Pacific Small Island Developing States
Information
  • Date submitted: 1 Nov 2011
  • Stakeholder type: Political Groups
  • Name: Pacific Small Island Developing States
  • Submission Document: Download
Keywords: Commitments (9 hits),

Full Submission

Introduction

This is the contribution of the Pacific Small Island Developing States, namely Fiji, Nauru, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu for inclusion into the compilation document to serve as a basis for preparation of the zero-draft of the outcome document.

There are three critical elements for a successful outcome from Rio plus 20 for our island nations:

A. The Blue Economy - The conservation, sustainable management and equitable sharing of marine and ocean resources is an integral component of the Green Economy to enable sustainable economic development and eradicate poverty.

B. Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States - The Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development must address the unique and particular vulnerabilities of Small Island Developing States, so that SIDS are a model for sustainable development.

C. Climate Change - Recommitting the necessary political will to respond to the climate crisis and ensure the survival of all Small Island Developing States is a key message for Rio plus 20. Concrete proposals for inclusion into the compilation document for Rio plus 20 are set out below and in the Annex to this document for ease of reference.

A. GREEN ECONOMY IN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND POVERTY ERADICATION - THE ?BLUE ECONOMY?

For Rio+20 to be a success it must deliver a strong outcome on one of our most important resources ? the ocean. Marine and coastal resources are critical to our economies, our food security and our cultures ? the sustainable use of our marine resources is one of our primary tools to eradicate poverty. The importance of ocean resources to economic development is an integral component of the Green Economy.

The major sustainable development Summits have recognised the marine environment as ?an essential component of the global-life support systems and a positive asset that presents opportunities for sustainable development.? Regrettably, there are major gaps in the implementation of internationally agreed Commitments relating to the sustainable management of marine and coastal resources. It is an imperative that Rio plus 20 reaffirms the political will to implement what has already been agreed in relation to marine and coastal resources.

The Pacific SIDS have three priority areas for the Blue Economy that we seek in the Rio Outcome on the Green Economy, namely:

? Development Aspirations of SIDS ? Marine, ocean, coastal and fisheries resources are the foundation of the economies of Pacific SIDS and represent a critical pathway to future growth. Current benefits to the Pacific from the utilisation of these resources are inequitable. We seek specific targets, to facilitate increased share of benefits from the utilisation of marine resources through direct participation and capacity building.

? Unsustainable and Destructive Fishing Practices ? Over-fishing and IUU fishing are depleting once abundant fish stocks and driving many species rapidly toward extinction, while destructive fishing practices such as bottom trawling cause enormous damage on marine ecosystems. These issues are not new, but innovative approaches, renewed commitment and urgent implementation of strategies to combat unsustainable and destructive fishing must be at the forefront on building a resilient ?blue? economy, thereby safeguarding food security and a sustainable future for Pacific islands.

? Climate Change and Ocean Acidification and Coral Reefs ? The combined impacts of climate change, namely sea-level rise, increased sea-surface temperature and intensified storm activity, with the adverse effects of ocean acidification caused by increased dissolved carbon dioxide, are likely the biggest threats to the health of the ocean. Coral reefs ecosystems are particularly susceptible to climate change and ocean acidification, and may be the first marine ecosystem to collapse without urgent increased mitigation action. Urgent and deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are a global imperative. Additionally, given existing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and ocean, building the resilience of vulnerable marine ecosystems to the impacts of climate change and ocean acidification is essential to enabling sustainable development and eradicating poverty.

In line with these priorities, we seek the Rio Outcome to include the following paragraphs in relation to the Blue Economy:

PROPOSED TEXT ON THE BLUE ECONOMY:

We reiterate that oceans and seas and their resources, as well as islands and coastal areas form an integrated and essential component of the Earth?s ecosystem and are critical for global food security and for sustaining economic prosperity and the well-being of mankind, in particular the national economies of developing countries.

We therefore reaffirm our Commitments in relation to the protection and preservation of the marine environment and the sustainable use of its resources for the attainment of the development goals, including sustainable development and internationally agreed development goals, such as the MDGs and those contained in Chapter 17 of agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation.

There are major and systemic gaps in the implementation of internationally agreed Commitments relating to the sustainable management of marine resources, including in monitoring, control, surveillance, compliance and enforcement regarding fisheries. Destructive fishing practices, over-fishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing and subsidies that contribute to fishing overcapacity continue to degrade marine resources, and undermine food security and sustainable development, particularly in developing countries and Small Island Developing States.

There are also major gaps in assistance through capacity building, transfer of technology and provision of financial assistance to coastal developing countries, in particular the least developed countries and Small Island Developing States, to realize the full social and economic benefits from the sustainable use of marine resources.

Development Aspirations of Small Island Developing States

The sustainable development of Small Island Developing States, including the eradication of poverty, depends on the health and vitality of the marine and coastal environment, the sustainable management and conservation of marine and coastal resources, and the enabling of Small Island Developing States to enjoy a greater share of the benefits derived from those resources.

Enhancing opportunities of developing states to participate in fishing activities Distant-water fishing States, when negotiating access agreements and arrangements with developing coastal States, in particular Small Island Developing States, should do so on an equitable and sustainable basis. Those States must comply with the conservation and management measures adopted by the developing coastal States, and take into account that in accordance with their sovereign rights over the natural resources of their exclusive economic zones (EEZ), those coastal States have the legitimate expectation to fully benefit from the sustainable use of such resources.

The capacity of developing States, including the least developed among them and Small Island Developing States, to participate in high-seas fisheries has to be built or enhanced, and the necessary measures for developing States participating in RFMOs to enjoy a greater and fairer share of the total allowable catch must be taken.

Encourage the identification of strategies that further assist developing States, in particular the least developed and Small Island Developing States, in realizing a greater share of the benefits from sustainable fisheries also through improved market access for fish products from developing countries.

Ensure access to fisheries by subsistence, small-scale and artisanal fishers and women fishworkers, as well as indigenous peoples in developing States, in particular Small Island Developing States.

Capacity building and transfer of technology

We recognize the importance of developing capacity not only for the implementation of international Commitments, but mainly for developing countries being able to benefit from the sustainable use of the oceans and seas and their resources. In this regard, the essential role of marine scientific research for the sustainable use of the resources of the oceans and seas and the protection and preservation of the marine environment must be recognized, as well as the role of the transfer of technology for capacity-building in the sphere of science.

Efforts must be made to contribute to capacity building and to comply with the law of the sea as reflected in UNCLOS and the outcomes of the major summits on sustainable development, taking into account the IOC Guidelines for the transfer of marine technology. Support the development of regional road maps to address the interlinkage between conservation needs and development aspirations of coastal developing states, in particular Small Island Developing States among other regions and groupings, and adding to interlinkeages with other development strategies. Such roadmaps should reflect the unique character of each region through specific, quantifiable and time-bound goals, and be linked with detailed implementation strategies to achieve these goals, including, as appropriate, reference to potential sources of multilateral and bilateral assistance and cooperation.

Adequate capacity building and assistance with data collection are important to the success of this endeavor. Key regional mechanisms, including RFMOs should be invited to address such road maps.

We emphasise the importance of effective monitoring, control and surveillance, compliance and enforcement measures in relation to the sustainable management of marine and coastal resources.

Conservation and sustainable use of fish stocks

Healthy fish stocks are critical for food security and for sustaining the economic prosperity and social and cultural well being of many states as well as for the balance of the ecosystems. International law, in particular the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), provide for the conservation and sustainable use of fish stocks, and countries agreed in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation to restore global fish stocks to sustainable levels by 2015. Nevertheless, stocks continue to be fished at increasingly unsustainable levels. States should re-commit to maintaining or restoring depleted fish stocks to sustainable levels by 2015 and should further commit to implementing science-based management plans for rebuilding stocks by 2015, including reducing or suspending fishing catch and effort for all stocks being over-fished or at risk of over-fishing.

Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing1 deprives many countries of a crucial natural resource, and remains a persistent threat to their sustainable development. States, particularly distant water fishing States, must renew their commitment to eliminate IUU fishing as advanced in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI), and must prevent and combat these practices by eliminating fisheries subsidies that lead to over-capacity, by implementing ?in accordance with international law- effective and coordinated measures by port States, flag States, and the States of nationality of the beneficial owners, by identifying vessels engaged in IUU fishing, by depriving offenders of the benefits accrueing from IUU fishing, as well as by cooperating with developing countries to systematically identify needs and build capacity, including support for monitoring, control, surveillance, compliance and enforcement systems.

Coastal States re-commit themselves to the conservation of fish stocks in maritime areas subject to their sovereignty and jurisdiction through the appropriate conservation measures, including area-based measures, for the conservation of fish resources and the protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs), in accordance with the law of the sea as reflected in parts V and VI of UNCLOS.

1 As defined in the International Plan of Action to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

We re-commit to the conservation and sustainable use of fish stocks in the high seas, including through measures recommended by the General Assembly of the United Nations, such as the driftnet fishing moratorium, and those established ?in accordance with international law- by the competent international organizations, in order to achieve sustainable fishing goals.

As regards the protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems in areas beyond national jurisdiction, through the JPOI, in 2002, we committed ourselves to the elimination of destructive fishing practices. While some progress has been made to protect deep sea ecosystems increased action ?taking into account the competent international organizationsis needed for protecting them from the impacts of bottom fishing.

More must be done to improve transparency and accountability in fisheries management by regional fisheries management organizations (RFMOs). The efforts already made by some RFMOs in undertaking independent performance reviews are appreciated and should be expanded and augmented, as appropriate.

Taking into account that conservation measures will not be effective in a scenario of major subsidized fishing fleets with a fishing capacity that is not sustainable and that poses an unfair challenge to developing States in terms of international trade, states should reinforce their commitment of Doha and Hong Kong2 to strengthen disciplines on subsidies in the fisheries sector, including through the prohibition of certain forms of fisheries subsidies that contribute to overcapacity and over-fishing. States must accelerate negotiations on those disciplines, including transparency, enforceability and the appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least-developed countries taking into account the importance of this sector to development priorities, poverty reduction, and livelihood and food security concerns.

States and RFMOS shall demonstrate great political commitment to the use of targeted high seas closures or Tabu Zones to address sustainable fishing goals.

Marine Protected Areas

States must recommit to significantly reducing the rate of biodiversity loss in the marine environment, at the national and regional level, and through coordination and building capacity to expand a global network of ecologically representative area based management measures, particularly in national jurisdiction and consistent with international law, as called for by the Tenth Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Area based management measures, such as Tabu Marine Areas are an effective tool to protect biodiversity and for sustainable development in the Pacific and elsewhere.

2 World Trade Organization Fourth Ministerial Declaration, Doha, 2001, and World Trade Organization Sixth Ministerial Declaration, Hong Kong, 2005.

Destructive Fishing

Destructive fishing practices in the high seas, such as bottom trawling, are ecologically unsustainable. In 2002, we committed to their elimination. While some progress has been made to protect deep sea ecosystems and regulate bottom fisheries, increased action is needed. We recommit to ending destructive fishing practices by adopting the principle that biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction should be managed to minimize adverse impacts from human activities; and by agreeing on a mandate to require prior environmental impact assessments, including cumulative assessments, for human activities which may cause a significant adverse impact on biodiversity in the deep sea areas of the high seas.

Impact of Ocean Acidification and Climate Change on Marine Ecosystems Ocean acidification and the adverse impacts of climate change threaten the long-term survival of marine species and ecosystems globally, including in particular coral reefs and related ecosystems. Livelihoods, food security, cultures and the sustainable development of all nations are at grave risk, but particularly those of Small Island Developing States and coastal developing States.

In this context we underscore the urgency of global action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the principles in the UNFCCC. We also emphasise the critical importance of building the resilience of ocean ecosystems, in particular coral reef and related ecosystems to ocean acidification and climate change by minimising exposure to other stressors by undertaking the following actions:

Consider the ecological effects of ocean acidification and impacts of climate change in all oceans and coastal area management decision-making, including through enhanced environmental impact assessment requirements for RFMOs and all other relevant bodies with ocean management or governance responsibilities. Develop and strengthen regional instruments and programmes on Ecosystem Based Management and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) by incorporating knowledge on ocean acidification, climate change impacts and ecosystem-based adaptation into integrated coastal zone management and reef monitoring and restoration. Develop and strengthen regional instruments or programmes on controlling Land-based Sources of Pollution.

Significantly increase the area of critical ecosystems within area based management measures, particularly within areas of national jurisdiction, with a focus on ecosystems that are sensitive to ocean acidification such as coral reefs, reflecting the recent decision of the Convention on Biological Diversity on the identification of priority areas.

Enhance global monitoring of and multinational research cooperation on ocean acidification by establishing of a global network to monitor changes in ocean chemistry and biology attributable to ocean acidification and climate change, particularly in vulnerable ecosystems, such as coral reefs or polar regions, and areas of high variability, such as coastal regions. Request the international community to recognize the particular importance of, and relevant international funds and multilateral financial institutions to support capacity development for developing nations and particularly Small Island Developing States, within the context of building marine ecosystem resilience to ocean acidification and climate change.

Marine Debris

Marine debris, and in particular non-biodegradable plastics, is a growing concern. Marine debris recognizes no boundaries, and causes harm to marine life and ecosystems wherever it drifts. More debris than ever is finding its way into the oceans from both land- and waterbased sources, posing multiple threats to fragile ecosystems. Efforts to reduce or eliminate production and use of all non-biodegradable plastics must be strengthened and encouraged, in particular through the adoption of national legislation and the compliance with already existing national rules and regulations. Capacity building for developing States to safely manage their waste should be explored and provided.

B. INSTITUTIOAL FRAMEWORK FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES

Rio plus 20 has special meaning for SIDS, given that the Barbados Conference on the Sustainable Development of SIDS was the first test of the global partnership forged at Rio. With this in mind, SIDS issues should feature prominently on the agenda of Rio plus 20, as a showcase for how Agenda 21 can be implemented in a group of countries with unique and particular vulnerabilities.

As a core deliverable of the Rio plus 20 Outcome, we join the G77 and China in calling for Rio plus 20 to agree to convene a global conference for the sustainable development of Small Island Developing States in 2014. The first Earth Summit agreed on the importance of regular global meetings to support the sustainable development of SIDS, with the first global meeting convened in 1994 in Barbados. At the second Earth Summit, it was agreed to review the implementation of the BPOA at the second global meeting for SIDS, which led

to the conference in Mauritius in 2005. Accordingly, the Pacific SIDS seek the Rio Outcome to agree to convene the third global meeting to be held in the Pacific.

It is clear from the MSI plus 5 Review that there are inadequacies in the international support provided to assist SIDS in relation to sustainable development and that new concrete mechanisms are required to enhance the implementation of the BPOA and MSI to refocus efforts towards a results-oriented approach. The Pacific Global Conference for SIDS will enable focused consideration of these important issues.

We seek the inclusion of the following paragraphs in the Rio Plus 20 Outcome:

PROPOSED TEXT ON SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES:

We reaffirm the need for the fulfillment of Agenda 21, BPoA, the MSI, and chapter 7 of the JPOI, especially paragraph 58 which recognized that Small Island Developing States are a special case both for environment and development in view of their unique and particular vulnerabilities. The international community should therefore significantly augment their efforts to assist SIDS in sustaining momentum realized to date in efforts to implement the BPOA and MSI and achieve sustainable development. This should include improvement and strengthening of the relevant entities within the United Nations system which support SIDS' sustainable development. In this regard, we also reaffirm that Small Island Developing States regional institutions should play a key role in following up on and monitoring the implementation of Agenda 21, the JPOI, and the BPOA and MSI.

Additionally, we call for the Rio Conference to agree to convene an international conference for the sustainable development of Small Island Developing States in 2014 in the Pacific. We stress that the outcome of the high level review of the MSI which identified the progress and gaps in implementation of Commitments made by the international community to assist SIDS with the achievement of Sustainable Development and highlights the ongoing challenges they face due to their small size, remoteness, narrow resource and export base and exposure to global environmental challenges.

Any outcome on strengthening the institutional framework for sustainable development must include, as part of its core mandate, strengthening the implementation of the Mauritius Strategy of Implementation and Barbados Programme of Action, which represent the essential blueprint of sustainable development for SIDS and it should also have an effective answer for the needs and vulnerabilities to the economic and financial crisis as well as climate change; as well as increasing the Institutional capability of the UN system to address SIDS issues, through inter alia addressing system-wide shortcomings in the institutional support for SIDS in accordance with the pathways laid out in A/RES/65/2 and the MSI pp. 100-102.

C. CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE SURVIVAL OF ALL SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES ? KEY MESSAGE FOR RIO PLUS 20

For the Pacific SIDS, climate change is the single greatest factor that is undermining sustainable development. There can be no sustainable development if the very existence of your country is in jeopardy. Sea level rise is the most dire threat and recent projections by scientists indicate that a rise in sea level of two meters by the end of the century cannot be ruled out. Such a scenario would redraw political borders and devastate low-lying islands in the Pacific. As demonstrated by the slow progress at the international climate change negotiations, there is a lack of political will to take the necessary action to ensure the survival of our countries.

A Rio plus 20 Outcome must acknowledge that there is a major gap in the implementation of the sustainable development summits in relation to climate change, as greenhouse gas emissions are continuing to rise and the devastating impacts of climate change are undermining food and water security, efforts to eradicate poverty, sustainable development and territorial integrity. Progress to date in responding to climate change is shamefully inadequate. Rio plus 20 is an opportunity for the international community to renew its political commitment to responding to the climate crisis, in accordance with the principles in the UNFCCC to ensure the right of all countries to sustainable development and existence as equal sovereign nations.

The Pacific SIDS seek the Rio Outcome to include the following paragraphs in relation to climate change:

PROPOSED TEXT ON CLIMATE CHANGE:

Affirm that climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time and express alarm that scientific evidence shows that the negative effects of human-induced climate change are worse than previously projected. Express profound alarm that emissions of greenhouse gasses continue to rise globally and that energy-related carbon-dioxide emissions in 2010 were the highest in history.

Express our deep concern that developing countries are particularly vulnerable to and are experiencing increased negative impacts from climate change, ocean acidification and that this is severely undermining food security, efforts to eradicate poverty, sustainable development; and threatens the territorial integrity, viability and the very existence of Small Island Developing States. In this regard, we call upon States to immediately and fully implement the provisions of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to ensure the viability and survival of all Nations.

We emphasise the urgency of addressing, and the seriousness of the challenge of climate change and ocean acidification, and call upon States to fully implement the provisions of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to ensure the viability and survival of all nations.

Reaffirm that efforts to address climate change in a manner that enhances the sustainable development and sustained economic growth of developing countries and the eradication of poverty should be carried out by promoting the integration of the three components of sustainable development, namely, economic development, social development and environmental protection, as interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars, in an integrated, coordinated and balanced manner.

While Small Island Developing States are among those that contribute least to global climate change and sea-level rise, they are among those that would suffer most from the disastrous consequences of such phenomena and could in some cases become uninhabitable. Acknowledge that climate change and sea-level rise continue to pose a significant risk to Small Island Developing States and their efforts to achieve sustainable development and, for some, represent the gravest of threats to their survival and viability.

Introduce a place holder paragraph on the way forward following the UNFCCC negotiations in Durban.

Annex: Proposals by the Pacific Small Island Developing States for Inclusion into Zero-Draft of Outcome Document for Rio plus 20

THE BLUE ECONOMY:

1. We reiterate that oceans and seas and their resources, as well as islands and coastal areas form an integrated and essential component of the Earth?s ecosystem and are critical for global food security and for sustaining economic prosperity and the wellbeing of mankind, in particular the national economies of developing countries.

2. We therefore reaffirm our Commitments in relation to the protection and preservation of the marine environment and the sustainable use of its resources for the attainment of the development goals, including sustainable development and internationally agreed development goals, such as the MDGs and those contained in Chapter 17 of agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation.

3. There are major and systemic gaps in the implementation of internationally agreed Commitments relating to the sustainable management of marine resources, including in monitoring, control, surveillance, compliance and enforcement regarding fisheries. Destructive fishing practices, over-fishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing and subsidies that contribute to fishing overcapacity continue to degrade marine resources, and undermine food security and sustainable development, particularly in developing countries and Small Island Developing States.

4. There are also major gaps in assistance through capacity building, transfer of technology and provision of financial assistance to coastal developing countries, in particular the least developed countries and Small Island Developing States, to realize the full social and economic benefits from the sustainable use of marine resources.

Development Aspirations of Small Island Developing States

5. The sustainable development of Small Island Developing States, including the eradication of poverty, depends on the health and vitality of the marine and coastal environment, the sustainable management and conservation of marine and coastal resources, and the enabling of Small Island Developing States to enjoy a greater share of the benefits derived from those resources.

Enhancing opportunities of developing states to participate in fishing activities

6. Distant-water fishing States, when negotiating access agreements and arrangements with developing coastal States, in particular Small Island Developing States, should do so on an equitable and sustainable basis. Those States must comply with the conservation and management measures adopted by the developing coastal States, and take into account that in accordance with their sovereign rights over the natural resources of their exclusive economic zones (EEZ), those coastal States have the legitimate expectation to fully benefit from the sustainable use of such resources.

7. The capacity of developing States, including the least developed among them and Small Island Developing States, to participate in high-seas fisheries has to be built or enhanced, and the necessary measures for developing States participating in RFMOs to enjoy a greater and fairer share of the total allowable catch must be taken.

8. Encourage the identification of strategies that further assist developing States, in particular the least developed and Small Island Developing States, in realizing a greater share of the benefits from sustainable fisheries also through improved market access for fish products from developing countries.

9. Ensure access to fisheries by subsistence, small-scale and artisanal fishers and women fishworkers, as well as indigenous peoples in developing States, in particular Small Island Developing States.

Capacity building and transfer of technology

10. We recognize the importance of developing capacity not only for the implementation of international Commitments, but mainly for developing countries being able to benefit from the sustainable use of the oceans and seas and their resources. In this regard, the essential role of marine scientific research for the sustainable use of the resources of the oceans and seas and the protection and preservation of the marine environment must be recognized, as well as the role of the transfer of technology for capacity-building in the sphere of science. Efforts must be made to contribute to capacity building and to comply with the law of the sea as reflected in UNCLOS and the outcomes of the major summits on sustainable development, taking into account the IOC Guidelines for the transfer of marine technology.

11. Support the development of regional road maps to address the interlinkage between conservation needs and development aspirations of coastal developing states, in particular Small Island Developing States among other regions and groupings, and adding to interlinkeages with other development strategies. Such roadmaps should reflect the unique character of each region through specific, quantifiable and timebound goals, and be linked with detailed implementation strategies to achieve these goals, including, as appropriate, reference to potential sources of multilateral and bilateral assistance and cooperation. Adequate capacity building and assistance with data collection are important to the success of this endeavor. Key regional mechanisms, including RFMOs should be invited to address such road maps.

12. We emphasise the importance of effective monitoring, control and surveillance, compliance and enforcement measures in relation to the sustainable management of marine and coastal resources.

Conservation and sustainable use of fish stocks

13. Healthy fish stocks are critical for food security and for sustaining the economic prosperity and social and cultural well being of many states as well as for the balance of the ecosystems. International law, in particular the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), provide for the conservation and sustainable use of fish stocks, and countries agreed in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation to restore global fish stocks to sustainable levels by 2015.

Nevertheless, stocks continue to be fished at increasingly unsustainable levels. States should re-commit to maintaining or restoring depleted fish stocks to sustainable levels by 2015 and should further commit to implementing sciencebased management plans for rebuilding stocks by 2015, including reducing or suspending fishing catch and effort for all stocks being over-fished or at risk of overfishing.

14. Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing4 deprives many countries of a crucial natural resource, and remains a persistent threat to their sustainable development. States, particularly distant water fishing States, must renew their commitment to eliminate IUU fishing as advanced in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI), and must prevent and combat these practices by eliminating fisheries subsidies that lead to over-capacity, by implementing ?in accordance with international law- effective and coordinated measures by port States, flag States, and the States of nationality of the beneficial owners, by identifying vessels engaged in IUU fishing, by depriving offenders of the benefits accrueing from IUU fishing, as well as by cooperating with developing countries to systematically identify needs and build capacity, including support for monitoring, control, surveillance, compliance and enforcement systems.

4 As defined in the International Plan of Action to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

15. Coastal States re-commit themselves to the conservation of fish stocks in maritime areas subject to their sovereignty and jurisdiction through the appropriate conservation measures, including area-based measures, for the conservation of fish resources and the protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs), in accordance with the law of the sea as reflected in parts V and VI of UNCLOS.

16. We re-commit to the conservation and sustainable use of fish stocks in the high seas, including through measures recommended by the General Assembly of the United Nations, such as the driftnet fishing moratorium, and those established ?in accordance with international law- by the competent international organizations, in order to achieve sustainable fishing goals.

17. As regards the protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems in areas beyond national jurisdiction, through the JPOI, in 2002, we committed ourselves to the elimination of destructive fishing practices. While some progress has been made to protect deep sea ecosystems increased action ?taking into account the competent international organizations- is needed for protecting them from the impacts of bottom fishing.

18. More must be done to improve transparency and accountability in fisheries management by regional fisheries management organizations (RFMOs). The efforts already made by some RFMOs in undertaking independent performance reviews are appreciated and should be expanded and augmented, as appropriate.

19. Taking into account that conservation measures will not be effective in a scenario of major subsidized fishing fleets with a fishing capacity that is not sustainable and that poses an unfair challenge to developing States in terms of international trade, states should reinforce their commitment of Doha and Hong Kong5 to strengthen disciplines on subsidies in the fisheries sector, including through the prohibition of certain forms of fisheries subsidies that contribute to overcapacity and over-fishing. States must accelerate negotiations on those disciplines, including transparency, enforceability and the appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least-developed countries taking into account the importance of this sector to development priorities, poverty reduction, and livelihood and food security concerns.

20. States and RFMOS shall demonstrate great political commitment to the use of targeted high seas closures or Tabu Zones to address sustainable fishing goals. 5 World Trade Organization Fourth Ministerial Declaration, Doha, 2001, and World Trade Organization Sixth Ministerial Declaration, Hong Kong, 2005.

Marine Protected Areas

21. States must recommit to significantly reducing the rate of biodiversity loss in the marine environment, at the national and regional level, and through coordination and building capacity to expand a global network of ecologically representative area based management measures, particularly in national jurisdiction and consistent with international law, as called for by the Tenth Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Area based management measures, such as Tabu Marine Areas are an effective tool to protect biodiversity and for sustainable development in the Pacific and elsewhere.

Destructive Fishing

22. Destructive fishing practices in the high seas, such as bottom trawling, are ecologically unsustainable. In 2002, we committed to their elimination. While some progress has been made to protect deep sea ecosystems and regulate bottom fisheries, increased action is needed. We recommit to ending destructive fishing practices by adopting the principle that biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction should be managed to minimize adverse impacts from human activities; and by agreeing on a mandate to require prior environmental impact assessments, including cumulative assessments, for human activities which may cause a significant adverse impact on biodiversity in the deep sea areas of the high seas. Impact of Ocean Acidification and Climate Change on Marine Ecosystems

23. Ocean acidification and the adverse impacts of climate change threaten the longterm survival of marine species and ecosystems globally, including in particular coral reefs and related ecosystems. Livelihoods, food security, cultures and the sustainable development of all nations are at grave risk, but particularly those of Small Island Developing States and coastal developing States.

24. In this context we underscore the urgency of global action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the principles in the UNFCCC. We also emphasise the critical importance of building the resilience of ocean ecosystems, in particular coral reef and related ecosystems to ocean acidification and climate change by minimising exposure to other stressors by undertaking the following actions:

25. Consider the ecological effects of ocean acidification and impacts of climate change in all oceans and coastal area management decision-making, including through enhanced environmental impact assessment requirements for RFMOs and all other relevant bodies with ocean management or governance responsibilities.

26. Develop and strengthen regional instruments and programmes on Ecosystem Based Management and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) by incorporating knowledge on ocean acidification, climate change impacts and ecosystem-based adaptation into integrated coastal zone management and reef monitoring and restoration.

27. Develop and strengthen regional instruments or programmes on controlling Landbased Sources of Pollution.

28. Significantly increase the area of critical ecosystems within area based management measures, particularly within areas of national jurisdiction, with a focus on ecosystems that are sensitive to ocean acidification such as coral reefs, reflecting the recent decision of the Convention on Biological Diversity on the identification of priority areas.

29. Enhance global monitoring of and multinational research cooperation on ocean acidification by establishing of a global network to monitor changes in ocean chemistry and biology attributable to ocean acidification and climate change, particularly in vulnerable ecosystems, such as coral reefs or polar regions, and areas of high variability, such as coastal regions.

30. Request the international community to recognize the particular importance of, and relevant international funds and multilateral financial institutions to support capacity development for developing nations and particularly Small Island Developing States, within the context of building marine ecosystem resilience to ocean acidification and climate change.

Marine Debris

31. Marine debris, and in particular non-biodegradable plastics, is a growing concern. Marine debris recognizes no boundaries, and causes harm to marine life and ecosystems wherever it drifts. More debris than ever is finding its way into the oceans from both land- and water-based sources, posing multiple threats to fragile ecosystems. Efforts to reduce or eliminate production and use of all nonbiodegradable plastics must be strengthened and encouraged, in particular through the adoption of national legislation and the compliance with already existing national rules and regulations. Capacity building for developing States to safely manage their waste should be explored and provided.

SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES:

32. We reaffirm the need for the fulfillment of Agenda 21, BPoA, the MSI, and chapter 7 of the JPOI, especially paragraph 58 which recognized that Small Island Developing States are a special case both for environment and development in view of their unique and particular vulnerabilities. The international community should therefore significantly augment their efforts to assist SIDS in sustaining momentum realized to date in efforts to implement the BPOA and MSI and achieve sustainable development. This should include improvement and strengthening of the relevant entities within the United Nations system which support SIDS' sustainable development. In this regard, we also reaffirm that Small Island Developing States regional institutions should play a key role in following up on and monitoring the implementation of Agenda 21, the JPOI, and the BPOA and MSI.

33. Additionally, we call for the Rio Conference to agree to convene an international conference for the sustainable development of Small Island Developing States in 2014 in the Pacific.

34. We stress that the outcome of the high level review of the MSI which identified the progress and gaps in implementation of Commitments made by the international community to assist SIDS with the achievement of Sustainable Development and highlights the ongoing challenges they face due to their small size, remoteness, narrow resource and export base and exposure to global environmental challenges.

35. Any outcome on strengthening the institutional framework for sustainable development must include, as part of its core mandate, strengthening the implementation of the Mauritius Strategy of Implementation and Barbados Programme of Action, which represent the essential blueprint of sustainable development for SIDS and it should also have an effective answer for the needs and vulnerabilities to the economic and financial crisis as well as climate change; as well as increasing the Institutional capability of the UN system to address SIDS issues, through inter alia addressing system-wide shortcomings in the institutional support for SIDS in accordance with the pathways laid out in A/RES/65/2 and the MSI pp. 100-102.

CLIMATE CHANGE:

36. Affirm that climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time and express alarm that scientific evidence shows that the negative effects of human-induced climate change are worse than previously projected. Express profound alarm that emissions of greenhouse gasses continue to rise globally and that energy-related carbon-dioxide emissions in 2010 were the highest in history.

37. Express our deep concern that developing countries are particularly vulnerable to and are experiencing increased negative impacts from climate change, ocean acidification and that this is severely undermining food security, efforts to eradicate poverty, sustainable development; and threatens the territorial integrity, viability and the very existence of Small Island Developing States. In this regard, we call upon States to immediately and fully implement the provisions of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to ensure the viability and survival of all Nations.

38. We emphasise the urgency of addressing, and the seriousness of the challenge of climate change and ocean acidification, and call upon States to fully implement the provisions of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to ensure the viability and survival of all nations.

39. Reaffirm that efforts to address climate change in a manner that enhances the sustainable development and sustained economic growth of developing countries and the eradication of poverty should be carried out by promoting the integration of the three components of sustainable development, namely, economic development, social development and environmental protection, as interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars, in an integrated, coordinated and balanced manner.

40. While Small Island Developing States are among those that contribute least to global climate change and sea-level rise, they are among those that would suffer most from the disastrous consequences of such phenomena and could in some cases become uninhabitable.

41. Acknowledge that climate change and sea-level rise continue to pose a significant risk to Small Island Developing States and their efforts to achieve sustainable development and, for some, represent the gravest of threats to their survival and viability.

42. Introduce a place holder paragraph on the way forward following the UNFCCC negotiations in Durban.
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