Group of 77 and China
- Date submitted: 1 Nov 2011
- Stakeholder type: Political Groups
- Name: Group of 77 and China
- Submission Document: Download
Full SubmissionSubmission by the Group of 77 and China for the compilation document of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (RIO+20) I. Objective of the Conference The objective of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD Rio+20 2012), is to secure renewed political commitment for sustainable development, assessing the progress to date and the remaining gaps in the implementation of the outcomes of the major summits on sustainable development and addressing new and emerging challenges. In this regard, the Conference needs to produce an assessment and stocktaking as to why many of commitments of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio1992 as well as the World Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, 2002, were not realized to their full potential; what has prevented the international community from moving forward on agreements; and how can we re-energize the political will to avoid the perception that multilateral approaches are increasingly associated with indecision, unfulfillment of commitments and stalemate. A. Key messages 1. The Conference should identify a framework of action focused on implementation and full integration of the three pillars of sustainable development and in accordance with the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, in order to achieve tangible outcomes. This includes: a. Provision of new, additional, stable, predictable financial resources to support implementation activities in developing countries; b. The increase of resources for development, including commitments by developed countries to increase ODA, and the fulfillment of ODA assistance; c. Effective access to and transfer of technologies for developing countries; d. Effective institutional frameworks at all levels strengthen the role of governments, at all levels, with the fundamental lead of States, and encourage the participation of major groups and other stakeholders for the implementation of the sustainable development agenda; 2. UNCSD will provide the opportunity to fulfill and implement the sustainable development agenda that has evolved considerably in the past decade; and will boost those issues that did not advance within the principles of sustainable development. It will not renegotiate nor retract agreed principles and outcomes of the major summits on Sustainable Development, including the commitments made in the three conventions, UNFCCC, CBD and UNCCD. 3. The lack of integration of the three pillars of sustainable development and the lack of implementation of commitments of sustainable development have led to the scale and gravity of global challenges, especially climate change, threatening the ability of developing countries to achieve the MDGs and for some threatening the territorial integrity and the existence and viability as countries. 4. Guided by the Rio Principles and Agenda 21, UNCSD RIO+20 2012 outcomes should provide the necessary political impetus for the range and level of action required to bridge the implementation gap, taking into account that insufficient steps that have been taken at the international level to address the vulnerabilities and to effectively support the sustainable development efforts in developing countries, which grapple with the effects of multiple crises. Furthermore, the commitment of the international community on international cooperation needs to be reinforced. 5. Any outcome should lead to continued priority being given to the eradication of poverty, and to support the effective national efforts of developing countries in promoting empowerment of the poor, including enhancing the productive capacity, full and productive employment and decent work for all as well as the creation of income opportunities that must be complemented by effective social policies with a view to achieving the internationally agreed development goals, including the MDGs. B. Renewed Political Commitment on the remaining gaps in the implementation 1. The renewed political commitment in Rio should lead to the full implementation of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, Agenda 21, the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21, the Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development and the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (?Johannesburg Plan of Implementation?) and should fully support national efforts to achieve sustainable development in particular eradication of poverty and food security. We reiterate that poverty eradication cannot be achieved without the collective commitments and efforts of the international community. 2. We emphasize the urgent need to increase efforts at the national, regional and international levels to address food security and agriculture development as an integral part of the international development agenda. We underline the need for sustained funding and increased targeted investment to enhance world food production and called for new and additional financial resources from all sources to achieve sustainable agriculture development and food security. 3. We reaffirm that the implementation of the BPoA, MSI, Istanbul Program of Action for LDCS and the Political Declaration on Special Need of Africa, and all outcomes of the major summits on sustainable development, remain valid and the international community should renew political commitment and strengthen the means of implementation, thus giving new impetus to the Sustainable Development agenda. 4. We reiterate also that the responsibility for the development of every country rests primarily upon itself but the effective international cooperation is an essential factor for the full achievement of its own development goals. We reaffirm the need to reinforce sustainable development globally through national collective effort in accordance with the principles of common but differentiated responsibilities and the principle of sovereign rights of the states on their natural resources in accordance with the UN Charter and principles of international law, without causing damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. 5. We reaffirm the need to take further effective measures to remove obstacles to the realization of the right of peoples to self-determination, in particular peoples living under colonial and foreign occupation, which continue to adversely affect their economic and social development and are incompatible with the dignity and worth of the human person and must be combated and eliminated. People under foreign occupation must be protected in accordance with the provisions of international humanitarian law. 6. We also reaffirm that in accordance with the Declaration on the Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, this shall not be construed as authorizing or encouraging any action which would dismember or impair, totally or in part, the territorial integrity or political unity of sovereign and independent States conducting themselves in compliance with the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples and thus possessed of a Government representing the whole people belonging to the territory without distinction of any kind. 7. We reaffirm the need for the fulfillment of chapter 7 of the JPOI, Agenda 21, BPoA and the MSI; as Small Island Developing States are a special case both for environment and development in view of their unique and particular vulnerabilities. The international community should therefore significantly augment their efforts to assist SIDS in sustaining momentum realized to date in efforts to implement the BPOA and MSI and achieve sustainable development. This should include improvement and strengthening of the relevant entities within the United Nations system which support SIDS' sustainable development. Additionally, we call for the Rio Conference to agree to convene an international conference for the sustainable development of Small Island Developing States in 2014; 8. We reaffirm that the Istanbul Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries for the Decade 2011-2020, adopted by the Fourth United Nations Conference on the LDCs, outlines LDC?s priorities for sustainable development and defines a framework for renewed and strengthened global partnership to achieve them. The UNSDC RIO+20 should fully integrate the IPOA into its outcome document and underline renewed and scaled-up global commitment to achieve sustainable development in the LDCs. 9. We underline that the lack of political commitment for the implementation of previously agreed international commitments reached in major UN Summits and Conferences, especially those related to Africa?s development needs, is of major concern. Instead of re-energizing global partnership and strengthening political will for delivery of promises made to Africa to assist in the fight against underdevelopment, poverty and disease, there seems to be a systematic attempt to renegotiate these commitments. All the commitments should never be diluted nor renegotiated since they are pivotal for bringing Africa into the mainstream of global economy and serve as an essential ingredient for the achievement of sustainable development. It's urgent to fully implement all the commitments particularly those contained in the United Nations Millennium Declaration, the Declaration on the New Partnership for Africa?s Development, the Monterrey Consensus of the International Conference on Financing for Development, the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg Plan of Implementation) and the 2005 World Summit Outcome as well as the 2008 Political Declaration on Africa?s development needs. 10. We recognize also the specific development challenges of middle-income countries and the need to support their efforts to eradicate poverty, reduce inequalities, and achieve their development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals. UNSCD Rio+20 should fully take into account their challenges to achieve sustainable development in a comprehensive manner in order to effectively integrate the economic, social and environmental dimensions. 11. We urge all countries to fully implement their commitments under the three Conventions, the UNFCCC, the CBD and the UNCCD and to take effective and concrete actions and measures at all levels, and to enhance international cooperation, in accordance with the principles identified in the Conventions, including the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. 12. We reaffirm that climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time and express our deep concern that developing countries are particularly vulnerable to and are experiencing increased negative impacts from climate change, ocean acidification and that this is severely undermining food security, efforts to eradicate poverty, sustainable development; and threatens the territorial integrity, viability and the very existence of small island developing states. In this regard, we call upon States to immediately and fully implement the provisions of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to ensure the viability and survival of all Nations. 13. We reiterate that oceans and seas and their resources, as well as islands and coastal areas form an integrated and essential component of the Earth?s ecosystem and are critical for global food security and for sustaining economic prosperity and the well-being of mankind, in particular the national economies of developing countries. We therefore reaffirm our commitments in relation to the protection and preservation of the marine environment and the sustainable use of its resources for the attainment of the development goals, including sustainable development and internationally agreed development goals, such as the MDGs and those contained in Chapter 17 of agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation. 14. There are major and systemic gaps in the implementation of internationally agreed commitments relating to the sustainable management of marine resources, including in monitoring, control, surveillance, compliance and enforcement regarding fisheries. Destructive fishing practices, over-fishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing and subsidies that contribute to fishing overcapacity continue to degrade marine resources, and undermine food security and sustainable development, particularly in developing countries and small island developing States. There are also major gaps in assistance through capacity building, transfer of technology and provision of financial assistance to coastal developing countries, in particular the least developed countries and small island developing States, to realize the full social and economic benefits from the sustainable use of marine resources. 15. We stress the urgent need for developed countries to change their unsustainable patterns of consumption and production, particularly since over- and under-consumption have resulted in enormous disparities between the rich and the poor and between developed and developing countries. We also state the need for developing countries to ensure that their development takes place in a sustainable manner. In this regard, we call for the adoption of the 10 Year Framework for Sustainable Consumption and Production. 16. We urge developed countries that have not yet done so to meet the targets of 0.7 per cent of their gross national product for ODA; including 0.15 to 0.2 per cent of their gross national product to least developed countries. In order to meet agreed commitments and targets, it is important that developed countries establish clear and transparent timetables within their national budget allocation processes to reach the level of at least 0.5% for ODA for developing countries as well as 0.15% to 0.2% of GNP for ODA to LDCs, as urgently as possible, taking into account that the 2010 deadline was not fulfilled by 2010, and 0.7% by 2015, at the latest. We also urge developed countries to meet their ODA commitments as agreed in IPOA. 17. We express our profound concern that the commitment to doubling aid to Africa by 2010 as articulated at the summit of Gleneagles was not entirely reached and in this regard we stress the need to make rapid progress in order to fulfill the Gleneagles and other donors' commitments. 18. We stress that the outcome of the high level review of the MSI which identified the progress and gaps in implementation of commitments made by the international community to assist SIDS with the achievement of Sustainable Development and highlights the ongoing challenges they face due to their small size, remoteness, narrow resource and export base and exposure to global environmental challenges. 19. We urge the members of the WTO to redouble efforts to achieve a universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system and for an early balanced, ambitious and development-oriented outcome of the Doha Development Agenda multilateral trade negotiations. We call for the full realization of the commitments made in the 2005 Hong-Kong Ministerial Declaration of the WTO in favour of the LDCs. C. Way Forward a) Persistent and New and Emerging Issues We believe that there are not a great number of new and emerging issues that we have not indentified in Agenda 21 and in subsequent outcomes. What we need to address are the consequences of the lack of implementation of previous commitments by the international community and the lack of proper attention and prioritization of sustainable development over the last 20 years. 1. We reiterate the call for simultaneous action to address the challenges related to all three pillars of sustainable development in a coordinated, integrated and balanced manner, recognizing that human activities alter nature and exhaust natural resources, that life depends on the uninterrupted functioning of natural systems, while human beings are at the centre of concerns of sustainable development and they are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature in order to restore the health and integrity of the Earth's ecosystem. 2. We reaffirm the urgent need to address persistent and emerging sustainable development challenges, such as food and energy crises and the challenges relating to the limit and unsustainable use of resources, climate change, biodiversity, drought and desertification, land degradation, urbanization, water and sanitation, frequency of disasters, social impact of extreme weather events, health, seas and ocean acidification, melting of glaciers, floods and degradation of mountain areas. All of these crises and challenges have significant and, in some cases, unforeseen impacts on developing countries, undermining their efforts to achieve the MDG; 3. We recall also the outcomes of the major United Nations conferences and summits in the economic, social and related fields including the development goals and objectives contained therein, and recognize the vital role played by those conferences and summits in shaping a broad development vision and in identifying commonly agreed objectives; and underline the need to achieve sustainable development, recognizing that this goal can be achieved through inclusive multilateralism and the equal participation of all countries. In this regard, we call for the full and prompt fulfillment and implementation of the commitments adopted in those conferences and summits. 4. We reaffirm that the current major challenge for developing countries is the impacts from the multiple crises, particularly the ongoing economic and financial crisis which is a result of the international financial system. In this context, we reaffirm the urgent need to address the lack of proper regulation and monitoring of the financial sector, the overall lack of transparency and financial integrity, excessive risk taking, overleveraging and unsustainable patterns of consumption and production in developed countries. These economic repercussions have also aggravated poverty, social exclusion, increased unequal distribution of income and wealth, and undermined efforts to implement sustainable development. In this regard we call for the reform of the global financial system and architecture. We also reaffirm the need to continue working towards a new international economic order based on the principles of equity, sovereign equality, interdependence, common interest, cooperation and solidarity among all States. 5. We express profound alarm that emissions of greenhouse gasses continue to rise globally, and that climate change and sea-level rise continue to pose a significant risk to developing countries that are particularly vulnerable in their efforts to achieve sustainable development, and for small island developing states represent the gravest of threats to their survival and viability. 6. Climate change disproportionately affects the socio-economic development of the Least Developed Countries, considering that they have contributed least to the problem and also threatens to reverse some of the development gains that have been achieved to date. 7. We take note of the major outcomes of the COP 10 of the UNCCD. 8. We reaffirm the significant contribution of Sustainable Forest Management to Sustainable Development. 9. We underline that agricultural development and food security need to be prioritized to fulfill the right to food and proper nutrition. This must be done by eliminating barriers that distort international trade as well as by promoting local food production by small farmers, women, youth, indigenous peoples and rural communities, and, where appropriate, by practices that contribute to stability of food prices and domestic markets, and regulation of food prices to meet social needs. 10. We underline the importance of the right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as a human right that is essential for the full enjoyment of life and all human rights. Furthermore we highlight the critical importance of water resources for sustainable development, including poverty and hunger eradication, public health, food security, hydropower, agricultural and rural development. 11. We reaffirm that the right to development and the right to food remain as some of the critical gaps to be fulfilled in order to achieve sustainable development. 12. We further reaffirm the vital role of indigenous people in achieving sustainable development, including their holistic, traditional and scientific knowledge of their land, natural resources and environment. 13. We are concerned that millions of poor people are unable to afford to pay for modern energy services, even when those services are available, and emphasize the need to address the challenge of access to and affordability of modern energy services for all, in particular the poor; and emphasize the need to take further action to mobilize the provision of adequate financial resources, of sufficient quality and arriving in a timely manner, as well as the transfer of advanced technology to developing countries and countries with economies in transition for providing efficient and wider use of energy sources. 14. We reaffirm support for the implementation of national policies and strategies to combine, as appropriate, the increased use of new and renewable energy sources and low-emission technologies, the more efficient use of energy, greater reliance on advanced energy technologies, including cleaner fossil fuel technologies, and the sustainable use of traditional energy resources, as well as the promotion of access to modern, reliable, affordable and sustainable energy services and the enhancement of national capacities to meet the growing energy demand, as appropriate, supported by international cooperation in this field and by the promotion of the development and dissemination of appropriate, affordable and sustainable energy technologies and the transfer of such technologies to developing countries and countries with economies in transition, 15. We reaffirm paragraph 37 of the JPOI regarding disaster risk reduction and reiterate the existence of a clear relationship between sustainable development, poverty eradication, climate change, disaster risk reduction, disaster response and disaster recovery, and stress deep concern at the number and scale of natural disasters, and their increasing impact in recent years, which have resulted in massive loss of life and long term negative social, economic and environmental consequences and which have greatly affected the achievement of sustainable development in developing countries. In this regard, we call for disaster risk reduction to continue to be addressed in the context of sustainable development. 16. We highlight the growing and significant contribution to sustainable development of sustainable tourism and its promotion in developing countries. 17. For Ocean and Marine Issues please refer to Annex. b) Framework of Action for Implementation of Commitments 1. We stress that the success of the UNCSD RIO+20 depends on an integrated approach that involves the three pillars of sustainable development and that its outcome should be focused on implementation, in accordance with the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. The UNCSD RIO+20 should identify a framework of action of implementation of commitments and should move the sustainable development agenda forward taking into account the renewed political commitment and assessment of gaps described in the paragraphs presented above. 2. We strongly believe that increased political commitment of developed countries is essential to fill the gaps in the means of implementation. 3. Provision of a clear registry on financial resources and technology transfer from developed countries available for the implementation of sustainable development commitments, as well as its timelines, functions, recipients, management, and objectives. This registry of commitments would strengthen transparency and a culture of accountability. (1) Finance 1. Financing for sustainable development has been highly insufficient despite consistent calls from developing countries for this issue to be address. Without the necessary financing, developing countries have faced and will continue to face major challenges in implementing sustainable development, eradicating poverty and achieving the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals. 2. It is therefore clear that there is an urgent need for substantial increases in the provision of financing to developing countries for sustainable development. It is also essential that financing for the UN system is significantly enhanced for it to operate effectively and fulfill its sustainable development mandate. 3. In this regard, greater coherence and coordination among the various funding mechanisms and initiatives related to sustainable development is crucial. We call for the prioritization of sustainable development in the allocation of resources, where needed and in line with the priorities and needs of developing countries, and reiterate that strong oversight of these resources is important to ensure that developing countries have steady and predictable access to the resources they require to implement sustainable development. Such oversight should also have inclusive, participatory and adequate representation from developing countries. 4. We reiterate our call for the reforming of the international financial system, including through an ambitious and expeditious reform of the Bretton Woods institutions, particularly their governance structures, based on the full and fair representation of developing countries, in order to address the democratic deficit in those institutions and improve their legitimacy; and that these reforms must reflect current realities and ensure the full voice and participation of developing countries; 5. We underline that debt crises tend to be costly and disruptive and tend to be followed by cuts in public spending, affecting in particular the poor and vulnerable. We recognize the important role on a case by case basis of debt relief, including debt cancellation and debt restructuring, with the provision of additional concessional financing, as debt crisis prevention and management tools for developing countries, and we stress the urgent need for the international community to examine options for an effective, equitable, durable, independent and development-oriented debt restructuring and debt resolution mechanism that takes into account the multiple dimensions of debt sustainability and its impact on development. 7. We stress the need to provide financial resources and allocation of grants and credits. In this framework, we call for the fulfillment of past commitments and for the substantial increase and allocation of new, additional, predictable, and adequate financial resources and investment, including the development of infrastructure, in order to support the implementation of national policies and development strategies in developing countries. 8. We urge developed countries that have not yet done so to meet the targets of 0.7 per cent of their gross national product for ODA; including 0.15 to 0.2 per cent of their gross national product to least developed countries. In order to meet agreed commitments and targets, it is important that developed countries establish clear and transparent timetables within their national budget allocation processes to reach the level of at least 0.5% for ODA for developing countries as well as 0.15% to 0.2% of GNP for ODA to LDCs, as urgently as possible, taking into account that the 2010 deadline was not fulfilled by 2010, and 0.7% by 2015, at the latest. We also urge developed countries to meet their ODA commitments as agreed in IPOA. 9. We express our profound concern that the commitment to doubling aid to Africa by 2010 as articulated at the summit of Gleneagles was not entirely reached and in this regard we stress the need to make rapid progress in order to fulfill the Gleneagles and other donors' commitments. 10. We reiterate that there is a need to strike a balance in reflecting the agreed priorities of the Organization in the allocation of resources to the United Nations regular budget, which is persistently to the detriment of the development activities. In this regard, we stress that the Secretariat must strictly implement General Assembly mandates without exceptions and/or delays. (2) Transfer of technology and capacity building We call for decisions to: 1. Establish an International Mechanism to implement concrete actions focused on bridging the technological gap between developed and developing countries and facilitating transfer of technology in sustainable development. 2. Create an enabling environment that aims at removing all barriers to technology transfer and technology adaptation, consistent and in harmony with the relevant international obligations. 3. Ensure immediate implementation of the Bali Strategic Plan for Technology Support and Capacity Building. 4. We stress the need for effective mechanisms, enhanced means, appropriate enabling environments and the removal of obstacles to the scaling up of the development and transfer of technology to developing countries. 5. There is a need for access of developing countries to technologies. Developing countries would also need to have access to the know-how and expertise required for the effective utilization of these technologies to achieve sustainable development. 6. Consideration must also be given to the role of patent protection and intellectual property rights along with an examination of their impact on the access to and transfer of environmentally sound technology, in particular to developing countries, as well as to further exploring efficiently the concept of assured access for developing countries to environmentally sound technology in its relation to proprietary rights with a view to developing effective responses to the needs of developing countries in this area. 7. Concepts and modalities for assured access to environmentally sound technologies, including state-of-the-art technologies, in particular by developing countries, should continue to be explored, enhanced access to environmentally sound technologies should be promoted, facilitated and financed as appropriate, while providing fair incentives to innovators that promote research and development of new environmentally sound technologies 8. Bearing in mind that recipient countries require technology and strengthened support to help further develop their scientific, technological, professional and related capacities, taking into account existing technologies and capacities. II. Green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication A. Common understanding 1. The elements of what should be discussed on ?green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication? should be developed in accordance with the principles contained in the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, in particular the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities as well as respective capabilities and national priorities, with Agenda 21, and the instruments further adopted for the implementation of Agenda 21, in particular the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation. 2. The main challenge remains the lack of political will to fulfill the obligations agreed mostly in the past 20 years. Therefore, the implementation of a relevant outcome of the Conference in Rio as well as the fulfillment of the commitments on sustainable development, in particular made by developed countries, remain the cornerstone for the achievement of sustainable development 3. At the same time, the discussion of this theme should respect the different realities of economic, social and environmental developments of countries as well as their particular conditions and priorities. The policy space of each country to define their own paths towards sustainability in their economy and society, in accordance with their own circumstances and priorities should be reaffirmed, as well as the sovereign right of countries over their natural resources and ensuring that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. 4. We recall also the outcomes of the major United Nations conferences and summits in the economic, social and related fields, including the development goals and objectives contained therein; we recognize the vital role played by those conferences and summits in shaping a broad development vision and in identifying commonly agreed objectives, and underline the need to achieve sustainable development, recognizing that this goal can be achieved through inclusive multilateralism and the equal participation of all countries. In this regard, we call for the full and prompt fulfillment and implementation of the commitments adopted in those conferences and summits 5. We reaffirm that the current major challenge for developing countries is the impacts from the multiple crises, particularly the ongoing economic and financial crisis which is a result of the international financial system. In this context, we reaffirm the urgent need to address the lack of proper regulation and monitoring of the financial sector, the overall lack of transparency and financial integrity, excessive risk taking, overleveraging and unsustainable patterns of consumption and production in developed countries. These economic repercussions have also aggravated poverty, social exclusion, increased unequal distribution of income and wealth, and undermined efforts to implement sustainable development. In this regard we call for the reform of the global financial system and architecture. We also reaffirm the need to continue working towards a new international economic order based on the principles of equity, sovereign equality, interdependence, common interest, cooperation and solidarity among all States. 6. We reaffirm that there is an urgent need for the international economic and financial institutions to work together to ensure that developing countries, particularly the least developed countries, are able to benefit from the advantages of multilateral trade system and their integration into global trade markets. 7. Any discussions on the Rio Conference in relation to ?green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication? should not resort to any form of protectionism, unilateral measures or other border trade measures; should allow for expanded market access for products from developing countries and address trade-distortive measures; and should not generate conditionalities, new parameters or standards in the areas of financing, ODA and other forms of international cooperation. In this regard, we express serious concern regarding subsidies by many developed countries. 8. Any outcome should lead to continue to give priority to the eradication of poverty, and to support the effective national efforts of developing countries in promoting empowerment of the poor, including the creation of income opportunities that must be complemented by effective social policies with a view to achieving the MDGs. 9. At this point in time, the Group recognizes that there is no consensual agreement on the definition of a Green Economy in the context of Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication. The Group is discussing and considering further this theme based on, among others, these following tenets: - Undertaking economic and social activities in an environmentally sound manner; - Ensuring social inclusion and equity; - Including tools to catalyze international cooperation in the multilateral framework for achieving sustainable development and poverty eradication through technology transfer/access and sustainable consumption and production patterns; - Applying a multidimensional and multisectoral approach covering all aspects and stages of development; - Analyzing the effects of practices conducive to the quantification and evaluation of ecosystem services oriented to establishing market mechanisms. 10. Sustainable livelihoods, food security and access to energy and water are vital dimensions of a poverty eradication strategy, which need to be enhanced and safeguarded in our quest to achieve sustainable development. 11. International actions in the field of environment and development, including this process, should address the interest and needs of all developing countries, considering their own characteristics, ethnical diversity and social complexity. At the same time, this process should be carried forward considering the special situation and needs of developing countries, especially LDCs, LLDCs, and SIDS, and those most environmentally vulnerable. 12. We reaffirm the validity of cooperation between North and South as the basis of international cooperation in order to achieve the objectives of sustainable development. At the same time, we acknowledge the importance of other cooperation mechanisms, including partnerships, that have proved its usefulness for developing countries and that can complement effectively, and not substitute, North and South cooperation. B. The way forward Despite some progress made in the past decades, poverty eradication remains the most pressing issue in the area of sustainable development. Our common goal to eradicate the root causes of poverty should guide our efforts towards sustainability, while considering the needs of both present and future generations. Sustainable, sustained, inclusive and equitable economic growth in developing countries will remain the main priority, in order to achieve their ultimate goals of eradicating poverty, hunger, achieving the MDGs and restoring harmony with nature. These are essential conditions to prepare action plans for technical and financial assistance to developing countries and to solve the current global imbalances and inequalities. In doing so, a harmonized balance among the three pillars of sustainable development must also be maintained. In that context, we propose the following actions: 1. All countries should promote sustainable consumption and production patterns, emphasizing the rational use of nature and its resources in a way that does not compromise the well-being and existence of present and future generations, and does not exhaust the natural resources of the planet, with the developed countries taking the lead and with all countries benefiting from the process, taking into account the Rio principles, including, inter alia, the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities as set out in principle 7 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. 2. Reforming the international financial system, democratizing its governance structure, promoting more participation of developing countries and making it more development-oriented. At the same time, rejecting any conditionality on developing countries for aid, loans and debt rescheduling or debt relief; and unlocking the provision of new, predictable and additional financial resources to developing countries, with a view to achieving financial inclusion which is an important factor to achieve the MDGs, as economic strength reduces vulnerability and inequality and leads to higher income and savings. 3. Financial cooperation shouldn?t create offsets that may facilitate the non-compliance of developed countries? commitments. 4. The Conference should not promote and cannot impose measures in developing countries which go against their national, economic and development priorities and development models. 5. Support adequate regulation of markets and corporations by policy frameworks to be implemented by governments. These frameworks must guide corporate practices towards environmental, social and developmental objectives. 6. We urge the members of the WTO to redouble efforts to achieve a universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trade system and for an early balanced, ambitious and development-oriented outcome of the Doha Development Agenda multilateral trade negotiations. We call for the full realization of the commitments made in the 2005 Hong-Kong Ministerial Declaration of the WTO in favor of the LDCs. III. INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT A. Introduction 1. The Group of 77 and China reaffirm article 139 of the JPOI in its totality and reiterate the importance of enhancing effectiveness, promoting a coordinated approach, transparency and avoiding overlapping efforts. 2. We reiterate that the General Assembly of the United Nations should adopt sustainable development as a key element of the overarching framework for United Nations activities, particularly for achieving the internationally agreed development goals, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration, and should give overall political direction to the implementation of Agenda 21 and its review. 3. We reaffirm that, pursuant to the relevant provisions of the Charter of the United Nations, the provisions of Agenda 21 regarding the Economic and Social Council and General Assembly resolutions 48/162 and 50/227, the Council is the central mechanism for the coordination of the United Nations system and its specialized agencies and supervision of subsidiary bodies, in particular its functional commissions, and to promote the implementation of Agenda 21 by strengthening system-wide coordination 4. In that context we emphasize that the Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development, as a whole, should focus on the due integration of the three pillars of sustainable development, the implementation of Agenda 21 and the JPOI and shall be based on an action- and result-oriented approach and be consistent with the principles of universality, democracy, transparency, cost-effectiveness and accountability, keeping in mind the principles of Rio, in particular the common but differentiated responsibilities. 5. Furthermore it is essential for the International Framework for Sustainable Development to offer a vision of sustainable development as a whole and guarantee a balance and coherence and integration between the three pillars for delivering on the sustainable development agenda/objectives. 6. We recognize that since UNCED in 1992, Multilateral Environmental Agreements have increased in number in response to environmental challenges. In this regard we recognize that coordination and cooperation among the MEAs, as well as effective leadership are needed in order to, inter alia, address policy fragmentation, and avoid overlapping and duplication. We resolve to promote synergies according to their mandates and to streamline the work of MEAs, as appropriate, in order to increase efficiency and effectiveness in their activities. 7. We reaffirm the need for the fulfillment of Agenda 21, BPoA, the MSI, and chapter 7 of the JPOI, especially paragraph 58 which recognized that Small Island Developing States are a special case both for environment and development. The international community should therefore significantly augment their efforts to assist SIDS in sustaining momentum realized to date in efforts to implement the BPOA and MSI and achieve sustainable development. This should include improvement and strengthening of the relevant entities within the United Nations system which support SIDS' sustainable development. In this regard, we also reaffirm that small island developing States regional institutions should play a key role in following up on and monitoring the implementation of Agenda 21, the JPOI, and the BPOA and MSI. 8. We collectively commit to finding lasting solutions to the complex and mutually exacerbating challenges and problems of the LDCs. We are committed to assisting the LDCs with an overarching goal of enabling half of them to meet the criteria for graduation through the eradication of poverty and the achievement of accelerated, sustained, inclusive and equitable growth and sustainable development. Thus, we solemnly commit ourselves to implementing this Programme of Action throughout the coming decade. This should include improvement and strengthening of the relevant entities within the United Nations system which support LDCs' sustainable development. This should also provide enhanced financial and technical support to their research and development, science and technology including strengthen national and regional institutions as appropriate according to their national policies. 9. We recognize Africa?s special needs as articulated in the Political Declaration on Africa of 2008 and reaffirm the urgent need for timely implementation of Chapter 8 of the JPOI to realize the special needs since sustainable development has remained elusive for many African countries. We further stress that Africa?s sustainable development challenges are compounded by the continent?s vulnerability to negative externalities, including environmental challenges and emphasize that the institutional framework for sustainable development at the international level should be strong and sufficient enough to support Africa?s national and regional efforts addressing sustainable development. 10. We recognize also the specific development challenges of middle-income countries. These countries face unique challenges in their efforts to achieve their national development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals. In this regard IFSD should support them in addressing their development needs. B. General Principles and Goals of the Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development The Group of 77 and China believe that the following goals and principles should be the basis of the Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development and should guide our efforts towards it: 1. Enhancement of the IFSD as a whole to ensure a balanced approach to sustainable development that integrates its three pillars and strengthens the capacity of the United Nations to foster international cooperation in order to address fully the wide range of issues pertaining to development, particularly of developing countries. 2. Strengthening of institutional arrangements on sustainable development at all levels based on Agenda 21, building on developments since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development with a view to promoting the achievement of sustainable development objectives. Subject to concurrence by the respective governing bodies, where applicable, the reform needed must lead to addressing the roles and mandates of the relevant institutions, funds, programmes and subsidiary bodies dealing with the three pillars of the sustainable development within the UN system in order to distinctly allocate the appropriate normative and implementation functions to them, as well as reviewing the implementation of the international commitments 3. Reaffirmation of the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities as the basis of international cooperation in the area of sustainable development. This principle is essential for the fulfillment of previous international commitments and for the implementation of sustainable development objectives. 4. Strengthening, as part of its core mandate, of the implementation of the Mauritius Strategy of Implementation and Barbados Programme of Action, which represent the essential blueprint of sustainable development for SIDS and it should also have an effective answer for the needs and vulnerabilities to the economic and financial crisis as well as climate change; as well as increasing the Institutional capability of the UN system to address SIDS issues, through inter alia addressing system-wide shortcomings in the institutional support for SIDS in accordance with the pathways laid out in A/RES/65/2 and the MSI pp. 100-102. 5. Ensuring that developed countries implement their responsibilities regarding means of implementation in MEAs in accordance with the Rio Principles, in particular the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities 6. Promoting the incorporation of the concept of sustainable development at all levels, for the design and the work of the Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs). 7. Ensuring the full participation of developing countries in decision-making at the global level in the economic field, including the governance structures of international financial institutions. 8. Improving participation of developing countries in the governance bodies of the financial mechanisms of MEAs, as well as in developing policies and strategies for sustainable development. 9. Providing continued support for strengthened and effective voice and participation of least developed countries in international dialogue and action on development, as well as in decision- and rule-making and standard- and norm-setting in all areas affecting their development, and in relevant international forums. 10. Providing support to existing regional and sub-regional structures and mechanisms in developing countries and encouraging their creation, where needed, with the aim of facilitating cooperation and the exchange of information, including capacity building, exchange of experiences and expertise to advance the implementation of the decisions at regional and sub regional levels. 11. Ensuring immediate implementation of Bali Strategic Plan for Technology Support and Capacity Building (Bali Plan). 12. Improving the ability of developing countries to access to new environmentally sound technology, 13. Reduction of the overlapping and duplication of responsibilities among the existing structures related to the compilation of scientific information. In that regard, the creation of new commissions, groups, panels or their equivalent without the establishment of their clear responsibilities, functions, composition and source of financing trough previous negotiations in the intergovernmental framework should be avoided. 14. Improvement of the participation and representation of scientists from developing countries in processes related to global environment assessments for which clear and equitable selection terms of reference should be set up. C. Functions of the IFSD 1. The G77 and China believe that the Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development should have two overall functions: ? Implementation of sustainable development ? Integration of the three pillars of sustainable development (social, environmental, economic) 2. Furthermore, in order to fulfill the above mentioned two overall functions, the IFSD should have the following specific functions: a. Strengthening coherence and promoting coordination and integration of the three pillars of sustainable development; b. Providing political guidance and identifying specific actions in order to fulfil the sustainable development agenda; c. Monitoring progress in the implementation of Agenda 21 and activities of all relevant organs, organizations, funds and programmes and organizations of United Nations Systems, including those related to finance; d. Reviewing and monitoring the progress in the implementation of the commitments set forth in the Agenda 21, including those related to the provision of financial resources and transfer of technology, as well as of the fulfillment of the target of 0.7% of the gross national income of developed countries for ODA to developing countries; e. Revision on a regular basis of the adequacy of funding and mechanisms, including efforts to reach the objectives agreed in chapter 33 of Agenda 21; f. Establishment of channels/instances for effective cooperation and exchange of information between United Nations organs, organizations, funds and programmes and the multilateral financial bodies, within the institutional arrangements for the follow-up of Agenda 21; g. Reduction of the fragmentation and duplications of activities, initiatives and discussions through, inter alia, the promotion of synergies; h. Articulation of the policies and agendas of the different relevant entities or bodies of the UN System which have mandates for sustainable development in the three pillars; i. Strengthening of the operational activities for development, especially the delivery of the UN System in the field; j. Assessment of the normative coherence between all MEAs; k. Responding to the scale and magnitude of continuing, new and emerging challenges and issues related to sustainable development; l. Establishment of a mechanism to follow up commitments on sustainable development and to identify weaknesses or gaps that affect the full implementation of the Instruments; m. Allowing members states to share experiences and lessons learned in different formats or instances in order to indentify the most effective ways to achieve the objectives of MEAs; n. Creating a compilation of examples of sustainable projects, including future projects that can serve as a platform to share best practices, lessons learnt, and to solicit for support (e.g. financing, technology transfer) from other stakeholders. This can also serve as a support mechanism that allows for better flow of technology, capacity building and finance, which would also allow for easier access of technical assistance. o. Ensuring the transparency of the process of staff selection of the UN Secretariat, which should be based on merit and taking into account balanced geographical representation at all levels. p. Promoting the participation of all stakeholders in the sustainable development agenda while ensuring the intergovernmental natural of the IFSD; IV. ANNEX This Annex is an integral part of the Submission by the Group of 77 and China for the draft outcome document of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (RIO+20) 1. Conservation and sustainable use of fish stocks a. Healthy fish stocks are critical for food security and for sustaining the economic prosperity and social and cultural well being of many states as well as for the balance of the ecosystems. International law, in particular the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), provide for the conservation and sustainable use of fish stocks, and countries agreed in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation to restore global fish stocks to sustainable levels by 2015. Nevertheless, stocks continue to be fished at increasingly unsustainable levels. States should re-commit to maintaining or restoring depleted fish stocks to sustainable levels by 2015 and should further commit to implementing science-based management plans to rebuild stocks by 2015, including reducing or suspending fishing catch and effort for all stocks being over-fished or at risk of over-fishing. b. Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing deprives many countries of a crucial natural resource, and remains a persistent threat to their sustainable development. States, particularly distant water fishing States, must renew their commitment to eliminate IUU fishing as advanced in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI), and must prevent and combat these practices by eliminating fisheries subsidies that lead to over-capacity, by implementing ?in accordance with international law- effective and coordinated measures by port States, flag States, and the States of nationality of the beneficial owners, by identifying vessels engaged in IUU fishing, by depriving offenders of the benefits accruing from IUU fishing, as well as by cooperating with developing countries to systematically identify needs and build capacity, including support for monitoring, control, surveillance, compliance and enforcement systems. c. Coastal States re-commit themselves to the conservation of fish stocks in maritime areas subject to their sovereignty and jurisdiction through the appropriate conservation measures, including area-based measures, for the conservation of fish resources and the protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs), in accordance with the law of the sea as reflected in parts V and VI of UNCLOS. d. We re-commit to the conservation and sustainable use of fish stocks in the high seas, including through measures recommended by the General Assembly of the United Nations, such as the driftnet fishing moratorium, and those established ?in accordance with international law- by the competent international organizations, in order to achieve sustainable fishing goals. e. As regards the protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems in areas beyond national jurisdiction, through the JPOI, in 2002, we committed ourselves to the elimination of destructive fishing practices. While some progress has been made to protect deep sea ecosystems, increased action ?taking into account the competent international organizations- is needed to protect them from the impacts of bottom fishing. f. More must be done to improve transparency and accountability in fisheries management by regional fisheries management organizations (RFMOs). The efforts already made by some RFMOs in undertaking independent performance reviews are appreciated and should be expanded and augmented, as appropriate. g. Taking into account that conservation measures will not be effective in a scenario of major subsidized fishing fleets with a fishing capacity that is not sustainable and that poses an unfair challenge to developing states in terms of international trade, states should reinforce their commitment of Doha and Hong Kong to strengthen disciplines on subsidies in the fisheries sector, including through the prohibition of certain forms of fisheries subsidies that contribute to overcapacity and over-fishing. States must accelerate negotiations on those disciplines, including transparency, enforceability and the appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least-developed countries, taking into account the importance of this sector to development priorities, poverty reduction, and livelihood and food security concerns. 2. Enhancing opportunities of developing states to participate in fishing activities a. Distant-water fishing States, when negotiating access agreements and arrangements with developing coastal States, in particular small island developing states, should do so on an equitable and sustainable basis. Those States must comply with the conservation and management measures adopted by the developing coastal States, and take into account that in accordance with their sovereign rights over the natural resources of their exclusive economic zones (EEZ), those coastal States have the legitimate expectation to fully benefit from the sustainable use of such resources. b. The capacity of developing States, including the least developed among them and small island developing States, to participate in high-seas fisheries has to be built or enhanced and the necessary measures for developing States participating in RFMOs to enjoy a greater and farer share of the total allowable catch must be taken. c. We encourage the identification of strategies that further assist developing States, in particular the least developed and small island developing States, in realizing a greater share of the benefits from sustainable fisheries also through improved market access for fish products from developing countries. d. Access to fisheries by subsistence, small-scale and artisanal fishers and women fish workers, as well as indigenous peoples in developing States, in particular small island developing States, must be ensured. 3. Capacity building and transfer of technology a. We recognize the importance of developing capacity not only for the implementation of international commitments, but mainly for developing countries being able to benefit from the sustainable use of the oceans and seas and their resources. In this regard, the essential role of marine scientific research for the sustainable use of the resources of the oceans and seas and the protection and preservation of the marine environment must be recognized, as well as the role of the transfer of technology for capacity-building in the sphere of science. Efforts must be made to contribute to capacity building and to comply with the law of the sea as reflected in UNCLOS and the outcomes of the major summits on sustainable development, taking into account the IOC Guidelines for the transfer of marine technology. 4. Regular Process for global reporting and assessment of the state of the marine environment b. The General Assembly, in resolutions 57/141 of 12 December 2002 and 58/240 of 23 December 2003, decided to establish a regular process under the United Nations for global reporting and assessment of the state of the marine environment, including socio-economic aspects (the Regular Process), both current and foreseeable, building on existing regional assessments, as recommended by the World Summit on Sustainable Development. We commit ourselves to supporting the Regular Process and to actively participate in the Ad Hoc Working Group established by the General Assembly and all its activities. 5. New and emerging issues a) Ocean fertilization We recognize the scientific uncertainty on the potential intended and unintended impacts of large scale ocean fertilization on marine ecosystem structure and function and we reaffirm the need to ensure that, in accordance with CBD decision IX/16 and the precautionary approach recognized in the Rio Declaration, ocean fertilization activities are not carried out until there is an adequate scientific basis on which to justify such activities, including assessing associated risks, and a global, transparent and effective control and regulatory mechanism is in place for these activities; with the exception of small scale scientific research studies within coastal waters, which should only be authorized subject to the requirements set forth in CBD decision IX/16. b) Marine Biodiversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction i. Marine biodiversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction has a notable environmental importance and it can contribute to the progress of science, to better health, to enhanced food security and to overall sustainable development. The legal framework is provided by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), as the principle of the Common Heritage of Mankind contained in its Part XI is part of customary international law. Nevertheless, UNCLOS does not provide a specific legal regime for the biodiversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction. The use of biodiversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction by only a few countries that have the capacity to do so is inconsistent with general principles of international law, in particular those on equity; principles that are also enshrined in UNCLOS, as the Area and its resources are to be explored and exploited for the benefit of mankind as a whole. Therefore, the question of the sharing of benefits must be an integral part of the issue, including the aspect of intellectual property rights. In accordance to its essential role in Oceans and Seas, the General Assembly established through its resolution 59/24, a Working Group on biodiversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction. The General Assembly, upon recommendation of the Working Group, has established a process for ensuring that the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction effectively addresses those issues. ii. States commit themselves to making progress in the context of the Ad Hoc Working Group, and to the development of a specific legal regime for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction, and to that end, to initiate, as soon as possible, the negotiation of an implementing agreement to UNCLOS which would address the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction, in particular, and as a single undertaking, marine genetic resources, including access and benefit-sharing, measures such as area-based management tools, including marine protected areas, and environmental impact assessments, marine scientific research, capacity-building and the transfer of marine technology. c) Marine debris Marine debris, and in particular non-biodegradable plastics, is a growing concern. Marine debris recognizes no Boundaries, and causes harm to marine life and ecosystems wherever it drifts. More debris than ever is finding its way into the oceans from both land- and water-based sources, posing multiple threats to fragile ecosystems. Efforts to reduce or eliminate production and use of all non-biodegradable plastics must be strengthened and encouraged, in particular through the adoption of national legislation and the compliance with already existing national rules and regulations. Capacity building for developing States to safely manage their waste should be explored and provided.