, Carbon Disclosure Project and the OECD guidelines. Voluntary Initiatives such as the successful ISO 26000 and the Global Report Initiative can provide guidance on the framework necessary to ease the implementation of Sustainability Reporting.

Governments may wish to relook at the proposed Chapter 41 of Agenda 21 from 1991. This was called Transnational Corporations and Sustainable Development and submitted for consideration by the UN Center for Transnational Corporations.

? Roadmap or pathway to a green and fair economy ? Such a roadmap or pathway should combine the elements of the core principles of the Green and Fair Economy with the sectoral goals and target integrated to develop a transition pathway that can be geographically, politically and culturally relevant to the diverse populations and societies across the globe. It is important that the recommendations are not too specific as to be alienating for different countries; but to offer enough of a 'map' or 'blueprint' that can be used globally.
The concepts and initiatives on the Green and Fair Economy presented above were developed as a part of Stakeholder Forum?s Global Transition 2012 initiative, in partnership with nef (new economics foundation) and the New Economics Institute; as well as other multi-stakeholder consultations and initiatives. These include peer-reviewed think pieces from several different authors. For full details and to read the think pieces, please visit the website ? www.globaltransition2012.org.
It also draws on the work Stakeholder Forum has been engaged in as Chair of the BOND Development and Environment Group (BOND-DEG) in the UK (which has made its own submission to the zero draft), and the Bonn DPI Declaration.

c) Institutional framework for sustainable development: Priorities and proposals for strengthening individual pillars of sustainable development, as well as those for strengthening integration of the three pillars, at multiple levels; local, national, regional and international.

3. Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development
There is growing acceptance of the need to strengthen and reform the institutions dealing with sustainable development at all levels of governance, local, national, regional and global. Rio+20 has been given a mandate by the UN General Assembly to take action to strengthen these institutions. However, it is vital that form must follow function for any reform of the institutional framework for sustainable development. Rio+20 should seek to improve the integration of the different elements on sustainable development; social, environment and economic.

3.1. Integrating Sustainable Development Across the UN
Rio+20 should seek to establish a permanent Sustainable Development Council, on par with the Council on Human Rights as a subsidiary body of the UN General Assembly.

The Council would address new and emerging issues such as the nexus of water, Energy and food security, addressing climate change impacts, and consider the changes required in economy post Rio+20. It is vitally important for governments to consider the inter-linkages between these areas, most of which do not have a place in the UN system for discussion individually or collectively.

In order to integrate the three pillars of sustainable development, the Council should be given authority to request reports from the specialised agencies working on social, economic and environmental issues:
? Specialised agencies with a mandate focussing on social issues, such as ILO, WHO, UNESCO and others would report on social issues;
? Units working on economy and finance, such as IFCs, IMF, the World Bank Group would report on economic issues and on green economy;
? While a new and strengthened UN environment organisation (see below) with a specialised agency position, and specialised agencies with an environment portfolio (such as FAO, WMO, IMO, ICA and others) would all report on environmental issues.

To further develop the capacity of the Sustainable Development Council to function as the highest body of the United Nations to deal with sustainable development, Rio+20 should:
? Ask the UN General Assembly at its next session to establish a high level committee of experts to provide specific proposals regarding the structure, mandate, modalities and work-programme of this Council and how to provide the Council with the necessary authority within the UN system to effectively interact with all levels of the intergovernmental system;
? Further mandate the committee of experts to report to the General Assembly by December 2012, with either specific recommendations regarding function and modalities of the Sustainable Development Council. Or with a recommendation that at its first meeting, in 2013, the new Council should determine its own modalities;
? Ensure that this high level committee includes expert representatives from all relevant stakeholders, including governments, the intergovernmental system, the major groups and academia.

In order to ensure that the whole UN system operates effectively to support the work of the Sustainable Development Council, the following institutions should be explored in supporting the structure, mandate and modalities of the new Council:
? An Interagency Committee on Sustainable Development, building on the experiences from earlier and present interagency committees, now named appropriately the High Level Committee on Sustainable Development could be established to service the Chief Executive Board of the Council;
? A Sustainable Development Board - made up of the governing bodies of UNFPA, UNICEF, UNDP, WFP, UNEP and UN Habitat and other relevant and similar units - should be formed to meet once a year to coordinate their policies, and support sustainable development at the country level. This would focus on support for the UN Delivering as One process. It would be able to report to the Council on emerging threats at the country level.
? An Intergovernmental Panel on Sustainable Development should be set up to ensure that there was no fragmentation between scientific panels. The Panel should be given a specific mandate to ensure that the scientific bodies are able to integrate their findings and create a more coherent information base from which governments and other organisations can make better, more informed decisions. It should be modelled on experiences from the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and be given oversight of IPCC and the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystems Services (IPBES) and any future sectoral panels. It would also enable coherent scenario making across the area of sustainable development.

3.2. Strengthening the Environment Pillar
There is an urgent need to strengthen the environmental pillar of sustainable development to give it equal political weight to social and economic pillars within the UN system. Rio+20 should strengthen UNEP and adopt a resolution calling for the UN General Assembly to give it an upgraded and authoritative status within the UN system to be the supreme UN organisation dealing with the environment. This could be accomplished either by establishing either:
? a World Environment Organisation (WEO) with universal membership, or
? a UN specialised agency, a UN Environment Organisation (UNEO).

The upgraded environment organisation should be given a new and strong mandate, which could be modelled on the World Health Organisation (WHO) mandate, but for the environment and sustainable development. The present functioning governance structures integrated into the new organisation in order to give space to the Major Groups at the same level as today. However, it must strive to strengthen its scientific base. The new organisation should also be headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya.

3.3. Specific Initiatives
Specific initiatives and proposed framework conventions to enable and promote the Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development include:
? Sustainable Development Goals ? In August 2011, Colombia submitted a proposal to the UN to introduce Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It sees these as a possible foundation for building international political commitment at Rio, providing measurable ?tangible goals? for the sustainable development debate. Enclosed in Section 6 are suggestions from the UN DPI NGO Conference ?Chair?s Text? on SD Goals as a contribution to this proposal. The SDGs would address the Agenda 21 aims produced at Rio 20 years ago. The SDGs would apply in all countries, and therefore act as a complementary, successor framework to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which end in 2015 and focuses mainly on the Global South. Furthermore, SDGs would also provide a more balanced approach between the economic (poverty reduction) pillar of the MDGs and the environmental and social pillars of sustainable development.

? Sustainable Consumption and Production Governance ? To support the achievement of any new SDGs, a shift to more sustainable consumption and production (SCP) patterns is necessary. Improved SCP Governance must be a key part of the discussions at Rio+20. For example, a new agreement for an updated SCP Framework, building on the Marakesh Process and the 10-Year Framework of Programmes (10YFP), would be an important first step.

? Reform of International Financial Institutions ? There must be better incorporation of sustainable development parameters in the existing International Financial Institutions, particularly in terms of funding, operations, strategic plans, objectives and implementation. Additionally, Rio+20 should pursue further reforms to strengthen the efficiency of the Global Environment Facility (GEF).

? Principle 10 ? Rio+20 should agree to elevate Principle 10 of the Rio Principles on access information, participation and transparency to a framework convention. UN Regional Commissions should also explore the possibility to simultaneously develop Principle 10 Conventions for their regions based on existing experiences.

? New and emerging technologies - Rio+20 should agree to establishing a framework convention on new and emerging technologies, including geo-engineering, nano-technology, and incorporating the precautionary approach and principle into the work of such a framework convention.

? International Court for the Environment - Environmental problems extend across international boundaries, but there are few effective international institutions to deal with them properly. Strengthening international environmental law mechanisms are essential to securing sustainable development. The Rio+20 outcome document should accordingly recommend the establishment of an International Court for the Environment (ICE).

? A High Commissioner or Ombudsperson for Future generations ? Rio+20 should agree to establish an office for a High Commissioner or Ombudsperson for Future Generations to ensure the needs of future generations are represented in the relevant decision-making processes.

? National Councils on Sustainable Development ? Rio+20 must revisit the recommendations from the UN Conference on the Environment and Development (UNCED) in 1992 and the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in 2002 and strongly recommend to the participating nations on the need to re-establish or further develop and strengthen National Council for Sustainable Development with appropriately developed national strategies, funding and governance structures where stakeholders/ the major groups are fully integrated. Such Councils could merge with any Economic Development Councils to strengthen the follow up to Rio+20.

Rio+20 should ask the UN General Assembly at its first session to mandate a high level group of experts, including representatives of the Major Groups, in line with the UN General Assembly resolution calling for major group participation in the Rio+20 process, and give the high level groups of experts a mandate to study the issues highlighted above, develop a framework convention covering these issues and report to the first scheduled meeting of the Council on Sustainable Development of its progress.

The concepts and initiatives on the Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development presented above were developed as a part of the work of the Sustainable Development Governance 2012 Network managed by Stakeholder Forum, IUCN, ANPED and Climate and Sustainability Platform. This included think pieces from several different authors. For full details and to read the think pieces, please visit the website ? www.earthsummit2012.org/sdg2012

d) Any proposals for refinement of the two themes. Recall that Resolution 64/236 describes the focus of the Conference: "The focus of the Conference will include the following themes to be discussed and refined during the preparatory process: a green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication and the institutional framework for sustainable development".

The Green Economy should be always referred to as the Green and Fair Economy to also capture the social pillar of sustainable development.

Full Submission

Stakeholder Forum ? Rio+20 Zero Draft Submission

Stakeholder Forum is an international organisation working to advance sustainable development and promote democracy at a global level. Our work aims to enhance open, accountable and participatory international decision-making on sustainable development through enhancing the involvement of stakeholders in intergovernmental processes.

1. Introduction

The total population of the world has just passed seven billion and is continuing to increase.

Everywhere people aspire to higher living standards and higher levels of consumption. There is growing concern about the capacity of the world?s natural resources to provide food, Energy and other materials to sustain this growing demand. At the same time the growing scale of human activity is threatening to cause dangerous levels of climate change, increased levels of pollution, destruction of natural habitats and biodiversity.

Operating within planetary boundaries is a necessary precondition for sustainability. But at present the world is pressing harder against ecological limits and we have already breached the safe operating space or boundaries for three of nine key planetary systems (climate change, biodiversity loss and excess nitrogen and phosphorus production).1 To balance the discussion on planetary boundaries we welcome the initiative of Oxfam to start a discussion on social boundaries.

At present the global economy is not effective in addressing these emerging problems. The drivers of the global economy tend to amplify and exacerbate them. As some fossil fuels become scarcer, more effort is put into developing more marginal sources with more severe environmental and pollution impacts. As pressures on food resources become greater more marginal land is taken and threats to biodiversity become greater. As fish stocks are depleted, fleets travel ever further from their bases threatening collapse of stocks on an oceanic or global basis. The impacts of greenhouse gas emissions, waste and pollution are inadequately controlled and grow ever more severe.

Business as usual is also proving to be ineffective even in its own terms. Pursuit of the wrong kind of growth and the wrong kind of investment has led to economic crisis and stagnation, job losses on a massive scale, and sharply growing inequalities both within and between countries.

In order to avoid catastrophe the operation of the global economy needs to be transformed. All resources need to be used more efficiently, and renewable resources to be substituted for finite non-renewable ones. Renewable resources (e.g. marine fish stocks) need to be managed in a way that ensures that they are indeed renewed. Key habitats and biodiversity need to be conserved. Greenhouse gas emissions and other damaging pollution need to be cut back.

Waste needs to be minimised, and reuse and recycling maximised. Vested interests, monopoly power and excessive rewards for the few need to be curbed, with greater equity within and between countries established.

Furthermore, we need to reform existing institutions and create new institutions to deliver this sustainable future. However, form must follow function and it is vital that any new institutional framework is fit for purpose.

All parts of society need to be engaged in the transition, as they will all be affected by the changes. So the transition must be managed in an open and co-operative way that ensures a just and fair transition to the sustainable green economy. We need common value and language and new politics to shape and guide the transition in a harmonious and equitable way.

Only then will we create the trust required to build socio-environmental security and resilience, now and into the future.

2. The Green and Fair Economy

The Green Economy needs to be a fair one, with all that this implies. To this end, the social dimension of sustainable development needs to be given greater emphasis. The basic preconditions for this are: social cohesion, fairness, including inter-generational fairness, fair redistribution and solutions for social problems such as growing inequality, lack of access to a whole range of resources, poverty and unemployment. The transition to a green economy will only be politically acceptable if it is pursued in an equitable way, both within and between countries.

The change needed is big and promising, but it will also be disruptive to some businesses and economic interests. It is therefore essential that everyone should be fully informed and should fully understand the reasons for the changes and be brought into a broad coalition and alliance for change; and that the interests of all those who may be adversely affected in the short-term are properly taken into account.

The work on planetary boundaries, biocapacity thresholds and One Planet Living offer important contributions to understanding the global ecological landscape within which Rio+20 is operating, and can offer compelling support for the need to embark on such a global transition. The Summit should establish agreement and commitment on the following:

1. Principles to be embodied in the green and fair economy and to guide transition towards it;

2. Quantification of the various dimensions or aspects of a green economy and how to measure progress towards it;

3. Progress on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and incremental targets with key dates by 2015 to act as a successor framework for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs);

4. Measures needed to promote green economy - a toolbox of green reforms;

5. Guiding principles and specific measures needed in key sectors;

6. The just transition - Ensuring fairness within and between countries;

7. Engaging and mobilising stakeholders in the transition;

8. Financing the transition; and

9. The institutions to govern and guide the transition, nationally and internationally.

2.1. Principles for a Green and Fair Economy

Recognising the challenges of this agenda, it is therefore critical that any global agreements that advance progress towards a green economy are governed by an over-arching set of principles that have common currency among governments and stakeholders alike.

There is range of literature that can be drawn upon in the identification of some common guiding principles for the green economy.3 Rio +20 should pay particular attention to strengthening existing and agreed Principles in such a way as to give a stronger impetus to the key requirements of the green economy. Fifteen in particular have been identified that draw on The Stockholm Declaration, the Johannesburg Declaration, The Earth Charter, The One Planet Living Principles, The Green Economy Coalition (GEC), the Trade Unions Congress? (TUC) ?Just Transition? principles, and nef?s (the new economics foundation) work on the new economy and their Great Transition programme of work and campaign.

1. Equitable distribution of wealth

2. Economic equity and fairness

3. Intergenerational Equity

4. Precautionary Approach

5. The Right to Human Development

6. Internalization of Externalities

7. International Cooperation

8. International liability

9. Information, participation and accountability

10. Sustainable Consumption and Production

11. Strategic, co-ordinated and integrated planning to deliver sustainable development, the green economy and poverty alleviation.

12. Just Transition

13. Redefine Well-being

14. Gender Equality

15. Safeguard biodiversity and prevent pollution of any part of the environment Section 6 below goes into more detail and gives full explanatory text on each of these principles.

2.2. Specific initiatives

Specific initiatives to enable and promote the Green and Fair Economy include:

Beyond GDP - The current reliance on economic growth and GDP as an indicator of success has led to perverse outcomes. It has not delivered fair levels of well-being for society or individuals. GDP is an inadequate metric through which to gauge well-being over time. Instead we need to reassess our common values, making decisions that lead to a green and fair economy around what we really value. There is an important distinction between assessing current wellbeing and assessing sustainability.

Sustainable Management of Natural Resources and Capitals - The poor management and regulation of natural assets and ecosystems leads to increasingly frequent and severe regional and global crises, and is a major factor behind food, water and Energy insecurity (see Section 3 below for further details on these securities). Outcomes from Rio+20 must ensure that national development strategies take full account of the state of natural assets and ecosystems, and their role in sustaining human and animal well-being and economic activity; actively investing in their conservation and enhancement to avoid a devastating and irreversible global crisis. National ecological wealth accounting should also be integrated into national accounts and sovereign credit rating in order to develop an economic system that maintains and enhances natural capital.

Fiscal Reform - True environmental costs of production and consumption must be internalised into accounting models in order to address the causes rather than simply the symptoms of environmental degradation. The polluter pays principle should be adopted in practice in standard accounting and reporting practices for both business and governments, so that these costs can be reflected in market valuations and environmental impact assessments. Furthermore, green taxes should be used to incentivise positive behaviours and discourage harmful ones. For example, an internationally agreed mechanism to raise finance from international transport.

A global Financial Transaction Tax (FTT) should be implemented, with a significant proportion of the revenue raised used to support long-term efforts to fight climate change in developing countries and implementing sustainability programmes. Lastly, all subsidies that undermine sustainable development should be eliminated, particularly those underpinning fossil fuel use and unsustainable agricultural and fishery practices.

The Santiago Principles for sovereign wealth funds could be amended to direct funds to sustainable development activities and fiduciary responsibilities could be reformed to realign the systemic process driving short-termism. By shifting fund manager?s incentives away from short-term gains by integrating these long-term principles and frameworks into the market system, sustainability can be built into the financial architecture, which drives investment decisions. In addition the credit rating system could integrate sustainability criteria in line with the principles of the green and fair economy.

Sustainable Public Procurement ? Governments must use public procurement as a leadership and leveraging tool to promote the Green and Fair Economy. All public procurement contracts should include specifications for labour, well-being and environmental sustainability standards. Regulation could also be implemented to ensure the reuse of waste as raw material for new products to maximize the lifecycle and take action through providing the right incentives for research and development and by driving a cradle-to-cradle approach to manufacturing and industry.

Global Convention on Rio Declaration Principle 10 ? Access to environmental information, participation in transparent decision-making processes, and access to judicial and administrative proceedings should be basic rights for all, at all levels of decision-making, including local, national and international processes. Rio+20 should support a proposal for a Global Convention on Access to Information based on Principle 10 of the 1992 Rio Declaration. There could also be regional replications of the Aarhus Convention in other parts of the world.

Convention on Corporate Sustainability ? The convention would operate under, four key principles:

1. Transparency ? companies should be required to integrate material sustainability issues within their report and accounts;

2. Accountability ? there should be effective mechanisms for investors to fold companies to account on the quality of their disclosures, including through an advisory vote at its All General Meeting (AGM);

3. Responsibility ? Board duties should explicitly include setting company?s values and standards and ensuring that its obligations to its shareholders and other stakeholders are understood and met;

4. Incentives ? Companies should state in remuneration reports whether the remuneration committee consider ESG factors which are of material relevance to the sustainability and long term interests of the company when setting remuneration of executive directors; aligning remuneration with the interest of the shareholders, including customers and employees. Companies should be required to present their Corporate Sustainability Strategy to a separate vote at is AGM. If no report is to be published a justification for this should be produced and this justification should also be put to a vote.

The future convention should draw on experiences and content from the Global Compact, Sustainable Stock Exchanges initiative, Carbon Disclosure Project and the OECD guidelines. Voluntary Initiatives such as the successful ISO 26000 and the Global Report Initiative can provide guidance on the framework necessary to ease the implementation of Sustainability Reporting.

Governments may wish to relook at the proposed Chapter 41 of Agenda 21 from 1991. This was called Transnational Corporations and Sustainable Development and submitted for consideration by the UN Center for Transnational Corporations.

Roadmap or pathway to a green and fair economy ? Such a roadmap or pathway should combine the elements of the core principles of the Green and Fair Economy with the sectoral goals and target integrated to develop a transition pathway that can be geographically, politically and culturally relevant to the diverse populations and societies across the globe. It is important that the recommendations are not too specific as to be alienating for different countries; but to offer enough of a 'map' or 'blueprint' that can be used globally.

The concepts and initiatives on the Green and Fair Economy presented above were developed as a part of Stakeholder Forum?s Global Transition 2012 initiative, in partnership with nef (new economics foundation) and the New Economics Institute; as well as other multistakeholder consultations and initiatives. These include peer-reviewed think pieces from several different authors. For full details and to read the think pieces, please visit the website ? www.globaltransition2012.org.

It also draws on the work Stakeholder Forum has been engaged in as Chair of the BOND Development and Environment Group (BOND-DEG) in the UK (which has made its own submission to the zero draft), and the Bonn DPI Declaration.

3. Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development

There is growing acceptance of the need to strengthen and reform the institutions dealing with sustainable development at all levels of governance, local, national, regional and global. Rio+20 has been given a mandate by the UN General Assembly to take action to strengthen these institutions. However, it is vital that form must follow function for any reform of the institutional framework for sustainable development. Rio+20 should seek to improve the integration of the different elements on sustainable development; social, environment and economic.

3.1. Integrating Sustainable Development Across the UN Rio+20 should seek to establish a permanent Sustainable Development Council, on par with the Council on Human Rights as a subsidiary body of the UN General Assembly.

The Council would address new and emerging issues such as the nexus of water, Energy and food security, addressing climate change impacts, and consider the changes required in economy post Rio+20. It is vitally important for governments to consider the inter-linkages between these areas, most of which do not have a place in the UN system for discussion individually or collectively.

In order to integrate the three pillars of sustainable development, the Council should be given authority to request reports from the specialised agencies working on social, economic and environmental issues:

Specialised agencies with a mandate focussing on social issues, such as ILO, WHO, UNESCO and others would report on social issues;

Units working on economy and finance, such as IFCs, IMF, the World Bank Group would report on economic issues and on green economy;

While a new and strengthened UN environment organisation (see below) with a specialised agency position, and specialised agencies with an environment portfolio (such as FAO, WMO, IMO, ICA and others) would all report on environmental issues.

To further develop the capacity of the Sustainable Development Council to function as the highest body of the United Nations to deal with sustainable development, Rio+20 should:

Ask the UN General Assembly at its next session to establish a high level committee of experts to provide specific proposals regarding the structure, mandate, modalities and work-programme of this Council and how to provide the Council with the necessary authority within the UN system to effectively interact with all levels of the intergovernmental system;

Further mandate the committee of experts to report to the General Assembly by December 2012, with either specific recommendations regarding function and modalities of the Sustainable Development Council. Or with a recommendation that at its first meeting, in 2013, the new Council should determine its own modalities;

Ensure that this high level committee includes expert representatives from all relevant stakeholders, including governments, the intergovernmental system, the major groups and academia.

In order to ensure that the whole UN system operates effectively to support the work of the Sustainable Development Council, the following institutions should be explored in supporting the structure, mandate and modalities of the new Council:

An Interagency Committee on Sustainable Development, building on the experiences from earlier and present interagency committees, now named appropriately the High Level Committee on Sustainable Development could be established to service the Chief Executive Board of the Council;

A Sustainable Development Board - made up of the governing bodies of UNFPA, UNICEF, UNDP, WFP, UNEP and UN Habitat and other relevant and similar units - should be formed to meet once a year to coordinate their policies, and support sustainable development at the country level. This would focus on support for the UN Delivering as One process. It would be able to report to the Council on emerging threats at the country level.

An Intergovernmental Panel on Sustainable Development should be set up to ensure that there was no fragmentation between scientific panels. The Panel should be given a specific mandate to ensure that the scientific bodies are able to integrate their findings and create a more coherent information base from which governments and other organisations can make better, more informed decisions. It should be modelled on experiences from the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and be given oversight of IPCC and the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystems Services (IPBES) and any future sectoral panels. It would also enable coherent scenario making across the area of sustainable development.

3.2. Strengthening the Environment Pillar

There is an urgent need to strengthen the environmental pillar of sustainable development to give it equal political weight to social and economic pillars within the UN system. Rio+20 should strengthen UNEP and adopt a resolution calling for the UN General Assembly to give it an upgraded and authoritative status within the UN system to be the supreme UN organisation dealing with the environment. This could be accomplished either by establishing either:

a World Environment Organisation (WEO) with universal membership, or

a UN specialised agency, a UN Environment Organisation (UNEO).

The upgraded environment organisation should be given a new and strong mandate, which could be modelled on the World Health Organisation (WHO) mandate, but for the environment and sustainable development. The present functioning governance structures integrated into the new organisation in order to give space to the Major Groups at the same level as today. However, it must strive to strengthen its scientific base. The new organisation should also be headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya.

3.3. Specific Initiatives

Specific initiatives and proposed framework conventions to enable and promote the Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development include:

Sustainable Development Goals ? In August 2011, Colombia submitted a proposal to the UN to introduce Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It sees these as a possible foundation for building international political commitment at Rio, providing measurable ?tangible goals? for the sustainable development debate. Enclosed in Section 6 are suggestions from the UN DPI NGO Conference ?Chair?s Text? on SD Goals as a contribution to this proposal. The SDGs would address the Agenda 21 aims produced at Rio 20 years ago. The SDGs would apply in all countries, and therefore act as a complementary, successor framework to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which end in 2015 and focuses mainly on the Global South. Furthermore, SDGs would also provide a more balanced approach between the economic (poverty reduction) pillar of the MDGs and the environmental and social pillars of sustainable development.

Sustainable Consumption and Production Governance ? To support the achievement of any new SDGs, a shift to more sustainable consumption and production (SCP) patterns is necessary. Improved SCP Governance must be a key part of the discussions at Rio+20. For example, a new agreement for an updated SCP Framework, building on the Marakesh Process and the 10-Year Framework of Programmes (10YFP), would be an important first step.

Reform of International Financial Institutions ? There must be better incorporation of sustainable development parameters in the existing International Financial Institutions, particularly in terms of funding, operations, strategic plans, objectives and implementation. Additionally, Rio+20 should pursue further reforms to strengthen the efficiency of the Global Environment Facility (GEF).

Principle 10 ? Rio+20 should agree to elevate Principle 10 of the Rio Principles on access information, participation and transparency to a framework convention. UN Regional Commissions should also explore the possibility to simultaneously develop Principle 10 Conventions for their regions based on existing experiences.

New and emerging technologies - Rio+20 should agree to establishing a framework convention on new and emerging technologies, including geoengineering, nano-technology, and incorporating the precautionary approach and principle into the work of such a framework convention.

International Court for the Environment - Environmental problems extend across international boundaries, but there are few effective international institutions to deal with them properly. Strengthening international environmental law mechanisms are essential to securing sustainable development. The Rio+20 outcome document should accordingly recommend the establishment of an International Court for the Environment (ICE).

A High Commissioner or Ombudsperson for Future generations ? Rio+20 should agree to establish an office for a High Commissioner or Ombudsperson for Future Generations to ensure the needs of future generations are represented in the relevant decision-making processes.

National Councils on Sustainable Development ? Rio+20 must revisit the recommendations from the UN Conference on the Environment and Development (UNCED) in 1992 and the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in 2002 and strongly recommend to the participating nations on the need to re-establish or further develop and strengthen National Council for Sustainable Development with appropriately developed national strategies, funding and governance structures where stakeholders/ the major groups are fully integrated. Such Councils could merge with any Economic Development Councils to strengthen the follow up to Rio+20.

Rio+20 should ask the UN General Assembly at its first session to mandate a high level group of experts, including representatives of the Major Groups, in line with the UN General Assembly resolution calling for major group participation in the Rio+20 process, and give the high level groups of experts a mandate to study the issues highlighted above, develop a framework convention covering these issues and report to the first scheduled meeting of the Council on Sustainable Development of its progress.

The concepts and initiatives on the Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development presented above were developed as a part of the work of the Sustainable Development Governance 2012 Network managed by Stakeholder Forum, IUCN, ANPED and Climate and Sustainability Platform. This included think pieces from several different authors. For full details and to read the think pieces, please visit the website ? www.earthsummit2012.org/sdg2012

4. Continued Engagement of Stakeholders

Rio +20 is going to be a multi-stakeholder Summit. Partnerships between the many sectors in society can be developed, created and strengthened in the lead up to Rio+20 and during the conference itself. Each sector needs to recognise the contribution and potential of the others and to seek out new ways of helping and reinforcing each other?s efforts for sustainability.

Governments assembled at Rio could help by recognising and endorsing the various high level declarations and commitments that will be made by the principal sectoral organisations or groupings also assembled at Rio, and annexing them to the final Rio declaration. Each Government should also commit itself at Rio to encouraging and promoting action for sustainable development by all the major groups working for sustainable development at national level in its own country, including regional and local governments, businesses and trade unions, and all the wide variety of non-governmental organisations and other groups.

As each Government develops or renews its own sustainable development implementation strategy after Rio it should also commit itself to working with all these other actors in an open, transparent and co-operative way so as to build effective partnerships for the sustainability transition, and to mobilise the human and financial resources needed to achieve it.

5. Sectoral Issues and Challenges

There are also specific sectoral and thematic issues that must be discussed at Rio+20. These issues have reached a point of urgency and require immediate attention. The issues include, but are not limited to:

The water, Energy and food securities nexus ? Global trends such as population growth and rising economic prosperity are expected to increase demand for Energy, food and water, which will further compromise the sustainable use of natural resources and equitable access. This pressure on resources could ultimately result in shortages which may put water, Energy and food security for the people at further risk, hamper economic development and poverty reduction, lead to social and geopolitical tensions and cause lasting irreparable environmental damage.

Ensuring the resilience of basic ecosystems services through the integration of common challenges and solutions of these securities is vital; which should be coupled with principles of fair and secure access to water, Energy and food for all people.

The Blue Economy ? Healthy oceans provide tremendous economic, social, and environmental benefits that directly support livelihoods around the globe, and further support life-sustaining processes for the planet. Consideration and inclusion of these services at Rio+20 is imperative to ensure the global community can continue to rely on the marine environment on which it so essentially depends.

Regulation of the marine ecosystems such as international and national standards should be established to ensure sustainability underpins the localized and wider blue economy.

The proposed Sustainable Development Council, UNEP and proposed WEO could play a role in this. In particular, regulation could include: licensing for markets; access criteria that relate to conditions for access based on social, environmental and economic impacts could be developed; transparent allocation of fishing quotas; and independent and verifiable measures for quotas and the renewable and sustainable exploitation of marine resources.

Rio can set us on course to cease overfishing and restore fish stocks to ecosystem maximum health. In order to achieve this it is essential that all exploitation of renewable marine resources and commercial fishing must be environmentally, socially and economically sustainable (includes fish, water, coastal ecosystems and reefs); and that non-renewable resources such as oil and gas must have their subsidies phased out.

Sustainable Agriculture and Food ? There is a need for urgent reform of the global food system. This requires an understanding of the complexities of our planet?s ecosystem services, the way in which they interact with one another and our impacts on them. UN policies and programmes and Rio+20 provide an opportunity for global leaders to agree on humane and sustainable agriculture policy and practice, with a focus on agro ecological approaches and recognising the fundamental role of small scale farmers in providing food for those most in need, the majority of which are women. In addition to improving the efficiency of food systems and reducing waste, a focus should be on improving production.

These goals can be achieved in part through sharing of knowledge, best practice and technology.

Resilient, healthy and localised food systems that are supported by a multi-functional and agro-ecological food production system can be created. Through re-orienting agricultural assistance to prioritise sustainable agriculture practices, by curbing food speculation and price volatility, and by ceasing no patenting of life forms , sustainable agricultural systems can be achieved.

Renewable Energy - Addressing Energy access through locally appropriate renewable technologies enables development and catalyses a global shift away from fossil fuels. UN initiatives and Rio+20 offer opportunities to build on the extensive research that exists on the most effective way to catalyse the uptake of renewable technology. Meanwhile, outcomes must ensure that the necessary Energy transformation respects the principles of a green and fair economy. Communities and stakeholders must be central to all policies at each stage and on all levels (global, national and local level).

Policy enablers that increase the capacity of national governments to decentralize the Energy system could be developed and international governance that supports the reshifting of subsidies away from fossil and polluting fuels to clean and renewable fuels must be delivered. The High Level Commission on access to Energy should bbe integrated into the new and existing framework for sustainable development governance.

Development of a Global Feed In Tariff to finance electrification programmes in the global south, would enable the transition to a low carbon Energy system that is 100% renewable electricity and that provides fair and universal access for all from wind, water or solar sources; and universal access to modern Energy services. Development and adoption of specific criteria to achieve this include, affordability, transparent and inclusive decision making, and inclusive ownership models (e.g. cooperatives).

Green Skills and Jobs ? Lifelong learning and skills that are environmentally sound; socially decent and reflective of the need to transition to the green and fair economy will underpin the development of the green job and skills industry. The employment sector can rapidly expand to allow for the expansion of the industry, goods and services and other related green jobs that is already underway.

National governments could support education and training programmes in the green jobs and skills sector and establish an international monitoring body for green skills and jobs.

There is a significant role that investment of taxes into the sector can play, and establishing industrial policies that reflect the core values of green jobs.

Such initiatives can strengthen the drive for regeneration and re-skilling in the sector and create decent, environmentally friendly work creation to bring employment to the vast majority of unemployed across the globe.

Urbanisation and Planning ? Efficient and inclusive urban mobility is essential for economic and social development since it enables citizens to access goods, services, jobs, markets, education opportunities and social contacts. Yet, urban planning and management has been unable to either cope with the growth thus far or address urban challenges. So without improved capability for urban planning and greater political vision and support, this future increase is likely to cause significant socio-environmental problems for our cities and towns. The rapid urbanisation and growth of cities must be addressed so that there is fair access to resources as well as sustainable resource use.

Through planning compact communities and directing development towards existing communities; providing sustainable transport choices; preserving open space, farmland, natural beauty, and critical environmental areas; and creating a range of housing opportunities and choice quality living for people of all income groups, ages and needs we can rethink the design of the urban landscape. Development decisions must be made in a fair and economically inclusive way to develop systems focussed on the delivery of sustainable development, operating within environmental limits and enabling social justice.

Sustainable consumption and production - Consistent with the Biodiversity Strategic Plan adopted at the 10th meeting of the Conference of Parties to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (?CBD COP10?), the human ecological footprint is reduced so that it remains within the Earth?s biological carrying capacity. In accordance with the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, we call on nations and populations engaged in wasteful overconsumption to reduce their impacts and help increase the consumption of vital goods and services for impoverished nations and peoples, so they also can enjoy reasonably high standards of living that provide equitable access to health care, decent work opportunities and education.

Governments should promote production processes that reflect the best available technologies for eco-efficiency, recycling, remanufacturing, reuse of waste materials, product durability and longevity. Wasteful practices such as planned obsolescence are identified and eliminated. Public procurement standards and incentives reward leading corporations that share and disseminate best green practices worldwide. By 2020, the majority of the world?s goods and services are procured by governments from sources certified by objective third parties as sustainably produced.

Trade ? Outsourced emissions are a major loophole in current efforts to tackle climate change and build a green economy. International flows of carbon embedded in trade have grown considerably since the original Rio summit, with developed northern nations benefiting unjustly from effectively outsourcing pollution to the global South, and in particular China and India.

Agree to the principle of Clean Trade Agreements. These arrangements, negotiated between states and regions, would come to replace Free Trade Areas and build mutually-agreed carbon constraints into the terms of trade. Clean Trade Agreements would aim to halt the ?race to the bottom? witnessed as globalization has unfolded ? where industry invariably migrates to regions with the least stringent environmental regulations ? and reverse the growth in outsourced emissions.

6. Supplementary information

6.1. Bonn DPI Declaration ? Sustainable Development Goals

To achieve the goals of Rio + 20 in an ambitious, time-bound and accountable manner, we call upon governments in accordance with human rights, the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, and respective capabilities to adopt the following draft Sustainable Development Goals together with the sub-goals, reasons and clarifications relating to each goal The goals below are aspirational. While some of these are based on commitments already made by governments and other stakeholders, others are proposed on the basis of advanced thinking among civil society organizations.

SDG ? SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION: By 2020, consistent with the Biodiversity Strategic Plan adopted at the 10th meeting of the Conference of Parties to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (?CBD COP10?), the human ecological footprint is reduced so that it remains within the Earth?s biological carrying capacity. In accordance with the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, we call on nations and populations engaged in wasteful overconsumption to reduce their impacts and help increase the consumption of vital goods and services for impoverished nations and peoples, so they also can enjoy reasonably high standards of living that provide equitable access to health care, decent work opportunities and education.

By 2020, governments should promote production processes that reflect the best available technologies for eco-efficiency, recycling, remanufacturing, reuse of waste materials, product durability and longevity. Wasteful practices such as planned obsolescence are identified and eliminated. Public procurement standards and incentives reward leading corporations that share and disseminate best green practices worldwide. By 2020, the majority of the world?s goods and services are procured by governments from sources certified by objective third parties as sustainably produced.

This goal is tied to the preparation and implementation of sustainability or green economy roadmaps, that consider and address commonly agreed sustainability principles, adopt sustainable development goals in critical areas, and implement governance reforms to foster the transition to a green economy and to improve the institutional framework for sustainable development.

Further, establish a set of Millennium Consumption Goals for the period 2012-2020 towards creating an intergenerational and internationally shared right to equitable consumption opportunities and ensuring quality of life and wellbeing of all people by 2020, while eradicating all kinds and levels of poverty, respecting animal welfare and embedding sufficiency based sustainable economies.

SDG ? SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS, YOUTH & EDUCATION: By 2015, nations commit to the principle of sustainable livelihoods as a right for all people and implement monetary, fiscal and language policies to encourage full and decent work. By 2020, biodiversity and ecosystem service considerations are mainstreamed within existing rural development platforms and initiatives to conserve sustainable livelihoods in indigenous and local communities that depend on natural capital for survival.

By 2015, governments incorporate within development frameworks as a priority, investments in the education, health and employment of young people, who constitute a large proportion of the population of developing countries and face disproportionate levels of poverty, unemployment, gender discrimination and ill health. Governments should support comprehensive policies, youth participation and multisectoral programmes that empower present and future generations to fully and freely exercise their human rights, fulfil their aspirations and be productive citizens. By 2030, national governments reorient all national aims and objectives towards achieving sustainable societies and will mainstream sustainable development into all national educational policies and curricula.

By 2020, consistent with the Biodiversity Strategic Plan adopted at CBD COP10, governments ensure that people are aware of the values of biodiversity and the step they can take to conserve and use it sustainably.

SDG - CLIMATE SUSTAINABILITY: By 2050, governments should have reached clear pathways towards climate sustainability that regulates the global temperature rise below 1.5 degrees C. Emissions of greenhouse gases should be reduced to 25% of 1990 levels by 2020, 40% by 2030, 60% by 2040 and 80% by 2050. Carbon taxes and tariffs should be in place to provide incentives for low-carbon development and manufacturing, finance GHG emissions reduction projects, REDD+ and other offset mechanisms, and green infrastructure solutions to help vulnerable communities adapt to climate change.

Developed countries, as the main cause of climate change, in assuming their historical responsibility, must recognize and honor their climate debt in all of its dimensions as the basis for a just, effective, and scientific solution to climate change. The above goal shall include the equitable sharing of remaining atmospheric space, considering past use and consumption and mid and long-term emission reduction targets that are in line with what the science requires.

SDG ? CLEAN Energy: By 2030, at least 50% of the world?s Energy supply comes from renewable sources. By 2020 Energy demand is reduced through efficiency and conservation by at least 20%. By 2030 Energy poverty is eliminated by providing universal access to modern Energy services from renewable sources.

SDG - BIODIVERSITY: Governments are urged to honor their commitments to implementing the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, in particular those related to the Green Economy such as Target 2: ?By 2020, at the latest, biodiversity values have been integrated into national and local development and poverty reduction strategies and planning processes and are being incorporated into national accounting, as appropriate, and reporting systems?; and Target 3: ?By 2020, at the latest, incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity are eliminated, phased out or reformed in order to minimize or avoid negative impacts.? We urge governments to support investments in natural infrastructure and ecological restoration and to facilitate the development of markets that value the regulatory services provided by ecosystems.

SDG ?WATER: By 2030, governments will achieve universal availability of an acceptable quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, adequate sanitation, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies.

This goal is over and above the achievement of the MDGs and other internationally agreed development goals. The right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation shall be recognized as a human right and it shall be the responsibility of all states to respect such right. As an interim goal, by 2015 the proportion of people unable to reach or afford safe drinking water, and without access to basic sanitation, shall be halved as agreed in the JPOI.

By 2020, local, municipal and national governments and all stakeholders commit to achieve the following intermediate targets:

20% increase in total food supply-chain efficiency ? reducing losses and waste from field to fork;

20% increase in water efficiency in agriculture ? more nutrition and crop per drop;

20% increase in water use efficiency in Energy production ? more kWh per drop;

20% increase in the quantity of water reused;

20% decrease in water pollution;

SDG ? HEALTHY SEAS AND OCEANS (BLUE ECONOMY): By 2020, consistent with the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, governments establish at least 10% coastal and marine areas. By 2030, oceanic dead zones will be recovered by reducing nitrogen runoff from land by 50% or more. By 2020, Marine Protected Areas will be established in at least 25% of each Exclusive Economic Zones (―EEZǁ‖) and the high seas in representative networks capable of restoring minimum viable populations of all at-risk stocks, protecting marine biological diversity, and maximizing benefits to commercial and subsistence fishers in surrounding waters. By 2015, the use of bottom trawling, dynamite fishing, electro-fishing, poisons and other unsustainable practices will be eliminated. By 2030, reverse the decline of fish stocks and create sustainable and diverse and abundant fish stocks, supported by healthy habitat to provide for the needs of all users, and by 2015, ban the practice of shark finning.

We also make the following policy recommendations: (a) reduce plastic pollution in the oceans, including by banning or taxing single-use plastics, supporting the use of recycled plastics in new products, and holding manufacturers responsible for plastics through their entire life cycle; (b) establish an international monitoring network for ocean acidification to enable the identification of vulnerable regions and industries and to provide an early warning system for industries already experiencing harm; (c) designate the high seas of the Central Arctic Ocean as a zone for international scientific cooperation, where extractive and polluting activities are suspended until we have a better understanding of the area and the potential effects of such activities; and (d) schedule, as a matter of urgency, an intergovernmental conference to address the multiplying threats to ocean areas beyond the jurisdiction of individual nations.

SDG ? HEALTHY FORESTS: By 2020, all remaining frontier forests are protected from conversion and degradation, consistent with the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity adopted at COP10, with a well-resourced and equably governed REDD+ mechanism in place, which respects the rights and knowledge of indigenous peoples and local communities and other environmental and governance safeguards, to reward developing countries for protection and sustainable management of their forests, not only for carbon capture and storage but for their wider ecological services. A policy of no net loss of forestland, globally and nationally, is also achieved by 2020. At that time, all new forest areas cleared will be offset by ecologically sound restoration of forests in nearby areas. Restoration of over 150 million hectares of cleared or degraded forest landscapes is achieved by 2020, with the creation of millions of new jobs and enhanced livelihoods, improved security and adaptation to climate change. Reduce deforestation emissions by key corporations and their supply chains committing to avoid the purchase of products that cause deforestation, such as soy or cattle from deforested lands in the Brazilian Amazon, palm oil from deforested agricultural land in Indonesia, or illegal wood and wood products throughout the world.

Additionally, for stakeholders everywhere to undertake and/or participate in largescale, environmentally and socially responsible reforestation efforts.

Measures proposed under the Clean Development Mechanism (―CDMǁ‖) must be carefully examined by the communities depending on forests for their subsistence, as we see that they favor already important land-grabbing and the destruction of their livelihoods.

At Rio+20, we call on governments to pledge concrete and systematic support and promotion of multi stakeholder managed forest certification systems, in all parts of the world, with particular emphasis on tropical rainforests.

SDG - SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE: By 2030, global agricultural production is transformed from industrial to sustainable. Chemical inputs, herbicides, and pesticides are largely replaced with organic and biological alternatives. Interspersed natural areas are protected and restored as sources of pollination, pest control and soil fertility. Food for export is secondary to food for local consumption. Cultivated crop strains are diversified, as are production techniques and the mix of agricultural producers. Best management practices reduce erosion by 90% and nitrogen runoff by 50% or more. Local ecological knowledge of indigenous peoples, traditional, and local communities is utilized to identify resilient crops and cultivation practices that provide maximum protection against climate change.

This goal should also include sustainable and humane food systems that provide healthy food to meet current food needs while maintaining healthy ecosystems, farmer resilience, and ensure good animal health and welfare that can also provide food for generations to come with minimal negative impact to the environment, through agro-ecological farming systems. We consider the right to keep their own seeds as an important issue of farming.

A sustainable and humane food system should promote food sovereignty of communities, empower small-scale food producers in food and agricultural governance, and also encourage local production and distribution infrastructures with equal opportunities for men and women farmers, and the important role of youth in this area, and makes nutritious food available, accessible, and affordable to all, while at the same time providing sustainable livelihoods to producers through the payment of fair prices for their products. Sustainable food systems must be based on food sovereignty and the right for small-scale peasants, women?s groups and local communities to plant and exchange their seeds and share their knowledge. Give strong and increasing support to small scale farming, producing healthy foods through targeted research, extension services and enabling conditions, and wherever possible, vegetarian diets, and to ensure women?s property and inheritance rights.

Recognize and support by all means possible, the important role and special needs of women as the primary producers and purchasers of food, along with the implementation of women?s property and inheritance rights.

SDG - GREEN CITIES: By 2030, cities have developed and are implementing action plans to address transport, public health and environmental needs in a harmonious and integrated way. By 2030, from the local to national, government policies foster compact, mixed-use, pedestrian-oriented, urban development that minimizes Energy use and maximizes residential health and that reflects the concept of a society for all ages. All new buildings meet green building standards by 2030. By 2030, city transport needs are or remain predominantly met by mass transport, walking and bicycling. Quality of life is also improved for residents by 2030, providing access to green buildings with urban rooftop gardens, clean water, clean Energy, waste management systems and sustainable transport. By 2030, urban areas with significant storm water pollution issues reduce impervious surface area by 30% below 2012 levels.

SDG - SUBSIDIES AND INVESTMENT: By 2020 at the latest, consistent with the Biodiversity Strategic Plan adopted at CBD COP10, harmful incentives, including subsidies, for fossil fuel production, unsustainable agricultural, fisheries and forest practices, and those harmful to biodiversity, are eliminated, phased out or redirected to promote renewable Energy, sustainable practices and the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. By 2015, governments commit to a minimum investment of 2% of GDP per year to foster the transition to a green economy, taking into account national socio-economic conditions.

SDG - NEW INDICATORS OF PROGRESS: By 2020, nations supplement or replace GDP with a new measure of sustainable economic welfare based on best available information at that time. Economic performance and the forecasted effects of policy changes will be measured by this new metric. We encourage a process of continuous improvement and refinement of the new measure over time and an international process to set standards and make available common methods and data sources. We also encourage the adoption of several other headline indicators of environmental, economic, social, cultural and linguistic sustainability to provide a measure of progress towards the green economy transition, such as civic participation, improved well-being and achievement of sustainable development goals.

SDG - ACCESS TO INFORMATION: By 2022, governments will enact and implement Freedom of Information laws giving people the right to obtain accurate and truthful information held by their government, especially on the environment. Governments will actively make available to all stakeholders useful, accurate and truthful well-publicized data and information in appropriate formats and languages, including on the internet. These laws should include whistleblower protection and should extend to information disclosure by corporations.

SDG - PUBLIC PARTICIPATION: By 2022, governments need to ensure that voluntarism and citizen engagement are incorporated in all global, national and local action plans for implementation of sustainable development and human well-being, to commit to the creation of an enabling environment for citizen engagement and voluntary action, and will include mandatory public participation in (a) major development project approvals and environmental impact assessment procedures, (b) drafting of national level sustainable development policies, laws and regulations and (c) administrative decisions such as pollution permitting.

SDG - ACCESS TO REDRESS AND REMEDY: By 2022, governments will adopt and implement laws ensuring effective access to judicial and administrative proceedings concerning sustainable development, including redress and remedy. In particular, they will ensure that the costs of such proceedings are reasonable and affordable to affected people and that access to such proceedings is available through expansion of legal standing and other means to interested people and organizations.

SDG - ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE FOR THE POOR AND MARGINALIZED: By 2022, governments will adopt laws that obligate government agencies to take appropriate measures to provide information and engage affected people living in poverty, women and other disadvantaged groups when making sustainable development decisions.

SDG ? BASIC HEALTH: By 2015, to support attainment of the health MDGs, and to contribute to health, well-being and sustainable development, ensure universal access to health care and services, wherever feasible, free at the point of use for women and children, and including sexual and reproductive health, and thus strengthen the resilience of people and communities to the consequences of climate change and environmental degradation.

6.2. Principles of a Fair and Green Economy

For a full discussion on how the Principles were drawn together see:

http://www.stakeholderforum.org/fileadmin/files/Principles%20FINAL%20LAYOUT.pdf

1. Equitable distribution of wealth

Promote the equitable distribution of wealth within nations and among nations, to reduce disparities between rich and poor, and achieve social and economic justice, within a sustainable and fair share of the world?s resources and leaving sufficient space for wildlife and wilderness.

2. Economic equity and fairness

Guided by the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, create economic partnerships that would transfer substantial financial and technological assistance to less developed countries, to help minimize the gap between the developed and developing world and support the environmental sustainability of both.

3. Intergenerational Equity

Environmental resources and ecosystems must be carefully managed and safeguarded so as to enhance the value of environmental assets for future generations, thereby equitably meeting their needs and allowing them to flourish.

4. Precautionary Approach

Science should be utilized to enhance social and environmental outcomes, through the identification of environmental risk. Scientific uncertainty of environmental impacts shall not lead to avoidance of measures to prevent environmental degradation. The ?burden of proof? should lie with those claiming that there will not be significant environmental impacts

5. The Right to Human Development

In harmony with the environment is fundamental to the achievement of sustainable development, so that individuals and societies are empowered to achieve positive social and environmental outcomes.

6. Internalization of Externalities

Building true social and environmental value should be the central goal of policy. To this end, market prices must reflect real social and environmental costs and benefits, so that that the polluter bears the cost of pollution. Tax regimes and regulatory frameworks should be used to ?tilt the playing field?, making ?good? things cheap and ?bad? things very expensive.

7. International Cooperation

The application of environmental standards within nation States must be undertaken in a cooperative manner with the international community, based on an understanding of the possible impact on the development potential of other States. Environmental measures relating to trade should avoid unfair protectionism, but overall should ensure that trade supports sustainable resource use, environmental protection and progressive labor standards, promoting a ?race to the top? rather than the bottom.

8. International liability

Acknowledging that actions within national boundaries can cause environmental impacts beyond national jurisdictions, requiring cooperation in the development of international law that allows for independent judicial remedies in such cases.

9. Information, participation and accountability

All citizens should have access to information concerning the environment, as well as the opportunity to participate in decision-making processes. To ensure that environmental issues are handled with the participation of all concerned citizens, institutions at all levels (national and international) must be democratic and accountable, and make use of tools that enable civil society to hold them to account. In this regard, the access to justice by citizens for redress and remedy in environmental matters is a cornerstone of enhancing accountability.

10. Sustainable Consumption and Production

Introduce sustainable production and consumption with sustainable and equitable resource use. Reduce and eliminate unsustainable patterns of production and consumption, i.e. reduce, reuse, and recycle the materials used, acknowledge the scarcity of the Earth resources and implement activities accordingly.

11. Strategic, co-ordinated and integrated planning to deliver sustainable development, the green economy and poverty alleviation.

An integrated approach must be adopted at all levels to expedite the achievement of socio-economic and environmental sustainability through strategic planning with civil society and stakeholders, and across all relevant government departments.

12. Just Transition

There will be costs in making the transition to a low carbon, green economy in the pursuit of sustainable development. Some States and actors are better able to bear those costs than others and are more resilient to transitional changes. In the process of change, the most vulnerable must be supported and protected ? developing countries must have access to appropriate financial and technical assistance, citizens and communities must also have access to new skills and jobs.

13. Redefine Well-being

GDP is an inadequate tool for measuring social wellbeing and environmental integrity. Many socially and environmentally damaging activities enhance GDP ? such as fossil fuel exploitation and financial speculation. Human wellbeing and quality of life, and environmental health should be the guiding objectives of economic development.

14. Gender Equality

Gender equality and equity are prerequisites to the transition to a green economy and the achievement of sustainable development. Women have a vital role to play as agents of change for environmental management and development ? their actions must be rewarded accordingly and their skills enhanced.

15. Safeguard biodiversity and prevent pollution of any part of the environment

Protect and restore biodiversity and natural habitats as integral to development and human wellbeing, and develop a system of governance that protects the resilience of ecosystems to prevent irreversible damage.
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