United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
Information
  • Date submitted: 1 Nov 2011
  • Stakeholder type: United Nations & Other IGOs
  • Name: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
  • Submission Document: Download
Keywords: Renewable energy (2 hits),

Full Submission

UNESCO?s Input to the Rio+20 Compilation Document

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The complex, multifaceted and interconnected challenges and risks of the present and the future call for an urgent, holistic response and an in-depth rethinking of development in all its dimensions with new indicators to guide us. A new approach to development should start with individual dignity, centred on human development. This calls for building green societies of which green economies are an integral part.

The concept of green societies embraces the principles of social inclusion and equity, solidarity, mutual respect, gender-equality, human rights and peaceful coexistence, within the limits and thresholds of the natural system, which are fundamental ingredients for poverty reduction and sustainable development.

In order to close implementation gaps and to address new and emerging challenges, urgent commitment and support to the following actions is needed: building the conditions for long-lasting peace; promoting education for sustainable development and training for green jobs; mobilizing science, technology and innovation (STI) for sustainable development; fostering the sustainable use and good governance of the ocean and its resources; improving access to and sustainable management of freshwater resources; strengthening disaster preparedness and climate change adaptation and mitigation; promoting biodiversity conservation and designated learning sites for sustainable development; leveraging culture for sustainable development; and building awareness for green policy priorities through the media.

Education, the sciences, culture, information and communication have the unique power to induce and support the necessary transformational changes towards sustainable development; they provide innovative and creative solutions that mobilize traditional knowledge, developing new ways of thinking and behaving, and empower everyone to participate in the crafting of a more sustainable future.

UNESCO?s Input to the Rio+20 Compilation Document

Contents:

I. UNESCO?s vision on Rio+20 challenges and outcomes

II. Recommendations on the Conference Objectives:

A. Building the conditions for long-lasting peace

B. Promoting education for sustainable development and training for green jobs

C. Mobilizing science, technology and innovation (STI) for sustainable development

D. Fostering the sustainable use and good governance of the ocean and its resources

E. Improving access to and sustainable management of freshwater resources

F. Strengthening disaster preparedness and climate change adaptation and mitigation

G. Promoting biodiversity conservation and designated learning sites for sustainable development

H. Leveraging culture for sustainable development

I. Building awareness for green policy priorities through the media

III. Recommendations on the Conference Themes

IV. Annex: UNESCO?s activities and information resources

I. UNESCO?s vision on Rio+20 challenges and outcomes

UNESCO supports the Common Statement on the Outcome of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio +20), endorsed by the Chief Executive Board (CEB).

Rio+20 offers an unique opportunity to reset the world on a sustainable development path and to commit to a long term agenda on sustainable development.

Despite substantial improvements over the past 20 years in many key areas of sustainable development, the world is not on track to achieve the goals as aspired to in Agenda 21, adopted in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, and reiterated in subsequent world conferences, such as the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in 2002. While there have been some achievements in implementing Agenda 21, including the implementation of the chapters on ?Science for Sustainable Development? and on ?Promoting Education, Public Awareness & Training?, for which UNESCO was designated as the lead agency, much still remains to be done.

For example, 67 million children were still out of school globally during the school year ending in 2009; 793 million adults are still lacking basic literacy skills, nearly two-thirds of them are women; education for sustainable development is still far from being mainstreamed comprehensively into relevant national and international education policies and practices; the commitment to integrated management of the oceans and to restore depleted fish stocks to levels that can produce their maximum sustainable yield no later than 2015 is unlikely to be met; 884 million people do not have access to an adequate source of drinking water and alarming regional disparities persist; biological diversity has continued to decline and the 2010 goal to achieve a significant reduction of biodiversity loss was missed.

While the world has witnessed a period of unprecedented economic growth, increasing disparities, inequalities and social inequity, growing deterioration of the environment and resources, a crisis within the economic system itself, as well as concurrent and interrelated energy, food, environmental, security and financial crises, reflect the inadequacy of the current development paradigm.

No development model which leaves a billion people in hunger, poverty and socially excluded can be sustainable.

Rio+20 has to be forward-looking. While addressing the implementation gaps of Agenda 21, it has to take into account new complex and multifaceted challenges and risks of the present and the future.

Clearly, in order to close the implementation gaps, we need to break with ?business as usual?. This calls for a holistic response which addresses in an integrated and comprehensive manner the social, economic and environmental issues facing the world today, with new indicators to guide us.

It calls for building green societies of which green economies are an intrinsic part. Green societies must be equitable, peaceful and inclusive societies. They must foster innovative and creative solutions to today?s global challenges. These will be born from new ways of thinking and attitudes by people of all ages and from all walks of life.

No society can afford to leave so many of its citizens behind. Particular attention must be given to the empowerment of women and girls, youth, indigenous peoples, vulnerable and marginalized populations in order to ensure inclusive participation in decision-making processes and as an important contribution towards achieving sustainable development. The empowerment of marginalized groups must be based on the respect for human rights and supported by scaling up investment in human capital.

Sustainable development and peace are intrinsically linked and mutually reinforcing. Every effort towards sustainable development should be matched by resolute actions for ensuring peace everywhere.

To develop inclusive green societies, greater efforts are needed to build a culture of peace, to ensure democracy, good governance, respect for human rights, the rule of law, and fundamental freedoms, including the right to development and gender equality.

II. Recommendations on the Conference Objectives

In order to close the afore-mentioned implementation gaps while addressing new and emerging challenges, we need to ensure commitment, and appropriate resources for action, in education; sciences; technology and innovation; culture and information and communication. Resolute commitment in these areas has the potential to bring about transformations needed for achieving sustainable development as well as to strengthen climate change mitigation and adaptation, disaster preparedness and reduction, biodiversity conservation, and improved freshwater and ocean management. Peace is the basis for all sustainable development.

The Rio+20 Outcome document should include a Framework for Action with strong commitments and clear targets both in the short and in the long term.

The Outcome document should highlight the crucial importance for sustainable development of coherent and effective actions at national, regional and international levels in the following areas:

A. Building the conditions for long-lasting peace

Proposed text for the outcome document:

Peace and sustainable development are intrinsically linked. Without peace, there can be no sustainable development. They are two sides of the same coin. They are the means to respond to the complex crises of our times. Peace is an ethical and pedagogical imperative, a basis of the moral solidarity of humankind. Humanity will not attain peace if it is blind to future gains and only conscious only of immediate benefits. A culture of peace therefore requires commitment to just, open and inclusive societies, which foster mutual respect and cultural diversity.

Rationale:

Thirty-five countries were affected by armed conflict from 1999 to 2008. Violent conflict is one of the greatest development challenges facing the international community. Beyond the immediate human suffering it causes, it is a source of poverty, inequality and economic stagnation. Children and education systems are often on the front line of violent conflict. Of the total number of primary school age children in the world who are not enrolled in school, 42% ? 28 million ? live in poor countries affected by conflict. Conflict also has a disproportionate effect on women, and negatively impacts on women?s rights and gender equality. Despite their notable contributions toward peace-building, women are often excluded from formal peace negotiations and post-conflict reconstruction processes.

Youth, the demographic pulse of today?s world, must be empowered as actors for peace and inclusive sustainable development. Youth want their critical voice to be heard. Too often, indeed, their potential is stifled as they bear the brunt of poverty, unemployment and exclusion.

The empowerment of women, youth, migrants and disabled people is the precondition to ensure inclusive participation in decision making processes and to foster their important contribution towards sustainable development and peace. The empowerment of marginalized groups must be guided by human rights principles and supported by scaling up investment in education and enhancing access to information.

With pressing global issues such as climate change, energy poverty and management of pandemics requiring increasingly concerted action, the global agenda is shifting as a result of the increasingly complex interplay of Science and Technology and foreign policy. In this context, science diplomacy will be a powerful instrument for the use of science as a foundation of a culture of peace and cooperation, which are crucial for achieving sustainable development.

Peace is fragile and can vanish at any moment; lasting peace is about respect for life, the rejection of violence, the defense of human rights. Peace is a precondition for a successful transition to green societies and the achievement of sustainable development.

Concrete measures recommended:

1 Adopt holistic approaches to sustainable development based on ethical principles and a harmonious balance between the requirements of the economy, society and the environment.

2 Support democratic processes and strengthen good governance by ensuring democratic participation, genuine rule of law, justice, equity, gender equality and respect for human rights.

3 Develop education curricula at all levels promoting the values of peace, equity, human rights, dialogue, tolerance, honesty and mutual respect as a basis for sustainable development.

4 Develop the potential of science diplomacy to contribute to peace and cooperation as foundations for sustainable development.

5 Develop future-oriented approaches that take into account the needs and aspirations of all segments of societies, especially youth, women and vulnerable populations, to avoid social or generational conflicts.

6 Promote sports as a tool to overcome discrimination, to instil the values of democracy, friendship, cultural diversity and solidarity.

7 Promote freedom of expression as well as free, independent and pluralistic media (including social media).

8 Improve capacities and awareness, through the social and human sciences, in countries and at the international level for developing, implementing and monitoring policies that promote social inclusion of all groups in society in the context of a ?green economy?, especially youth, women, migrants, and people with disabilities.

B. Promoting education for sustainable development and training for green jobs

Proposed text for the outcome document:

Investing in quality education for all is crucial for achieving sustainable development, poverty eradication, equity and inclusiveness. Education holds the key to sustainable development and green societies, improves health and nutrition, income, and livelihoods, creating the condition for achieving the Education for all (EFA) goals and the MDGs. Universal access to quality education must be complemented by a comprehensive reorientation of existing education and learning to include understanding of and specific responses to sustainable development challenges. Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is a particularly important dimension of quality education. It provides people at all levels of education with the values, skills, competencies and knowledge needed for shaping new attitudes, behaviours and practices conducive to sustainable development, including consumption and production patterns. Moreover, green technical and vocational education and training (TVET) is essential for preparing young people for green jobs. Investing in women?s and girls? education and training is a necessary step to create conditions for their empowerment. Not tapping into half of the potential of humankind in the transition to a green economy is a serious waste of human capital and a barrier to progress towards the achievement of gender equality.

Rationale:

Sustainable development cannot be achieved by technological solutions, political regulation or financial instruments alone. Achieving sustainable development requires a change in the way we think and act, and consequently a transition to sustainable lifestyles, consumption and production patterns. Only quality education and learning at all levels and in all social contexts can bring about this fundamental change.

Promoting education as a main lever for change towards sustainable development has two components. First, universal access to basic education, with a special focus on girl?s and women?s education, is the precondition for sustainable development. For example, it is estimated that each year of additional schooling could increase individual earnings by 10%. Education, including basic literacy, plays a key role in lifting men and women out of poverty, empowers people to join the workforce, and promotes equity and the equal participation of women and men in decision-making processes. Years of schooling alone do not guarantee that students will receive an education relevant for their lives and careers. Quality ? that is the content of the education provided, the excellence of teachers, actual attainments and achievements ? matters as much as quantity. Education is a sound investment; quality education is a smart investment for building inclusive, green societies.

Secondly, education at all levels and in all settings needs to be designed in a way that allows every human being to acquire the specific values, competencies, skills and knowledge required to shape sustainable development. Education as widely practiced today is not sufficiently adapted to the urgent requirements of sustainable development. It is in need of a fundamental reorientation towards ESD to include the teaching and learning about sustainable development related challenges such as climate change and biodiversity loss and to promote green skills and competencies. TVET needs to be reoriented to provide learners with the skills required for green economies. The transition to green economies requires well-trained professionals able to address and cope with the challenges of major social and economic transformations. Focusing on entrepreneurship skills for TVET graduates can provide opportunities for income generation, by encouraging the set-up of new enterprises and self-employment directly or indirectly related to green economies. TVET is especially important to empower women and girls and to ensure that they have the necessary skills to fully participate in and contribute to the green labour market. The growing significance of sustainability is having major implications for business and industry. Many companies are now reporting the impacts of their social and environmental record. Industries and employment opportunities are being developed in the context of green economies. Emerging green sectors require skilled workers who have a knowledge of ? and commitment to ? sustainability, along with technical knowledge. At the higher education level, there is a need to re-focus curricula in line with the new challenges and opportunities the transition to green economies generates. This requires that we train sufficiently scientists, engineers and professionals to be prepared to help develop the solutions of the future.

Recognizing that education needs to play a stronger role in sustainable development, the UN General Assembly declared the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014) and the UN Literacy Decade (2003-2012). The Bonn Declaration adopted at the 2009 World Conference on Education for Sustainable Development reaffirmed that ESD is relevant to all levels and types of education and is a key element of quality education.

All available evidence suggests that substantial initiatives regarding education and sustainable development are required also after 2015.

Concrete measures recommended:

1 Ensure access to universal quality education for all.

2 Reform teaching and learning by mainstreaming Education for Sustainable Development at all levels, in formal and non-formal educational settings.

3 Reorient TVET to prepare teachers and learners for green economies and green societies.

4 Invest in women?s and girls? education to ensure their full and equal access to quality primary, secondary and higher education (formal and non-formal), as well as technical and vocational education and training.

5 Define appropriate higher education policy measures and frameworks to encourage careers in natural and social sciences and engineering, in particular in developing countries, which contribute to sustainable development.

6 Strengthen research and innovation capacities at universities with a focus on addressing sustainable development challenges.

7 Ensure that an international framework is in place that facilitates the promotion of basic education beyond the target date of the MDGs and the EFA goals in 2015 and the implementation of Education for Sustainable Development after the end of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development in 2014.

C. Mobilizing science, technology and innovation (STI) for sustainable development

Proposed text for the outcome document:

The contributions of science, including the natural sciences, social sciences and engineering, to sustainable development are deep and multifaceted. Communities need to collectively address common pressing challenges facing our society, such as food security, climate change, natural disaster risk reduction, biodiversity loss, access to clean water, management of terrestrial and marine resources, energy security, and affordable and effective health care. In addition, science and technology and innovation (STI) serve as a major engine for social and economic growth, generating entirely new industries, products, and services and creating jobs for our youth. Science and engineering contribute not only to understanding our world but to acting for change to the benefit of society. To move forward it is clear that a new compact between science and society is needed, one that more effectively promotes dialogue among scientists, policy-makers and society at large.

Rationale:

Today?s technological innovation is largely trapped in pathways that have emerged from worldviews characterized by the perceived abundance of resources, neglect of externalities and an almost complete disregard for inequalities in the distribution of benefits and costs. Sustainable development will require an integrated institutional and policy framework that enables and mobilizes the knowledge, the skills and the energies of all to solve these complex problems in an inclusive manner.

The global nature of present environmental challenges requires STI policies and practices with a global impact. This calls for better policy coordination at the national, regional and international levels and stronger partnerships between science, civil society, the business community and policy-makers. It is necessary to promote participatory governance models for STI policy-making, addressing inclusion and sustainability at the national level, and cooperation in the fields of science and knowledge sharing between countries at the regional and international levels. Recognizing the plurality of knowledge systems, including the essential contributions of indigenous and local communities, of citizen science and of women, broadens the spectrum for STI and its contribution to building societies living in harmony with the environment. The benefits of STI will not be adequately shared if participation in STI remains skewed.

In order to successfully address the complex and multi-faced challenges of sustainable development, appropriate human capacities in natural and human sciences, scientific research and engineering, as well as in inter- and trans-disciplinary areas are needed in both developed and developing countries are needed. Strengthening capacity-building in sciences and engineering in sustainable development related areas, promoting scientific careers at higher education level for both men and women, and developing ?brain gain? approaches are absolute prerequisites for building green economies and societies. Open access to scientific knowledge related to sustainable development should be strengthened thus reducing the knowledge gap between the rich and the poor, the North and the South.

Energy services are essential for all sectors of human life and access to these services affects the social, economic, and environmental dimension of human development. The sustainability of development processes is largely determined by the energy choices made. Judicious selection of energy technologies by taking into consideration the ecological implications and the ethical obligations to sustainable access to energy for all will be a major contribution to sustainable economic and social development. A sustainable energy path that will ensure that energy can fulfill its potential role as a key instrument for sustainable human development has to be promoted.

Systematic data collection, the development of STI indicators that are aligned with the tenets of peace, sustainability and inclusiveness, and the creation of a global database that makes relevant information accessible to politicians, scientists and the public in general are instruments for evidence-based green STI policies.

The interface between the scientific community, policy-makers and civil society should be strengthened. Recognizing the knowledge, needs and concerns of the scientific and technological community in relation to sustainable development challenges is an important step in shaping an evidence-based Rio+20 agenda. To this end, ICSU and UNESCO joined forces to organize regional preparatory meetings to collect the views and recommendations of scientists covering the full range of scientific disciplines, including the natural, social, health and engineering sciences.

Although the industrial revolution and the green revolution have brought great economic progress and welfare for many, they were not without unintended negative consequences. They left too many people out and the benefits were attended by enormous environmental costs. Therefore, in mobilizing STI for sustainable development, we must apply a more forward looking approach that aims to maximize the benefits and minimizes possible negative consequences from new scientific innovations. The contribution of the social sciences in addressing this issue is essential.

Concrete measures recommended:

1 Reform or review STI policies to address the challenges of sustainable development.

2 Align national STI policies with national sustainable development policies and strategies (NSDS) as well as with other related sectoral policies, including Renewable energy policies, so that they form an integrated national approach towards sustainable development.

3 Promote quality science, research and technological innovation to respond to the needs of a green economy and societies.

4 Support multi- and trans-disciplinary research in all fields of the natural, engineering and social sciences, while recognizing the strength of traditional knowledge in addressing sustainable development and poverty eradication.

5 Promote dialogue among scientists, policy-makers, the business community, civil society and the media in order to foster a more comprehensive science agenda at national, regional and global levels.

6 Support the emergence of green industries and production processes by aligning the creation and development of science, technology and entrepreneurship parks with green production principles.

7 Promote science education at all levels to close the gap of human resources for science, engineering and technology, in particular in developing countries, and guarantee the inclusion of women and other marginalized groups in the production and consumption of science, engineering and technology.

8 Strengthen regional and international scientific cooperation, with attention to the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and Small Island Developing States (SIDS).

9 Promote ethical principles to guide STI.

10 Define and implement new legal frameworks to enable technology and knowledge transfer so that knowledge gaps between developed and developing countries be closed, in particular in areas directly linked to sustainable development technologies and processes and renewable energies.

11 Expand open access to scientific knowledge and ensure the free flow of information as a fundamental principle for bridging the knowledge gaps.

12 Ensure the development of institutional and human resources to supply skilled manpower to make full use of the transfer of technologies and to ensure their application to local needs.

13 Promote the development of relevant, international comparable STI indicators aligned with peace, inclusiveness and sustainability and the building up of a global database of green STI policy instruments.

D. Fostering sustainable use and good governance of the ocean and its resources

Proposed text for the outcome document:

Our ocean provides significant social and economic benefits, plays an important role in poverty alleviation, and is at the core of global systems that make earth habitable. In order to safeguard the health of ocean ecosystems, global scientific efforts to fully comprehend and protect coastal and marine environmental health, identifying the limits and thresholds of the natural system, as well as conserve aquatic and marine biodiversity and mitigate the impact of emerging ocean threats such as ocean acidification need to be strengthened. Access to marine data and information must be broadened, capacities in marine sciences and research developed and effective management procedures and science, evidence-based policies promoted leading to the sustainability and peaceful use of coastal and ocean resources thus fostering a sustainable blue economy.

To prevent and reduce the impacts of natural marine hazards, warning systems must be further improved and natural disaster preparedness strategies for ocean-related threats, including tsunamis, developed. These strategies must encompass the specific needs and vulnerabilities of both women and men in order to prevent gender inequalities that may be created by natural marine hazards. Mitigation and adaptation to climate change and variability must be enhanced through improved scientific understanding, including research and monitoring of the natural system and its link with the human system, building resilience of vulnerable coastal communities, and sustaining ecosystem services and resources.

Given the complex, multisectoral and multinational nature of ocean issues, where management responsibilities are fragmented, there is a need for a stronger and more visible mechanism to foster dialogue, coordination and cooperative action among UN agencies. Strengthening and improving such coordination would enhance UN system delivery, performance and impacts and allow for more transparent and open procedures in addressing current and emerging issues at all levels. It could serve to reinforce assessment and monitoring and enable more coherent and strategic approaches among all UN agencies.

Rationale:

Despite the vast expanse of the global ocean, it has not been unaffected by the global changes caused by human activity. The health of the ocean and coasts, and their ability to provide essential ecosystem services is at stake.

Sound scientific research, systematic observations, and reliable services for effective management of human activities in marine and coastal areas are key factors for sustainable development and poverty alleviation. The Agenda 21 and Johannesburg Plan of Action targets related to the ocean, as well as the implementation of the Law of the Sea and related international and regional legal instruments, need stronger commitments from the international community, notably in developing and coordinating a comprehensive global ocean observing system to forecast coastal and marine hazards, assess ocean change and conditions, and to build national and local capacity in marine science and sustainable management of ocean uses and resources.

The need expressed in paragraph 36 of the Johannesburg Plan of Action (WSSD 2002) to expand observation of the global ocean and coastal seas and, furthermore, to find mechanisms for sustaining those observations, and to maintain the required level of scientific research and knowledge, remains more than valid today. Capacity development and technology transfer are key for Africa, LDCs and SIDS, in order to empower them with the knowledge and skills to benefit and manage the ocean and coasts in an equitable and sustainable way.

The UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) has been promoting international cooperation and coordinating programmes in research, sustained monitoring, services and capacity-building to find out more about the ocean and coastal areas and to generate knowledge to improve the sustainable management and protection of the marine environment. It has also been providing an evidence base for the decision-making process of its Member States.

UNESCO is also promoting the use of the World Heritage Convention to conserve exceptional ocean places. The World Heritage Convention protects currently 45 marine sites, covering one third of all existing marine protected areas worldwide. The successes of World Heritage monitoring, evaluation and management systems to enhance marine conservation can serve a model of good practice for all marine protected areas on the planet.

Concrete measures recommended: (the following recommendations are identical with the Resolution XXVI-5 adopted by the 26th session of the IOC Assembly in July 2011, and transmitted separately by IOC to the UNCSD Secretariat)

1 Prevent and reduce the impacts of natural hazards by further improving warning systems, as well as developing natural disaster preparedness strategies for marine threats.

2 Contribute to mitigation and adaptation to climate change and variability through improved scientific understanding, building resilience of vulnerable coastal communities, and sustaining ecosystem services and resources.

3 Safeguard the health of ocean ecosystems and create a sustainable basis for a blue economy by strengthening global scientific efforts to fully comprehend and protect coastal and marine

environmental health, as well as conserve biological diversity through ecosystem-based approaches,

and mitigate the impact of emerging ocean threats such as ocean acidification.

4. Promote effective management procedures and policies leading to the sustainability of coastal and ocean environment and resources, by encouraging and assisting nations developing ecosystem-based coastal and ocean strategies, and strengthening existing intergovernmental mechanisms to plan and apply ocean management strategies. In addition, UNESCO recommends to:

5. Strengthen UN coordination on oceans and costal issues for a more effective, cross-cutting, high-level and transparent mechanism ensuring participation of Member States and major stakeholders.

6. Strengthen the promotion of success stories obtained through the rigorous evaluation, monitoring and management systems for conservation of marine sites on the World Heritage List, which can serve as a model for all marine protected areas worldwide.

E. Improving access to and sustainable management of freshwater resources

Proposed text for the outcome document:

Water is vital for life, human health, prosperity, security, sustainable development and for ecosystems. It has social, cultural, economic and environmental values that are interconnected and mutually supportive. Water challenges know no boundaries and are a global concern which requires international response and action. At present 276 transboundary river basins and 274 transboundary aquifer systems have been identified - representing almost half the earth?s surface. Management of water resources, both at the national and international level, has become increasingly complex due to the unique physical, geographic, and political characteristics of water and its cross-cutting nature across the entire spectrum of socio-economic development. Within this context, there is an urgent need to develop appropriate water management frameworks and knowledge sharing networks for sound and sustainable cooperation between people whose lives depend upon shared water resources. An out-of-the box approach is needed for the integration of water into broader decision frameworks by governments, the private sector and civil society and will help enhance the availability of water supplies while protecting this resource.

Moreover, the global challenges of climate change, population growth, economic development, and rapid urbanization are straining the quality and quantity of the world?s freshwater resources in increasingly unpredictable ways. The need to enhance access to water resources for human and productive uses has become more crucial than ever, while ensuring the sustainable management of the world?s limited freshwater resources in terms of both quantity and quality that incorporates the increasing risks and uncertainties involved. The role of education and sound scientific knowledge and innovative tools are essential to address these challenges and to improve water management practices. Provision and sharing of data and information as well as supporting water resource assessment frameworks from global to national and basin scales are essential elements in sound water resources management.

Rationale:

Two-thirds of the world?s population could be living in water-stressed countries by 2025 if current consumption patterns continue. Securing water for all users and uses and wisely managing this scarce resource are therefore high priorities. Enhancing the knowledge base necessary for informed decision-making in relation to water management and consumption is pivotal. This is particularly true under evolving climatic conditions and accelerated pressures and opportunities created by socio-economic development, changes in consumption patterns and lifestyles, and an increasing and urbanizing world population.

Growing pressures related to access to water resources may exacerbate existing sectoral and political tensions at all levels, which arise due to countries? competing requirements for development. Notwithstanding, water can be a catalyst for cooperation and peace between countries, regions and communities. Fostering better mutual understanding of the historical background, cultural diversity and the ethics of freshwater and its relationship to issues of equity, gender equality, cooperation and social cohesion is a prerequisite for the equitable and peaceful sharing of water resources.

Urbanization is occurring at an unprecedented rate. The urban population is projected to double in the near future. As a result, there is an increased stress on water resources. Providing sustainable water services has become one of the challenges facing cities around the world. So has reducing impacts of urban areas on water resources use and pollution. Effective water management in cities brings multiple benefits, ranging from improved human health and poverty reduction to a healthier environment and ecosystems, making our cities greener places.

Aquifer systems hold 97% of the fresh water reserves of our planet. In many arid and semi-arid countries the only source of freshwater is groundwater, given the absence of permanent rivers and lakes. Therefore it is essential to improve knowledge of how to sustainably manage these resources. Furthermore, they can play a crucial role in the elaboration of adaptation measures to climate change.

Water education is a key dimension of the international response to the world?s global water crisis. Education can encourage changes in behaviour, promoting sustainable use of water and concurrently building capacity for the sustainable management of freshwater resources.

A significant part of the world?s population faces critical problems including shortages of food and energy and threats to their livelihoods and health. In many areas in the world, water is the key limiting factor in raising food production. This water-food-energy nexus plays an important role in green economies, particularly in alleviating poverty, reducing gender inequalities and the adverse effects of climate change. Therefore, the implicit, cross-cutting role of freshwater in the realization of the MDGs should be acknowledged and acted upon.

UNESCO?s International Hydrological Programme (IHP) is the only intergovernmental programme of the UN system devoted to water research, water resources management, education and capacity-building. The World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP) ? a programme of UN-Water hosted and led by UNESCO monitors freshwater issues in order to provide recommendations, develop case studies, enhance assessment capacity at a national level and inform the decision-making process. Its primary product, the World Water Development Report (WWDR), is a periodic, comprehensive review providing an authoritative picture of the state of the world?s freshwater resources. WWAP has its own advisory group on gender equality.

Concrete measures recommended:

1 Improve and disseminate knowledge on water resources and hydrological processes, including recognition of local and traditional knowledge and management practices (including the specific knowledge and practices of women), through the mutual exchange of data and techniques at the regional and international levels.

2 Strengthen and mobilise the global educational and knowledge base for integrated water resources management (IWRM).

3 Support stakeholders in formulating scientifically sound policies and guidelines for the sustainable management of freshwater resources through integrated water resources management.

4 Facilitate regional and international cooperation mechanisms and frameworks for the joint and peaceful management of transboundary waters, both surface and ground waters.

5 Support data collection, monitoring and assessment initiatives at global, regional, national and basin scales; highlight and help scale up good practices and out-of-box approaches.

6 Contribute to meeting the water-related capacity building needs of developing countries and of countries in transition.

7 Develop studies, inventories, assessments, management and polices, monitoring and adequate institutions on groundwater resources to face global change and increasing population needs.

F. Strengthening disaster preparedness and climate change adaptation and mitigation

Proposed text for the outcome document:

Knowledge concerning global climate change and natural hazards, including earthquakes, volcanoes, windstorms, wildfires, storm surges, tsunamis, landslides, floods and drought, must be enhanced, particularly to fill gaps in the knowledge required by policy-makers to protect people, livelihoods and ecosystems. This should include promotion of innovation and technology for disaster risk mitigation; enhancement of local capacity for risk assessment; education, public awareness and communication for disaster preparedness and climate change adaptation and mitigation. Actions should stimulate interdisciplinary and intersectoral partnerships, including the expansion of risk reduction and adaptation networks at the local, regional and international level. Building the resilience of vulnerable communities, while reinforcing local response strategies rooted in traditional knowledge, is essential for climate change adaptation and will also serve in disaster preparedness. Migration linked to climate change needs to be better understood and the knowledge generated has to be translated into appropriate social policies. The above-mentioned efforts must be underpinned by expanded sustained systematic observation and early warning systems.

Rationale:

Climate change is one of the main challenges of our time. There is strong evidence to suggest that humanity is responsible for climate change.

Change in climate could jeopardize the sustainability of socio-economic systems and profoundly change ecosystems. Consequently, climate change will also adversely affect, and indeed is already affecting, many areas, including, biodiversity and ecosystems; freshwater resources; small islands, the Arctic and other vulnerable milieu, human health; human settlements and migration patterns; the conservation of natural and cultural world; and peace and prosperity.

Exacerbated by climate change, natural disasters are expected to increase in frequency, complexity, scope and destructive capacity. The exposure of more people to the risk of natural hazards continues to increase as a result of population growth, unplanned or poorly planned urbanization, alteration of the natural environment, substandard dwellings and public buildings, and inadequate infrastructure maintenance. The lack of attention to gender equality issues in disaster risk reduction strategies often put women at higher risk. The objectives set out in the Plan of Implementation from the WSSD (2002), the Hyogo Framework for Action (2005), and the Cancun Plan for Action (2010) recognise the importance of disaster resilience. Their full implementation needs to be ensured.

While today climate change adaptation has become a global priority, impacts and responses will occur at the local level. A focus on communities is therefore imperative so as to ensure that adaptation aligns with local priorities, is based on community-based observations, and uses synergies between science and traditional knowledge as a springboard for addressing emerging challenges.

Disasters can lead to conflicts, which in turn undermine the prospects for sustainable economic growth, reducing poverty and achieving the IADGs and MDGs. When supporting post-conflict recovery and reconstruction processes, special attention must be given to the root causes of conflict and to encouraging national dialogue and reconciliation efforts, so as to mitigate the risk of a relapse back into conflict. This will involve activities to address disrupted or dysfunctional educational, cultural or media services in post-conflict and post-disaster situations.

Concrete measures recommended:

1. Adopt disaster risk reduction strategies in the development process.

2. Enhance the knowledge base on climate change and ensure solid science-policy-society interfaces, including through media, for informed policy-making.

3. Build resilient societies by educating at-risk communities concerning impact prevention, preparedness and mitigation measures.

4. Promote education on climate change and on disaster risk reduction within the framework of Education for Sustainable Development in order to enhance adaptation and preparedness as well as mitigation capacities.

5. Promote integrated and sustained monitoring and warning systems for natural hazards by strengthening regional and international scientific networks, education and training activities.

6. Build capacities and promote traditional knowledge in vulnerability and risk assessment, and in improved disaster mitigation, preparedness and climate change adaptation.

7. Ensure that knowledge and warnings reach all affected individuals regardless of their gender, including by ensuring that all actions are gender-responsive.

8. Contribute to developing local capacities for hazard assessment.

9. Recognize the important role of UNESCO-designated biosphere reserves and natural World Heritage sites in developing innovative climate change adaptation and mitigation responses, including through increased resilience and through the conservation of their vast carbon stocks, and position them as places of learning and demonstration of appropriate sustainable development approaches.

10. Promote the Global Framework for Climate Services and the Integrated Research on Disaster Risk research programme.

11. Develop tools for guidance on policy assessment methodologies for climate change adaptation, emphasizing its social dimensions and taking due account of the potential contribution of environmental ethics to project evaluation.

12. Support regional and international scientific cooperation in the social and human sciences directed at analysis of climate change impacts and of the policy challenges raised by adaptation to Global Environmental Change (GEC).

13. Strengthen the capabilities of civil society, particularly social groups at risk and at disadvantage, to effectively communicate their rights and increase their participation in the formulation and implementation of national and regional adaptation policies to GEC.

G. Promoting biodiversity conservation and designated learning sites for sustainable development

Proposed text for the outcome document:

The conservation and sustainable and equitable use of biodiversity is central to human well-being. Biodiversity is crucial for reducing poverty in view of the basic goods and ecosystems it provides. Including the value of ecosystem services, biodiversity, and of their loss in our measurements of economic performance, recognizing these values and protecting and understanding the world?s biodiversity at all levels from genes to ecosystems are crucial in order to foster sustainable socio­economic development. Education and awareness-raising have an important role to play in supporting biodiversity conservation. The World Heritage Convention is the most important international legal instrument to recognize and protect globally outstanding ecosystems and sites of exceptional biodiversity. Together with UNESCO-designated biosphere reserves, they are ideal places to experiment and demonstrate best practices in biodiversity conservation and can be places of learning and demonstration of best practices in sustainable biodiversity management and of appropriate sustainable development approaches for human well-being.

Rationale:

Sustainability and the conservation and equitable use of biodiversity are part of the same equation. They are not dissociable. Critical steps in the transition to green economies include the integration of biodiversity and ecosystem services into the economic marketplace. Indeed, there is mounting evidence that investing in natural capital and maintaining biodiversity provides a return on investment.

The loss or degradation of biodiversity, still occurring at an unprecedented pace at local and global levels is a threat to our environment, economies, cultures and societies. It is changing the conception of us and our place in the world. Human impact on biodiversity, ecosystems and climate continues unabated and the complexity and diversity of the range of services that flow from biodiversity are often unknown and undervalued.

Policy makers have a key role to play in addressing the current loss of biodiversity by adequately accounting for biodiversity and managing ecosystem services and in ensuring sound management of places with significant biodiversity and ecosystems providing important services to society. In order to take advantage of services provided by ecosystems, governments should be encouraged to identify opportunities for generating green employment and business opportunities through support for the development of sustainable enterprises in areas such as eco-tourism and net-positive forms of Renewable energy.

The UNESCO Biodiversity Initiative?s holistic perspective will foster greater knowledge and monitoring of biodiversity; capacity building for both women and men to generate such knowledge, particularly at the local level; and will support sustainable cultural industries by addressing the economic, cultural, ethical and social dimensions of biodiversity and ecosystem services.

With 580 Biosphere Reserves in 114 countries and 936 World Heritage sites in 153 countries, UNESCO-designated sites are ideal places for demonstrating innovative approaches to conservation and sustainable development. Biosphere reserves seek to reconcile conservation of biological and cultural diversity, and economic and social development, through partnerships between people and nature. The World Heritage Convention protects the most iconic and exceptional cultural and natural areas, including cities, cultural landscapes, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, and supports their sustainable use through the development of tourism, livelihoods, and enterprises to sustain local and national economies. The economic value of biodiversity and ecosystem services conserved through this vast estate of biosphere reserves and natural World Heritage sites also must be factored into measures of economic development.

Concrete measures recommended:

1 Make extensive use of best practices and experiments in UNESCO?s World Network of Biosphere Reserves and in World Heritage Sites in translating biodiversity knowledge into policy and management decisions, conservation action, and innovating and demonstrating new pathways towards green economies and societies.

2 More effectively use the World Heritage Convention as a tool to implement the Convention on Biological Diversity and to support the work of the future Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, by recognizing and ensuring the best management of globally outstanding ecosystems and sites of exceptional biodiversity.

3 Develop education curricula at all levels, in particular in developing countries, on biodiversity conservation and sustainable use approaches.

4 Successfully mainstream relevant traditional and indigenous knowledge (including women?s knowledge) into biodiversity policies, strategies and action plans.

5 Capitalize upon the synergies between cultural and biological diversity in support of human well­being and sustainable development.

6 Increase the understanding of the impacts of climate change and variability on marine ecosystems and marine biodiversity, including by maintaining an ocean biogeographic information system in support of marine assessments and ecosystem research.

7 In conjunction with UN partners, provide an enhanced biodiversity science-policy interface through the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services.

H. Leveraging culture for sustainable development

Proposed text for the outcome document:

As the aim of sustainable development is to improve human well-being, reduce inequalities, and alleviate environmental risks as well as ecological scarcity, it necessarily entails a cultural dimension. Focusing on the cultural dimension of sustainable development advances a human-centred approach to development that reflects the complexities of societies and local contexts, facilitates the creation of a conducive environment for sustainable development, promotes the plurality of knowledge systems and expressions, and serves as a powerful socio-economic resource.

Rationale:

In addition to its intrinsic value, culture contributes to the process and outcome of development permeating all aspects and driving development. Development initiatives and approaches that accord culture its rightful place result in inclusive and context-sensitive development that yield equitable outcomes, enhance ownership by target beneficiaries, and improve delivery effectiveness. The mainstreaming of the cultural dimension in all development policies including education, gender equality, and health policies is thus a critical foundation for sustainable development. As a repository for knowledge, meaning, and value, culture is also central to shaping the relationship between people and the natural environment. Consequently, it presents a vehicle for the vital socio-economic transformation to green economies and societies. Culture also contributes to the integration of the three pillars of sustainable development as it transverses the economic, social, and environmental dimensions.

Moreover, the culture sector, encompassing cultural heritage, creative and cultural industries, cultural tourism and cultural infrastructure, generates substantial socio-economic benefits including green jobs and strategic outlets for creativity. Cultural industries represent one of the most rapidly expanding sectors in the global economy. In Colombia, craft production represents an annual income of roughly 400 million USD, including some 40 million USD in exports. In Tunisia, 300,000 craftworkers produce 3.8 percent of the country?s annual GDP, while in Thailand the number of craftworkers is estimated at 2 million. Cultural heritage sites in general and UNESCO inscribed World Heritage sites in particular, as well as museums and other cultural institutions generate substantial revenues and employment from tourism. Additionally, cultural resources play a significant role in revitalizing urban areas and harnessing creative communities thereby, attracting investments. As it entails renovating existing structures, revitalization of historic districts is also green and community based by design.

The promotion of cultural industries and pro-poor sustainable tourism is likely to have direct impact on vulnerable populations, owning to the significant reliance of the culture economy on the informal sector, where poor and marginalized populations, including women, often find employment, and can thereby stimulate social inclusion while maximizing jobs and trade opportunities. The economic prospects of the culture sector are particularly relevant for developing countries, given their rich cultural heritage and substantial labor force. In addition to facilitating social inclusion and ensuring economic gains, cultural goods and services provide a sense of identity and are sources for creativity at both individual and societal levels.

Furthermore, local and indigenous knowledge systems including women?s specific knowledge and management practices, and environmental management practices provide valuable insight and tools for tackling ecological challenges, preventing biodiversity loss, reducing land degradation, and mitigating the effects of climate change. Seeking synergies between traditional and modern environmental practices as well as strengthening community participation in conservation initiatives are central aspects of environmental sustainability.

Concrete measures recommended:

1 Ensure the systematical integration of the cultural dimension in the conception, measurement, and practice of development with a view of advancing inclusive, equitable, and sustainable development.

2 Promote intercultural dialogue to harness social cohesion thereby, creating a conducive environment for development.

3 Capitalize on cultural values and the plurality of knowledge systems and expressions to mobilize community participation in environment initiatives. More specifically, integrate traditional knowledge of both women and men, practices and expressions in sustainable environment schemes and seek synergies between indigenous and modern environmental practices.

4 Support sustainable tourism, cultural as well as creative industries, and heritage based urban revitalization as powerful economic sub-sectors that generate green employment, stimulate local development, and foster creativity.

I. Building awareness for green policy priorities through the media

Proposed text for the outcome document:

Well-informed and professional media form an essential platform for debate, dialogue and knowledge sharing; facilitate governance and accountability; create awareness about issues and can shape public policy and opinion in favour of sustainable, green societies and economies. Strengthening the institutional and professional capacity of female and male media professionals and ensuring their safety and protection from life threatening dangers and commercial pressures is essential for investigative journalistic reports to flourish and for consistent public awareness and engagement on sustainability issues. In this regard, information and communications technologies (ICTs), and in particular broadband technology, hold enormous potential in raising awareness on the importance of sustainable green societies and economies on women?s and men?s lives.

Rationale:

Free, independent and pluralistic media are central to raising awareness of and promoting critical debate about sustainable development and how they affect women?s and men?s lives. UNESCO assessments of national media landscapes, based on the Media Development Indicators, have demonstrated the need for media to be an inclusive platform for democratic discourse. In as far as green jobs are concerned, media can provide an inclusive platform for robust citizen participation in green policy decisions, thereby holding policy-makers accountable.

Green jobs are not self-evident; they are a subject of intense political and policy contestation, requiring a constant flow of information and analyses, to facilitate dialogue and informed decision-making. There should be vigorous public debate to lay bare the underlying assumptions of all policy choices available.

A key aspect of promoting such free, independent and pluralistic media involves capacity-building. In many developing countries, journalists lack the skills needed to report on sustainable development issues. Emphasis should be placed on journalism education and the extent to which it can encapsulate principles of sustainable development. Through UNESCO-designated potential centres of excellence and reference and the Paris Declaration on Climate Change and Broadcast Media, there is sufficient evidence to suggest the desirability of reviewing journalism curricula to incorporate the discourse of sustainable development and green jobs as a way of impacting the practice of journalism for sustainable development.

A related concern is to develop multiple media partnerships to ensure the continued coverage of issues concerning green jobs.

Considering that journalists who have investigated environmental malpractices have faced threats to their lives, it is important for States to proactively guarantee the safety of journalists so that the media can become an effective partner in investigating and educating on issues related to sustainable development. Given that violence against women journalists has increased over the past years, specific measures have to be taken to ensure the safety and security of women media professionals.

Concrete measures recommended:

1 Work with UNESCO-designated potential centres of excellence and reference to review their curricula as a process of ?greening? them.

2 Foster journalism education which focuses on how to cover sustainable development issues at the tertiary level, and through other forms of training for both women and men media professionals.

3 Harness the potential of ICTs, and in particular broadband technology for media to raise awareness on sustainable development.

4 Identify and develop South-South and North-South media partnerships in support of content exchange on green jobs.

5 Support efforts across the globe at user-generated content that addresses the issue of green jobs as a way of facilitating citizen participation in the debates surrounding the issue and encouraging the equal participation of both women and men.

6 Guarantee the safety of journalists, especially women journalists, to ensure independent media investigation.

III. Recommendations on the Conference Themes

A green economy in the context of poverty reduction and sustainable development

A green ?economy? will always be country and economic sector specific. Green economies in the context of poverty reduction and sustainable development are an important means to achieve the well-being of people while respecting the environment. However, green economies alone are not enough. No agenda limited to tax, trade and technology can deliver what the sustainable development agenda as a whole requires.

The complex, multifaceted and interconnected challenges and risks of the present and the future call for a response which addresses the social, economic and environmental issues facing the world in an integrated and holistic manner, with new indicators to guide us. It calls for building green societies of which green economies are an integral part.

The concept of green societies embraces the principles of fairness, social inclusion and equity, solidarity, mutual respect, gender equality and human rights and peaceful coexistence which are fundamental ingredients for poverty reduction and sustainable development.

The Institutional framework for sustainable development (IFSD)

A more coherent institutional framework at a global, regional and national level must be established, effectively bringing together dispersed competences. Good governance for sustainable development requires adequate partnership frameworks especially at the local and regional levels, which actively involve all stakeholders, including civil society, public and private partners, academia and marginalized groups. At the global level, there should be a clear recognition of well-established mandates, experience and comparative advantages of UN organizations and related operational, technical and normative programmes. In particular, the following measures should be taken:

1 Ensure that effective and well-coordinated policies and resource generating frameworks for sustainable development beyond 2015 are put in place.

2 Strengthen and improve global coordination on oceans and freshwater governance while acknowledging the unique competences of UN agencies.

3 Identify synergies among UN organizations and a build longer-term, coherent vision for sustainable development, taking into account the outcomes of major international conferences related to sustainable development as well as related areas such as LDCs and MDGs.

IV. ANNEX: UNESCO Activities and Information Resources

General:

? From Green Economies to Green Societies, UNESCO?s Commitment to Sustainable Development, 2011: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/bureau-of-strategic-planning/themes/special-programme­issues/rio-20/

? UNESCO has organized a Future Forum on Moving towards a Green Economy and Green Jobs held 22-23 August 2009 and on Mitigating Climate Change ? Building a Global Green Society held on 26 October 2009, of which the proceedings have been published: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001925/192543e.pdf

? UNESCO in cooperation with UNECE and Collegium International, has organized a Future Forum on ?Challenges of a Green Economy and Green Societies: Attitudes, Policies, Governance? on May 26, 2011.

? UNESCO?s Rio+20 website: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/bureau-of-strategic­planning/themes/special-programme-issues/rio-20/

Building the conditions for long-lasting peace

? 2011 Report on the Implementation of the Declaration and Programme of Action on a Culture of Peace: http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/66/273&referer=http://www.un.org/en/ga/ documents/symbol.shtml&Lang=E

? 2011 EFA Global Monitoring report The Hidden Crisis: Armed Conflict and Education: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leading-the-international­agenda/efareport/reports/2011-conflict/

? Regional Research and Documentation Centre for Women, Gender and Peace-building in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human­sciences/themes/human-rights/gender-equality/gender-peace-and-conflict/regional-centre-great­lakes-region/

? Palestinian Women's Research and Documentation Center: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social­and-human-sciences/themes/human-rights/gender-equality/gender-peace-and-conflict/pwrdc/

? UNESCO Youth Programme: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human­sciences/themes/social-transformations/youth/

Promoting education and for sustainable development and training for green jobs

? As lead agency for the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, UNESCO is currently implementing the Strategy for the Second Half of the Decade: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001873/187354e.pdf

? The Bonn Declaration adopted at the UNESCO World Conference on Education for Sustainable Development provides key recommendations for Member States and other stakeholders: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001873/187354e.pdf

? Upcoming UNESCO activities in Education for Sustainable Development include the integration of climate change, biodiversity and disaster risk reduction into education.

? The UNESCO World Conference which marks the end of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development will be held 2014 in Nagoya, Japan.

? UNESCO is currently implementing its Strategy for Technical and Vocational Education and Training: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001833/183317e.pdf

? The Third International Congress on Technical and Vocational Education and Training will take place 14-16 May 2012 in Shanghai.

? The 2012 Education for All Global Monitoring Report focuses on the expansion of opportunities for marginalized populations through skills development.

? UNESCO will shortly initiate an international review of skills formation for green development

? UNESCO Global Partnership for Girls? and Women?s Education: http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/ED/pdf/BetterLife_ENG.pdf

Mobilizing science, technology and innovation (STI) for sustainable development

? UNESCO Science Report 2010: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/science­technology/prospective-studies/unesco-science-report/unesco-science-report-2010/

? World Social Science Report 2010: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001883/188333e.pdf

? UNESCO Report Engineering: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities for Development, UNESCO, 2010: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001897/189753e.pdf

? UNESCO Science Policy Series: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/science­technology/prospective-studies/science-policy-studies-series-since-2003/

? The Haifa Declaration, adopted at the International Women Leaders' Conference on Science, Technology and Innovation: Education and Training for Women and Girls: http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/BSP/GENDER/PDF/Haifa%20Declar ation%20paper%20head_COMPLETE.pdf

? Agreed conclusions on access and participation of women and girls in education, training and science and technology, including for the promotion of women?s equal access to full employment and decent work, adopted at the 55th session of the Commission on the Status of Women: http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/csw/csw55/agreed_conclusions/AC_CSW55_E.pdf

? Background Paper on ?Women?s and Girls? Access to and Participation in Science and Technology? prepared by UNESCO for the Expert Group Meeting on ?Gender, Science and Technology?: http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/egm/gst_2010/Final-Report-EGM-ST.pdf

? UNESCO Local and Indigenous Knowledge Systems (LINKS) programme: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/priority-areas/links/

? UNESCO Small Island Developing States website: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural­sciences/priority-areas/small-island-developing-states

? UNESCO Building Island Resilience 2011: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002131/213150E.pdf

Fostering sustainable use and good governance of the ocean and its resources

? IOC/UNESCO is coordinating the UN inter-agency Report on Oceans (known as the Blue Paper) as a contribution to the Rio+20 Preparatory Process. The document entitled ?A Blueprint for Ocean and Coastal Sustainability? is co-sponsored by UNDP, FAO and IMO.

? Resolution XXVI-5 entitled ?Preparation for the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development? adopted at 26th Session of the IOC Assembly, July 2011.

? All documents to be found on UNESCO Rio+20 Oceans Website: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/rio20

Improving access to and sustainable management of freshwater resources

? G-WADI (Water and Development Information for Arid Lands ? A Global Network): http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/environment/water/ihp/ihp-programmes/g-wadi/

? HELP (Hydrology for the Environment, Life and Policy): http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural­sciences/environment/water/ihp/ihp-programmes/help/

? FRIEND (Flow Regimes from International Experimental and Network Data): http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/environment/water/ihp/ihp-programmes/friend/

? ISARM (Internationally Shared Aquifers Resources Management Programme): http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/environment/water/ihp/ihp-programmes/isarm/

? PCCP (From Potential Conflict to Cooperation Potential?): http://www.unesco.org/water/wwap/pccp/

? UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Management: http://www.unesco-ihe.org/

? IWRM Guidelines at the River Basin Level: http://www.unesco.org/water/news/pdf/Part_2­3_Invitation_to_IWRM_for_Irrigation_Practitioners.pdf

? 3rd UN World Water Development Report: http://www.unesco.org/water/wwap/wwdr/wwdr3/pdf/WWDR3_Water_in_a_Changing_World.pd f

? World Water Assessment Programme?s Advisory Group on Gender Equality: http://www.unesco.org/water/wwap/water_and_gender/

Strengthening disaster preparedness and climate change adaptation and mitigation

? UNESCOs Climate Change Initiative: http://portal.unesco.org/science/en/ev.php­URL_ID=8950&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html

? United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction: http://www.unisdr.org/

? Migration and Climate Change, UNESCO, 2011: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and­human­sciences/themes/sv/news/migration_and_climate_change_a_unesco_publication_on_one_of_the_ greatest_challenges_facing_our_time/

? Climate Change and Arctic Sustainable Development: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural­sciences/priority-areas/links/climate-change-adaptation/publications/books-and­articles/climate-change-and-arctic-sustainable-development/

? On the Frontlines of Climate Change: http://www.climatefrontlines.org/

? International Flood Initiative: http://www.ifi-home.info/

? Tsunami programme: http://www.ioc-tsunami.org/

? Climate Change Education: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leading-the­international-agenda/climate-change-education/

? Education for Disaster Risk Reduction: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leading-the-international­ agenda/education-for-sustainable-development/disaster-risk-reduction/

? Training Manual on Gender and Climate Change: http://www.gender­climate.org/pdfs/Training%20Manual%20on%20Gender%20and%20Climate%20Change.pdf

? Gender and Climate Forum Statement (included in the World Climate Conference-3 ?Conference Statement ? Summary of the Expert Segment?): http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001863/186309e.pdf

Promoting biodiversity conservation and designated learning sites for sustainable development

? UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme and its World Network of Biosphere Reserves: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/environment/ecological-sciences/biosphere­reserves/world-network-wnbr/

? UNESCO natural World Heritage sites: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/?search=&searchSites=&search_by_country=&search_yearinscribed =&type=natural&themes=&media=&region=&criteria_restrication=&order=

? UNESCO Biodiversity Initiative: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/special­themes/biodiversity-initiative/

? UNESCO-Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission?s work on ecosystem health: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/ioc-oceans/high-level-objectives/ecosystem­health/

? Statement on Biodiversity and Gender Equality included in the ?Statement and Recommendations? adopted at the UNESCO International Year of Biodiversity Science-Policy Conference: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001897/189762e.pdf

Leveraging culture for sustainable development

? The Power of Culture for Development, September 2010: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001893/189382e.pdf

? UNSG Report on Culture and Development, September 2011: http://www.un.org/Docs/journal/asp/ws.asp?m=A/66/187

? The Cultural Diversity Programming Lens Toolkit, 2010: http://www.unescobkk.org/fileadmin/user_upload/culture/Cultural_lens/CDPL_Toolkit_January_ 2008.pdf

? Politicas para la creatividad, 2010: http://www.unescobkk.org/fileadmin/user_upload/culture/Cultural_lens/CDPL_Toolkit_January_ 2008.pdf

? UNESCO World Report on ?Investing Cultural Diversity and Intercultural Dialogue?: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001852/185202e.pdf

Building awareness for green policy priorities through the media

? Paris Declaration on Climate Change and Broadcast Media, adopted during the UNESCO-UNEP 2009 International Conference on Climate Change and Broadcast Media: http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/files/29090/12523431173Paris_Declaration.pdf/Paris%2BDeclaratio n.pdf

? Colloquia on journalism and climate change in the global South, organised in cooperation with Rhodes University during the 2011 Highway Africa Conference.

? Media fellowships for journalists covering the Conference of the Parties (COP) series of meetings.

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