International Centre of Comparative Environmental Law (C.I.D.C.E.)
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  • Date submitted: 28 Oct 2011
  • Stakeholder type: Major Group
  • Name: International Centre of Comparative Environmental Law (C.I.D.C.E.)
  • Submission Document: Download
Keywords: Gap (2 hits),

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Objet : soumission des contributions écrites auprès du secrétariat de la Commission du développement durable Pièces jointes :

Annexe 1 : Appel des juristes (Limoges, France)

Annexe 2 : Recommandations Franco-Brésiliennes des juristes de l?environnement (Rio de Janeiro, Brésil)

Annexe 3 : Recommandations Franco-Brésiliennes des juristes de l?environnement (Sao Paulo, Brésil)

Annexe 4 : Recommandations de Limoges (France)

Chère Madame, Cher Monsieur,

La présente lettre vise à soumettre auprès du secrétariat de la Commission du développement durable les contributions écrites du Centre International de Droit Comparé de l'Environnement (C.I.D.C.E.) (France), du Centre de Recherches Interdisciplinaires en Droit de l'Environnement, de l'Aménagement et de l'Urbanisme (CRIDEAU-OMIJ) (France), de la Fondation Vargas (Brésil) et de la Procuradoria fédérale de Sao-Paulo (Brésil) dans le cadre de l?élaboration de la première version provisoire du document final de la Conférence. L?objectif est de proposer des recommandations juridiques porteuses de protection de l'environnement et de les faire prendre en compte par la Conférence des Nations-Unies sur le développement durable qui se déroulera du 4 au 6 juin 2012 à Rio de Janeiro (Brésil).

Le droit est un instrument indispensable pour traiter les deux thèmes fixés par la résolution de l?Assemblée Générale de l?ONU du 24 décembre 2009 (A/RES/64/236) : "l'économie verte dans le cadre du processus du développement durable et l?élimination de la pauvreté" et "le cadre institutionnel du développement durable".

Nous souhaitons ainsi contribuer à faire progresser le droit de l'environnement, à renforcer son application et à conclure de nouvelles conventions.

Dans cette optique, le Centre International de Droit Comparé de l'Environnement (C.I.D.C.E.) et le Centre de Recherches Interdisciplinaires en Droit de l'Environnement, de l'Aménagement et de l'Urbanisme (CRIDEAU-OMIJ) ont organisé trois manifestations scientifiques qui ont permis de rassembler, de discuter et de formuler des propositions concrètes en s?inspirant en partie mais pas exclusivement des thèmes cités et de les soumettre au secrétariat de la Commission du développement durable. De plus un appel international des juristes de l?environnement a été ouvert à la signature par internet (http://www.cidce.org) (textes en français, anglais, annexe 1).

1. Des journées scientifiques Franco-Brésiliennes de juristes de l?environnement à Rio de Janeiro les 24 et 25 juin 2011 (Brésil), (Recommandations en anglais et en portugais, annexe 2),

2. Des journées scientifiques Franco-Brésiliennes de juristes de l?environnement à Sao Paulo les 27 et 28 juin 2011 (Brésil), (Recommandations en anglais et en portugais, annexe 3),

3. Une « 3ème réunion mondiale des juristes et des associations de droit de l?environnement à Limoges (France)», du 29 septembre au 1er octobre 2011, (Recommandations en français et en anglais, annexe 4),

Liste des thématiques :

I. Droits de l?homme et environnement : les défis du droit

1- Le principe de non régression en droit de l?environnement

2- Environnement et équité ou « environmental justice »

3- Les catastrophes écologiques et les droits de l?homme

4- L?effectivité du droit de l?environnement déjà existant

5- Le droit fondamental à la terre et à l?alimentation

II. Les nouvelles conventions mondiales sur l?environnement

6- Le Projet de convention mondiale sur l?environnement (covenant de l?UICN)

7- Le projet de convention mondiale sur les évaluations environnementales

8- Le projet de convention sur les sols (IUCN)

9- Pour une convention sur la pollution d?origine tellurique des mers et des océans

10- Le projet de convention relative au statut des déplacés environnementaux

11- Pour une convention pour la protection de l?environnement en cas de conflits armés

12- Le projet de convention sur l?exploitation pétrolière offshore

13- Le projet de convention sur le mercure

14- Le projet de convention mondiale sur le paysage

III. Le cadre institutionnel du développement durable et la gouvernance internationale de l?environnement

15- La Cour mondiale de l?environnement

16- L?organisation mondiale de l?environnement

17- La transformation du Conseil économique et social des Nations-Unies en Conseil économique, social et environnemental

18- La place de la société civile et des ONG en droit international de l?environnement

IV. L?économie verte dans le cadre du développement durable et l?élimination de la pauvreté : des enjeux pour verdir la planète

19- Les forêts

20- Les aires marines protégées en Haute-mer

21- La gestion intégrée des zones côtières

22- La responsabilité environnementale des entreprises

23- Les énergies alternatives et durables

24- Les nanotechnologies

25- Biodiversité, problème foncier des terres agricoles et mécanismes de compensation

26- Le tourisme durable

Pour chacune des recommandations issues du colloque de Limoges (France), un rapport général est disponible sur le site du CIDCE. En vous remerciant par avance pour la compilation et la diffusions de nos contributions, je vous prie de croire en l?assurance de ma considération très distinguée.

Objet : submission of the writing contributions

Appendix 1 : Call for action from lawyers (Limoges, France)

Appendix 2 : French-Brazilian recommendations (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

Appendix 3 : French-Brazilian recommendations (Sao Paulo, Brazil)

Appendix 4 : Limoges recommendations (France),

Dear Madame, Dear Sir,

The objective of this letter is to submit writing contributions of the International Centre of Comparative Environmental Law (C.I.D.C.E., France), the Interdisciplinary Research Centre on Environmental, Urban and Planning Law (CRIDEAU-OMIJ, France), Foundation Getulio-Vargas (Brazil), Federal Prosecution of the Federative Republic of Brazil to the UNCSD Secretariat in order to serve as basis for the preparation of zero draft of the outcome document. The objective is to elaborate legal recommendations carrying environmental protection and to make them take into account by the Conference ?Rio + 20? in June 2012.

Law is an essential instrument to treat the two topics fixed by the Resolution 64/236: ?green economy? and ?the institutional framework of sustainable development?.

We want to contribute to make progress the environmental law, to reinforce its application and to conclude new conventions. Thus, the International Centre of Comparative Environmental Law (C.I.D.C.E., France), the Interdisciplinary Research Centre on Environmental, Urban and Planning Law (CRIDEAU-OMIJ, France), Foundation Getulio-Vargas (Brazil) and the Federal Prosecution of the Federative Republic of Brazil have organized meetings :

1. French-Brazilian scientific workshops of the environmental lawyers in Rio de Janeiro, 24th and 25th of June 2011 (Brazil), (Recommendations in English and in Portuguese enclosed, appendix 2),

2. D French-Brazilian scientific workshops of the environmental lawyers in Sao Paulo 27th and 28th of June 2011 (Brazil), (Recommendations in English and in Portuguese enclosed, appendix 3),

3. The third worldwide conference of environmental law NGO and lawyers in Limoges (France), September 29-30th, October 1st 2011, (Recommendations in French and in English enclosed appendix 4),

These events made it possible to gather, discuss and formulate specific proposals while being inspired partly but not exclusively* quoted topics and to submit them to theUNCSD secretariat. Moreover a call for action from lawyers and environmental law organizations was opened for signature on Internet (http://www.cidce.org), appendix 1.

*Listing of the themes:

I. Human rights and environment: the challenges of the law

1 ? The non regression principle in environmental law

2 ? The environmental justice

3 ? The ecological disasters and human rights

4 ? The effectiveness of the existing environmental law

5 - The fundamental right to land and food

II. The new world conventions on environment

6 ? The draft world convention on environment (IUCN?s covenant)

7 ? The draft world convention on environmental evaluation

8 ? The draft convention on soil (IUCN)

9 - For a convention on land-based pollution of the seas and oceans

10 - The draft convention on the status of environmentally-displaced people

11- For a convention on environmental protection in case of armed conflicts

12- The draft convention on the offshore oil exploitation

13- The draft convention on mercury

14 ? The draft world convention on landscape

III. The institutional framework for sustainable development and international environmental governance

15- The World Environmental Court

16- The Environmental World Organization

17- The transformation of the UN Economical and Social Council in Economical, Social and Environmental Council

18- The place of the civil society and NGO in international law of the environment

IV. The green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication: issues for greening the planet

19 ? The forests;

20-21 ? The sea and the coast

20 ? The protected marine zones on the high seas

21 ? Integrated management of coastal zones

22 ? Corporate social responsibility

23 ? The alternative and sustainable energies

24 ? The nanotechnologies

25 ? Biodiversity, agricultural land tenure problem and compensatory mechanisms

26 ? The sustainable tourism

For each recommendation resulting from the third worldwide conference of environmental law NGO and lawyers in Limoges (France), a general report is available on the site of the CIDCE.

Thank you in advance for the compilation and the diffusion of our contributions.

Best regards.

APPEL DES JURISTES ET DES ASSOCIATIONS DE DROIT DE L?ENVIRONNEMENT

Ouvert à la signature le 1er octobre 2011 pour être adressé aux États PARTICIPANTS À LA CONFÉRENCE DE RIO (4-6 juin 2012) Nous juristes, exhortons solennellement tous les participants à la Conférence des Nations Unies de Rio de Janeiro (Brésil) des 4-6 juin 2012, à faire en sorte que cette Conférence soit au service de la protection du vivant et de l?Humanité dans le souci de préserver les générations présentes et futures des désastres écologiques notamment dus au changement climatique,

Nous juristes, préoccupés par la dégradation accélérée de l?environnement et désireux que les activités humaines respectent les limites écologiques de la Terre,

Nous juristes, réaffirmant le rôle indispensable du droit et des moyens mis en oeuvre pour son application effective au plan international, régional, national et local afin de contribuer à l?amélioration continue de la qualité de l?environnement humain et naturel auquel chacun a droit,

Tenant compte des thèmes énoncés pour la conférence de Rio + 20 : « une économie verte dans le contexte du développement durable et de l?éradication de la pauvreté » et « le cadre institutionnel du développement durable ».

I. Appelons les Etats du monde entier à marquer l?importance politique de la Conférence de Rio par des signaux forts :

1. La présence des chefs d?Etat et de gouvernement à la Conférence de Rio les 4-6 juin 2012,

2. La réaffirmation solennelle des principes de solidarité internationale et de développement durable conditionnant la lutte contre la pauvreté et les inégalités,

3. La proclamation de l?interdépendance entre la paix et la sécurité dans le monde, le respect des droits de l?homme et la protection de l?environnement.

II. Appelons les Etats à combler d?importantes lacunes du droit de l?environnement par :

1. La consécration d?un principe de non-régression en droit de l?environnement,

2. L'engagement des Etats à mettre en oeuvre effectivement la démocratie environnementale telle que définie au principe 10 de la Déclaration de Rio de 1992 à travers les droits à l'information, à la participation et à l'accès à la justice, soit en ratifiant les instruments conventionnels existant dans ce domaine, soit en créant de nouvelles conventions régionales ou mondiale,

3. L?engagement des Etats, selon les cas, à ratifier ou adhérer aux conventions de protection de l?environnement mondiale et régionales, déjà en vigueur ou non,

4. L?engagement des Etats à signer à Rio la convention mondiale sur le mercure en cours de négociations sous l?égide du PNUE.

III. Appelons les Etats à s?engager dans des négociations devant aboutir à une véritable gouvernance mondiale de l?environnement :

1. Par l?invitation transmise à l?Assemblée Générale et au Conseil de Sécurité des Nations Unies d?élargir à l?environnement les compétences du Conseil Economique et Social des Nations Unies et d?y assurer une représentation adéquate des ONG d?environnement,

2. Par la création d?une Organisation Mondiale de l?Environnement (OME), institution spécialisée des Nations Unies regroupant tous les Etats avec de nouvelles missions, dotée d?importants moyens et capable de renforcer les actions entreprises par le Programme des Nations Unies pour l?environnement,

3. Par la création de mécanismes juridictionnels de résolution des conflits environnementaux y compris une Cour mondiale de l?environnement,

4. En donnant une place accrue à la société civile et en particulier aux ONG d?environnement dans les processus décisionnels internationaux et régionaux touchant l?environnement et/ ou le développement durable par l?adoption d?un ensemble de lignes directrices garantissant des standards minimum de participation dans ces processus ainsi que dans les organismes internationaux et régionaux,

5. Par le renforcement de l?indépendance des organisations internationales garantissant l?absence de conflits d?intérêts. En particulier pour garantir l?indépendance de l?Organisation mondiale de la Santé (OMS) en demandant de mettre fin à l?accord du 28 mai 1959 qui la soumet à l?AIEA pour les questions relatives à l?exposition aux substances radioactives et à ses conséquences pour la santé.

IV. Appelons les Etats à s?engager de plus dans des négociations devant aboutir à la conclusion de nouveaux instruments conventionnels sur l?environnement répondant à la fois à des nécessités impératives de santé, de préservation de la biodiversité et de droits humains :

- Un Pacte international sur l?environnement et le développement,

- Une convention relative à la protection des sols,

- Une convention relative aux évaluations environnementales intégrant les aspects sociaux et culturels ainsi que les effets sur la consommation d?énergie,

- Une convention relative à la pollution d?origine tellurique des mers et des océans,

- Une convention relative aux aires marines protégées en haute mer,

- Une convention relative à l?exploitation pétrolière offshore,

- Une convention relative aux paysages,

- Une convention relative à la protection de l?environnement en cas de conflits armés,

- Une convention relative aux catastrophes écologiques,

- Une convention relative au statut juridique des déplacés environnementaux.

V. Appelons les Etats à promouvoir une économie à même de favoriser la mise en oeuvre du développement durable et participant entre autres à l?éradication de la pauvreté :

1. En renforçant la responsabilité environnementale des entreprises sous son double aspect préventif et réparateur et en consacrant internationalement l?obligation de gouvernance sociale et environnementale incluant le respect de l?ensemble des normes en vigueur,

2. En renforçant la capacité des juges à trancher les conflits environnementaux au moyen de formations garantes de leur indépendance et de leur professionnalisme y compris en créant, si besoin est, des tribunaux spécialisés sur l?environnement,

3. Allant au-delà de l?Instrument international non contraignant actuel sur les forêts, en adoptant une convention sur les forêts dans les meilleurs délais et au plus tard à la date butoir de 2015 envisagée par le Forum des Nations Unies sur les Forêts,

4. En consacrant le droit à l'eau et à l'assainissement dans le cadre du développement durable,

5. En renforçant les droits sociaux et environnementaux du traité sur la Charte de l?énergie et en visant un accès universel à l?énergie dans un plan ambitieux de l?Agence internationale des énergies renouvelables (IRENA),

6. Face au phénomène de l'accaparement massif des terres agricoles et des espaces naturels et ruraux et à l?accélération des impacts sur la sécurité alimentaire, la biodiversité et les sols :

- en entamant d?urgence des négociations pour un Protocole à la Convention sur la Biodiversité dans le domaine foncier et des aires protégées ;

- en créant rapidement, au sein de la FAO, un programme international d?actions pour le développement des agro-systèmes et leur préservation,

7. En développant de nouveaux indicateurs qualitatifs et quantitatifs pour mesurer les progrès de l?environnement et du développement,

8. En mettant en place, en application du principe de précaution, un mécanisme de contrôle et de régulation des nanotechnologies susceptibles d?affecter l?environnement et la santé,

9. En favorisant la promotion et la valorisation d'un tourisme durable en cohérence avec les exigences conjointes de l'environnement et du développement.

Nous juristes, sommes convaincus, afin d?aboutir à une rapide mise en oeuvre du développement durable, qu?il est vital de faire progresser le droit de l?environnement et de mieux l?intégrer dans les autres droits.

Pour une application effective du droit de l?environnement, il est nécessaire de renforcer l?action conjuguée des gouvernements et des parlements, des collectivités et communautés locales, des organisations internationales et régionales, de la société civile, des entreprises privées, des organisations de travailleurs, des ONG d?environnement et de développement durable.

Les juges, procureurs et avocats, tant nationaux que régionaux et internationaux ont une responsabilité particulière dans cette application effective vis-à-vis des générations présentes et futures.

Nous juristes, appelons les Etats représentants des Peuples à faire de la Conférence de Rio 2012 un moment décisif pour l?avenir commun de l?humanité et des écosystèmes.

Centre International de Droit Comparé de l?Environnement (CIDCE)

À Limoges, France, le 1er octobre 2011

Appel lancé suite aux travaux de la réunion mondiale des juristes des cinq continents et associations de droit de l?environnement réunis à Limoges (France) les 29, 30 septembre et 1er octobre 2011 (rapports disponibles accompagnés de 25 recommandations : www.cidce.org).

CALL FOR ACTION FROM LAWYERS AND ENVIRONMENTAL LAW ORGANIZATIONS

Open for signature 1 October 2011, to be delivered to the PARTICIPATING STATES OF THE RIO+20 CONFERENCE (4-6 JUNE 2012) We, the undersigned lawyers, solemnly appeal to all participants in the United Nations Conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on 4-6 June 2012, to ensure that the Conference serves all living beings and humanity in an effort to preserve and protect present and future generations from ecological disaster, including climate change,

We, the undersigned lawyers, concerned about the accelerating degradation of the environment, and desiring that human activities respect global ecological limits of the Earth,

We, the undersigned lawyers, reaffirming the indispensible role of law and of the measures in place to provide for effective implementation of the law at the international, regional, national and local level so as to contribute to the continual improvement of the quality of the human and natural environment to which all are entitled, and

Taking into account the announced themes of the Rio+20 Conference, namely "a green economy in the context of sustainable development and eradication of poverty" and "the institutional framework for sustainable development",

I. Call upon the States and Governments of the world to highlight the political importance of the Rio+20 Conference through the following strong signals:

1. The presence of Heads of State and of Government at the Rio Conference on 4-6 June 2012,

2. The solemn reaffirmation of the principles of international solidarity and sustainable development, as essential elements in the struggle against poverty and inequality,

3. The proclamation of the interdependence between world peace and security and the respect for human rights and protection of the environment.

II. We further call upon World leaders to fill significant gaps in environmental law through:

1. Establishing a principal of non-regression in environmental law,

2. Committing States to implement and give effect to environmental democracy as defined in Principle 10 of the Rio Declaration of 1992 through the rights to information, to participation and to access to justice, either by ratifying relevant existing conventions or by creating new global or regional conventions,

3. Commitment by States either to ratify or adhere to, as the case may be, global and regional conventions on environmental protection that are either already in force or not,

4. Commitment by States to sign in Rio the global convention on mercury currently being negotiated under the auspices of UNEP.

III. We further call on World leaders to commit to negotiations that will lead to true global environmental governance:

1. By inviting the General Assembly and the Security Council of the United Nations to broaden the jurisdiction of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) to include the environment and to assure adequate representation in ECOSOC of environmental NGOs,

2. By creating a World Environment Organization (WEO) as a specialized institution of the United Nations joining together all States with new missions, endowed with significant capacities and able to reinforce actions undertaken by UNEP,

3. By creating judicial mechanisms for environmental conflict resolution, including a World Environmental Court,

4. By giving civil society and in particular environmental NGOs a greater role in international and regional decisionmaking processes concerning the environment and/or sustainable development, through the adoption of a set of guidelines guaranteeing minimum standards of participation in such processes, as well as a greater role in international and regional organizations.

5. By reinforcing the independence of international organizations so as to guarantee the absence of conflicts of interest; and in particular so as to guarantee the independence of the World Health Organization (WHO), by seeking an end to its agreement of 28 May 1959 to defer to the International Atomic Energy Association on questions related to exposure to radioactive substances and resulting health consequences.

IV. We further call on World leaders to commit themselves to negotiating new Conventions or similar instruments on the environment that respond to urgent needs in regard to health, preservation of biodiversity and human rights, namely :

- An international Pact on environment and development

- A Convention on protection of soils

- A Convention on environmental impact assessment that includes consideration of social and cultural impacts and impacts related to energy consumption

- A Convention regarding pollution of the oceans and seas from terrestrial sources

- A Convention on marine protected areas on the high seas

- A Convention on exploitation of offshore oil

- A Convention on landscapes

- A Convention on environmental protection in the context of armed conflict

- A Convention on ecological catastrophes

- A Convention on the legal status of persons displaced for environmental reasons

V. We further urge World leaders to promote an economy capable of supporting the implementation of sustainable development and contributing among other things to the eradication of poverty:

1. By reinforcing the environmental responsibility of private enterprises, in regard to both preventation and rehabilitation, and by establishing internationally the duty of social and environmental governance, including full respect of existing norms,

2. By reinforcing the capacity of judges to handle environmental disputes through training that ensures their independence and professionalism, including by creating, as needed, specialized environmental tribunals,

3. By going beyond the current non-binding international agreement on forests to adopt a convention on forests as soon as possible and in any event no later than the deadline of 2015 fixed by the United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF),

4. By embedding the right to water and to sanitation in the framework of sustainable development,

5. By reinforcing social and environmental rights under the Energy Charter Treaty and aiming for universal access to energy through an ambitious plan of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA),

6. In light of evidence of the globalization of massive acquisitions of agricultural lands and natural and rural areas, and the acceleration of impacts on food security, biodiversity and soils:

- by initiating negotiation of a Protocol to the Convention on Biological Diversity on land acquisition and control and protected areas, and

- by creating within the FAO an international program of action for the development and preservation of agro-ecosystems, 7. By developing new qualitative and quantitative indicators for measuring progress in the environment and in development,

8. By establishing, in accordance with the precautionary principle, a mechanism for the control and regulation of nanotechnology that may pose a risk to the environment and health,

9. By supporting the promotion and development of sustainable tourism consistent with both environmental and developmental needs.

We, the undersigned lawyers, are convinced that in order to make rapid progress toward sustainable development, it is vital to make advances in environmental law and to better integrate it with other areas of the law.

To fully implement and give effect to environmental law, it is necessary to reinforce concerted action by governments, legislatures, local communities, international and regional organizations, civil society, private enterprises, worker organizations, and environmental and sustainable development NGOs.

Judges, prosecutors and lawyers, at the national as well as regional and international levels, have a particular responsibility to present and future generations in implementing and giving effect to environmental law.

We, the undersigned lawyers, call upon States, on behalf of the people they represent, to make the 2012 Rio+20 Conference a decisive moment toward the common future of humanity and ecosystems.

Centre international de droit comparé de l?environnement (International Center for Comparative Environmental Law)

Limoges, FRANCE, 1 October 2011

A call issued following the working sessions of the world meeting of lawyers and environmental law organizations from five continents, in Limoges, France on 29-20 September and 1 October 2011 (reports, along with 25 recommendations, available at : www.cidce.org)

NORMATIVE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR RIO + 20

The recommendations in this document are the result of initiatives that were undertaken and continue to be organized by the Program in Law and Environment - PDMA of FGV Law School Rio. Among them may be mentioned: the International Preparatory Journey for Rio + 20, on 24th and 25th June 2011. The theme of the Journey, ?The green economy in the context of sustainable development: the governance of public and private actors" resulted in a book edited by Carina Costa de Oliveira and Rômulo Sampaio. Two other initiatives were: the Forum for Sustainability Rio+20 FGV Law School (http://riomais20.direitorio.fgv.br/), which remains stimulating discussions on 70 topics related to discussions of the Rio + 20; and the PDMA participation in The Access Initiative - a network of nongovernmental organizations that works with the implementation of Principle 10 of Agenda 21 which addresses the issues of access to information and public participation.

Several partnerships were essential and are co-authors of this proposal: Centre International de Droit Comparé de l?Environnement, Pace University, Núcleo de Estudos e Pesquisas do Senado Federal Consultoria do Senado, Instituto de Direito e Meio Ambiente Brasil-Estados-Unidos, EMERJ ? Escola da Magistratura do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Academia Paranaense de direito ambiental, Ministério Público da União, PUC-Goiás, Secretaria de Assuntos Estratégicos, Universidade Católica de Brasília, Uniceub, Universidade Federal do Pará, IEDC - Instituto Estudos Direito e Cidadania, Mackenzi-SP, Prefeitura do Rio, CEDA, NKF advogados, Tribuna Animal, CEDAM, FEMPERJ, PUC-São Paulo, IBRADA and Universidade Estadual do Amazonas. In addition, teachers, researchers and professionals who do are not parto of institutions mentioned above participated in proposal making: Priscila Pereira de Andrade, Carole Peychaud, João Renato L. Paulon, Larissa Clare Pochmann da Silva, Luiz Gustavo Escorcio Bezerra, Maria Collares, Meryem Deffairi, Patricia Pellanda, Rafael Prado, Sandro Schmitz, Tatiana Falcão Octaviano, Virgilio Gibbon, Maria Morelli, Luiz Borges, Teresa Vilac, Colin Crawford. Some recommendations will be made on the general themes of the conference based on the following major topics: 1) Definitions, 2) Sustainable Trade and Investments, 3) National and International Governance, 4) National Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development, 5) International Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development. In each topic there are national and international recommendations on the theme.

GREEN ECONOMY ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND ERADICATION OF POVERTY CONTEXT

1)Definitions

a) Important aspects for Green economy concept

1) The internalization of externalities of social and environmental costs. Some policies to promote internalization would be, for example, the valuation of natural resources through taxes and tax incentives to encourage sustainable practices (PDMA).

2) The determination of social goals that could be implemented by the "green economy". The goals could include: job expansion, consumption decline, production more sustainable and housing guarantee. Relevant policies would promote sustainable bidding criteria, enable regulation and encourage public investment in priority areas (PDMA).

3) Concerning to the green economy, it is observed that the more sectorized it is analyzed, can be more easily identified policies that could encourage the construction of ?green? perspective. Each specific area, such as construction, tourism, biodiversity, energy, cities, has their peculiarities. The concept of green economy could be taken from the sustainable progress of each economic sector (PDMA).

b) Important aspects for sustainable development concept

1) Identify general criteria of sustainability from a definition given by each country. Each country can send to the UN Secretariat for the Rio + 20 its definition of sustainable development. This proposal stems from disparities between economic, social and environmental performance of each state. Each one must identify how it can contribute to the present and future lives.

2) It is suggested to build a Brazilian concept of sustainable development in accordance with the priorities of public policies for the country.

3) Opinion on the relevance of the concept of each state:

"A concept is an abstraction that is used to intellectualize a complex issue. Thus, it is possible to explain the complexity of reality that becomes more accessible. However, the risk that comes with the use of a concept is the simplifying and trivializing of it. It can be regarded as the perfect mirror of reality. And both a methodological and scientific error. Sometimes this path is taken to the concept of sustainable development. People who work on this issue want to universalize and standardize the concept. Therefore, it kills the content of sustainable development. The principles of sustainable development must be implemented by each state. Each state has its own level of development, its economies and its society. Therefore, they are different and have neither the same goals, or the same means to accomplish their goals. Environmental considerations, for example, have the same value in each state. In this sense, what is sustainable development for a state is not necessarily the same thing to another state. Therefore, it is useful to have a single definition of the concept of sustainable development. Practically every state knows its needs within its development. Therefore, it can decide its policies according to its reality. Finally, it is useful to highlight a point. The final containers of development and sustainable development theories ? humans - are sometimes forgotten and neglected by those working on these issues. Their realities are so complex, so different that it is difficult to understand how you can make a theory of sustainable development without realizing some practical studies. Moreover, these theories are often built in offices, in few hours. It is one reason why sustainable development has little practical effect "(Nitish Monebhurrun).

2) Sustainable Trade and Investments

a) Forests

International Recommendations

1) Adopt a convention on the theme (Luciene Araújo).

2) Increased input of financial resources for implementation of payment for environmental services such as the Global Environment Facility ? GEF. (Luciene Araújo).

3) Establish social environmental certification (José Antônio Tietzzman Silva).

4)Include recommendations for environmental damage under Human Rights Council and UN councils or commissions of the regional system of protection of Human Rights (José Antônio Tietzzman Silva).

National Recommendations

1) Implementation of mechanisms and instruments for conservation, through voluntary and coercive measures. (Fernando Meneguin).

2) Implementation of policies and measures that encourage the reduction of illegal deforestation. (Fernando Meneguin).

3) Implementation by the states of financial incentives for environment preservation, with the possibility of public and private entities participation. (FernandoMeneguin).

REDD:

4) Utilizing, not carbon stocks, but the annual fluctuations in the opportunity costs in forested areas. (Virgílio Gibbon).

5) Unifying the credit registries of all the states into a single registry office to avoid duplicative valuations of credits on the national level. (Virgílio Gibbon).

6) The need to incorporate the concept of opportunity cost searching for solutions to the issue of deforestation of native forests. (Virgílio Gibbon).

7) Establishing a REDD+ regime demands rights and responsibilities are clarified in the international and national levels. (PDMA).

8) Local participation and transparent processes while defining access to benefits and allocation of REDD+ resources are crucial for guaranteeing effective governance. (PDMA).

b) Renewable energy

International Recommendations

1) Specifically, a framework convention could be :

a) To establish a renewable energy list classified under economic critteria (cost of production, level of necessary energy, the necessary resources for it?s production, levels of importation/exportation, capacity to create jobs, etc) ans environmental (rate of substitution of fossil fuels, environmental impact, carbon balance of the production process, etc..) defining. (Meryem Deffairi).

b) Establish a binding target, "a minimum" of renewable energy in 10 years for developed countries and in 15 or 20 years for developing countries (obligation of result, leaving the states free of the means used to achieve this) and finally integrate the planning requirements for each state. (Meryem Deffairi).

c) Provide a mechanism for financial sanctions applicable in 10 years, and every five years, depending on the level of renewable energy in each state, by paying a fine to an independent international institution responsible for "re-injection" of funds in development projects technology for producing renewable energy. (Meryem Deffairi)

2) Instead of discussing a new institutional framework we should be questioning capacity of action of the International Agency for Renewable Energy established in January 2009 (IRENA - http://www.irena.org/home/index.aspx?PriMenuID=12&mnu=Pri) (Priscila Pereira de Andrade) National Recommendations

1) Be part of International Agency for Renewable Energy established in January 2009 (IRENA - http://www.irena.org/home/index.aspx?PriMenuID=12&mnu=Pri)

2) Adoption of government policies to encourage substitution of energy sources based on fossil fuels by renewable energy (Luciane Mascarenhas).

3) Implementation by local governmentof legislation and regulations to promote the use of renewable energy (Luciane Mascarenhas).

4) "Breaking Patents" or your purchase more favorable for the need for investment in renewable energy due to weather problems experienced. (Luciane Mascarenhas)

5) Public policies aimed at reducing consumption in order to also reduce power consumption (Luciane Mascarenhas).

6) Promotion of granting intellectual property rights relating to renewable energy that may favor developing countries (Luciane Mascarenhas).

7) Patents acquisition more favorable in view of the need for investment in renewable energy due to weather problems experienced. (Luciane Mascarenhas).

8) Reduction of tariffs and subsidies in order to implement technologies used to generate renewable energy to reduce costs and increase their production.(Luciane Mascarenhas).

c) Biodiversity and compensation mechanisms

International Recommendations

1) Juridically qualify biodiversity and give it a legal statute in the international arena (Jessica Makowiak).

2) Define in international area the compensation and its criteria (Jessica Makowiak). 3) Situate the compensation notion with recognized principles of international and environment law (the precautionary principle, polluter-pays). The compensation can anticipate or intervene prior to the damage (Jessica Makowiak)

4) Rank priorities in relation to biodiversity reduction, losses reduction and compensation. (Jessica Makowiak).

5) Restrict the actions of compensation for projects that do not cause major or irreversible reduction of biodiversity (Jessica Makowiak).

6) Define, classify and prioritize compensation arrangements in the context of biodiversity (Jessica Makowiak).

7) Provide, in the texts that allow compensation, measures for monitoring, surveillance and control. (Jessica Makowiak).

8) Provide sanctions in case of disrespect of measures for monitoring and its effects. (Jessica Makowiak).

9) Evaluate the experiences of compensation at the institutional level (problem of the actors who must decide, implement and monitor measures of compensation) (Jessica Makowiak).

10) Identify means to channel economic resources for biodiversity conservation to biodiversity-rich developing states. (Luiz Gustavo Bezerra).

d) Green Private Contracts

International Recommendations

1) In the private law area, the inclusion of social environmental clauses and also the exclusion of "stabilization" clauses to enable the adoption of rules of human and environmental rights ratified after the signing of agreements. (Sílvia Pinheiro)

e) Technology Transfers

International Recommendations

1) Protection to international finance of technology transfer mechanisms, with respect to intellectual property rights, but focused on development promotion. (Renata Calsing, Maria Marinho and Carlos Henrique Rubens Tomé Silva).

2) Formation of a found that allows purchase of clean technologies, considered relevant to the environment protection. (Renata Calsing and Maria Marinho).

3) Need to stimulate the formation of sharing platforms of clean technology licenses. (Renata Calsing and Maria Marinho).

4) Promotion of the discussion about mandatory license adaptability to accessing necessities to clean technologies and the discussion about other mechanisms. (the invention is an improvement, a reduction of production costs and that?s why the holder company uses its exclusive right to differentiate themselves in the market. So the incentive to transfer technology through licensing will only be effective if states establish mechanisms to encourage holder private sector or co-holder of proprietary technologies that impact on environmental protection). (Renata Calsing and Maria Marinho).

National Recommendations

1) Nationally, evaluation of creative forms to give flexibility to intellectual property rights, which do not violate the State?s international commitments and, at the same time, make possible the incorporation of new technologies developed abroad. (Carlos Henrique Rubens Tomé Silva).

2) Creation and improvement of national mechanisms about technological innovation financing and tax exemption, especially focused on healthy environmental technologies. (Carlos Henrique Rubens Tomé Silva). 3) Adoption of more effective policies to stimulate technological innovation in the business atmosphere. (Carlos Henrique Rubens Tomé Silva).

f) International trade systems

1) Put the U.S. government securities that comprise the international reserves of BRICS members (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) in an investment fund managed by the shareholders. (Virgílio Gibbon).

2) To develop rules for the Investment Fund regarding the possibility to issue a ?Green Currency? to the limit of its assets. The Green Money shall only be applied to actions or funding of sustainable projects of countries that accept to be beneficiaries of the Fund. (Virgílio Gibbon)

3) To subscribe to a Shareholders Agreement that give the Green Currency the same treatment given to the U.S. dollar today. That is, it is computed as international reserve and gives rise to the issuance of the corresponding national currency. (Virgílio Gibbon)

4) To adopt social and environmental indices on the stock market. Examples: Domini 400 Social Index (DSI), Dow Jones Sustainable Index. (PDMA)

g) Sustainable Production

1) Conduct an integrated product policy based on an examination of the impact of products throughout their life cycle. Promote discussion between public and private powers on the subject, so that the measures can be effective and have the lowest cost (PDMA).

2) Corporate Social Responsibility for the entire production cycle, including: local communities, salaried, shareholders, business partners, suppliers, customers, public authorities. (PDMA).

3) Sustainable financing: direct funding for specific areas: the funding would benefit some communities or disadvantaged municipalities. Making loans through local development banks in deposits, with rates equal to or below the market price (PDMA).

h) Sustainable Consumption

1) Accountability of individuals and companies for their sustainable consumption (PDMA).

2) Control of misleading consumers by companies that have clauses in their codes of conduct on environmental protection or certifications related to Corporate Social Responsibility. (PDMA).

3) Green Economy on Sustainable Development context: Governance and Institutional Framework

a) Liability of the State

International Recommendations

1) All Signatories shall promote sustainable management, especially within the public administration. (Maria Augusta Ferreira)

2) Sustainable management means the one conducted with transparency, ethical behavior, respect for interests of interested parties (stakeholders - employees / servers, customers, suppliers, society, government), respect for human rights, respect for the environment. (Maria Augusta Ferreira)

3) Respect for the environment in public administration is based on the following pillars: the rational use of resources, proper disposal of waste, sustainable public procurement, environment, healthy work. (Maria Augusta Ferreira) National Recommendations

1) The environmental responsibility of federal, state and local organs includes, besides the liability for damage provided for in art., prevention of damage by reducing the environmental impact of state activities, from the adoption of sustainable management practices. (Maria Augusta Ferreira)

b) Liability of business

International Recommendations

1) Device that indicates the strict liability of companies for environmental damage caused by companies, with solidarity between the headquarters and branches (Carole Peychaud).

2) Agreement on "Rights and responsibilities of market players" with devices such as: (PDMA)

a) Minimum criteria that compose the Code of Conduct for companies (recipients and obligations must be precise and clear);

b) Obligation to make annual statements considering the environmental and social criteria;

c) Responsibility for voluntary certification obtained by ISO, for example.

3) Increase in environmental conventions devices on law and jurisdiction conflicts indicating the laws and courts that could best repair the damage. Some rules (PDMA):

a) conflict of laws:

1) in the case of compensation for environmental damage, the more favorable rule to the victim and to protection the environment should be applied,

2) if there are environmental insurance, the law on the rights of the insured should be applied,

3) in the case of environmental damage, the law of the headquarters can be applied if it has control over the activities of its branch.

b) conflict of jurisdictions:

1) The victims of environmental damage can choose the court that may decide for the best damage repair, for example, the proximity of the evidence;

2) If the headquarter has control over the activities of its branch, the jurisdiction of the headquarter has jurisdiction over the case;

3) An action against a multinational may be brought before the court of the domicile of the defendant. If the defendant is a corporation, the domicile of the defendant may be found in any of three places: a) where the company has been registered, b) the place where its central administration is located, c) the main place of activities society.

Specific Recommendations for International Law of Investments

1) The integration of clear environment protection provisions in international investment agreements: the future investment agreements or the renegotiation of existing agreements should include specific provisions on environment protection. These provisions can consider (Nitish Monebhurrun):

(i) The definition of an investment activity: The activities of those companies which are constituted in utter ignorance of domestic environmental laws should not be qualified as an investment and therefore should not benefit from the protection of the investment agreement. The international investment agreement provision on the definition of the investment must underscore this point. The agreement must state that the investor has a duty to check, examine and understand the legal framework on of the host State, especially the one applicable to the environment, and that he must start and conduct his activity accordingly.

(ii) The definition of the environment: Environment is not an abstraction and in the vein of the previous proposition, some details must be available to define or to identify what is to be understood by environment. It might be a complex task to give an exhaustive definition but it is not impossible to give a list of indicators. These indicators may vary from one State to another.

(iii) Affirming the right of States to regulate as per its environmental concerns: The investment agreements should specify that whenever it comes to environmental matters, States should be free to regulate the investor's activity. It should assert that environment is a component of the public interest42 and that the latter cannot be sacrificed at the benefit of private economic interests. However, a control of these interests can be injected by the means of a proportionality test. In any case, investment protection standards cannot prevail over environment protection norms.

(iv) The legitimate expectations of States: The agreement must furthermore affirm that States have a legitimate expectation that private companies investing on its territory will always act in good faith to collaborate with them whenever environmental goals are concerned. Private companies therefore have a duty to act accordingly and must not frustrate these expectations.

2) The integration of clear rules of conflict in international investment agreements: highlighting the prevalence of environment protection norms over investment protection norms (Nitish Monebhurrun):

(i) The principle: Whenever there is a potential conflict between the investor's or the investment's protection and the environment protection, the investment agreements must provide for clear rules of conflict. The investment agreement can state that whenever an investment protection provision is in conflict with an environmental norm, the latter shall prevail over the former. As environment protection is a unanimous objective which is considered as being fundamental, priority must be given to it.

3) Promoting the use of the systemic integration principle (Nitish Monebhurrun):

(i) The principle: By this means, agreements should provide that international investment law is not clinically isolated from the rest of international law and that the interpretation of an international investment treaty does not exclude references to other non-investment norms, like environmental norms. This is in direct line with article 31(1)(c) of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. Hence, environmental norms can be integrated in international investment dispute settlements. They can be invoked by States and will have to be considered by arbitral tribunals.

National Recommendations

1) Implement and publicize the system of National Contact Points in the OECD so that companies can be questioned about their actions in society.(PDMA).

2) Control the private activities through: 1) creation of accurate sustainability criteria which companies should present; 2) submission of mandatory criteria and 3) government oversight of the information published. These criteria may be based on the GRI (PDMA).

c) Liability of financial institutions

1) The public and private, national, foreign or international organizations, donors or sponsors of activities or projects of polluting or potentially polluting activities shall require the submission of all documents relating to the environmental licensing of the project financed by them, issued by agencies control officers, under penalty of becoming co-responsible for any effects arising from the violation of this Act or its regulations. (Bruna Acerbi)

2) Also has to pay attention to cost-benefit analysis of environmental, defining the object and identifying its impacts, defining them according to their relevance and measurement in physical units, valuing them in monetary terms. (Luiz Borges). d)Access to information and public participation

International Recommendations

1) It is necessary to define the meaning of the right of access to information in both international and national levels. (PDMA).

2) Sign a Regional Convention in Latin America to be implemented in the region the access to information under control of an institution such as ECLAC network (TAI).

3) Ratify the Aarhus Convention.(PDMA).

National Recommendations 1) Deadlines for the publication of all documents related to environmental decisions. (PDMA).

2) Fines for noncompliance with the deadlines for publication. (PDMA).

3) Ratify the Aarhus Convention.(PDMA).

4) Sign a Regional Convention in Latin America to be implemented in the region the access to information under control of a regional institution. (PDMA).

5) Decree full detailed of terms that are usually very inaccurate on citizen participation, with some examples of articles (PDMA):

a) Public audiences may be conducted, for example, by sector, population or community, in order to not allow domination of the audience by people who have greater chance to express themselves (Colin Crawford).

b) Require that there are effective mechanisms for access by population and interested communities to all documents relevant to the public audience, as well as access to versions with comprehensible language of details of the proposed projects. (PDMA).

c) Provide training courses for community leaders and mediation techniques in order to qualify the ones who need the procedure of public audience (PDMA).

d) Require that public participation occurs from the beginning of the procedure or of the process to reach the community (PDMA).

6) Require the preparation of Environmental Impact Report (EIR) linked to the Preliminary Study Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) (PDMA).

7) Availability of environmental documents on the Internet and procedural materials (Larissa Pochmann Clare da Silva).

e) Oversight and Accountability

1) Implementation of the monitoring system, such as the GRI, in the states. (PDMA).

2) Control of information provided by the companies in its annual statements by the state through a government agency (PDMA).

3) Disclosure of corporate balance sheets over the Internet (with comparable data set by States) (PDMA).

4) Rule on the requirement of social balance, with the prediction of environmental and social aspects. (PDMA).

5) Decree stipulating criteria that should be in the company's annual social report, in order that information is comparable. (PDMA).

f) Green Bidding

International Recommendations

1) Writing more specific guidelines on the green bidding topic at Rio +20 (Teresa Villac).

2) Strengthening of sustainable public hiring in the MERCOSUL. (Teresa Villac).

National Recommendations

1) Insertion of sustainable hiring in the planning activities of public bodies. (TeresaVillac).

g) Water: The Creation of Protected Areas on the High Seas 1) In order to achieve sustainable development, the States should create marine protected areas. (Fernanda Borges).

2) Marine Protected Areas should be considered as strictly protected areas, essential for the preservation of biodiversity and the maintenance of essential ecological marine processes. (Fernanda Borges).

3) Any activity affecting or potentially affecting the ecological balance and biodiversity conservation in marine protected areas should be considered prohibited in respect of the right to an ecologically balanced environment for present and future generations. (Fernanda Borges)

4) Marine Protected Areas should ensure the protection of biodiversity and the quality of marine waters, to avoid acidification and death of organisms required for biotic and abiotic catchment of carbon from the atmosphere, responsible for mitigating global warming and climate change (Fernanda Borges)

5) Marine Protected Areas should ensure the preservation of natural fisheries resources, required for food security of present and future generations (Fernanda Borges)

h) Water: The Management of Aquifers Located under the Territories of Several Countries

1) Reduce asymmetric information (specific case of Guarani Aquifer)

2) Increase regional and local involvement (awareness, capacity-building and traditional knowledge). (David Cassuto e Romulo Sampaio)

3) Harmonization of national legislation. (David Cassuto e Romulo Sampaio)

4) Regulatory structures (ecosystem services). (David Cassuto e Romulo Sampaio)

i) Taxation as a Means of Environmental Management International Recommendations

1) Establish a limit (cap) for each country of carbon emissions. The initial cap will be the result of the average carbon emissions over the past three to five years. A transition rule can be created (more lenient rule) for developing countries and LDCs (Least Developed Countries - as classified by the WTO) - so that these countries are not disadvantaged because of their low level of current development, and so they can develop despite the targets for carbon reduction (Tatiana Falcão Otaviano).

2) The carbon emitted in each country shall henceforth be taxed in order to encourage companies to use resources in developing new technologies for clean energy production. The tax rates should be the same in each country (we suggest the establishment of a maximum rate and minimum rate), so they are not created "carbon tax havens" (Tatiana Falcão Otaviano).

3) The establishment of maximum and minimum rates will also prevent the adoption of tariff adjustments on imports of products (Border Tax Adjustments "BTA") (Tatiana Falcão Otaviano).

4) Create-a treaty that establishes a origin for the carbon emitted as a result of international activities (Tatiana Falcão Otaviano).

5) Creation of a new international body endowed with police powers to monitor and eventually penalize those who do not comply to the limits imposed by the treaty (Tatiana Falcão Otaviano).

National Recommendations

1) Green tariff:

a) Establish a less onerous form for the final consumer, for fuel tax, so as to encourage the consumption of cleaner fuels (such as biodiesel and alcohol) in order to reduce the fuel of high carbon concentration consumption and therefore more pollutants such as diesel and coal burning (Tatiana Falcão Otaviano).

b) Establish a green contribution (purposing creation of a fund to combat climate change and reduce the harmful effects of global warming) on fuel. The contribution would be progressive, more burdening the diesel fuel and less the biodiesel, for example. (Tatiana Falcão Otaviano).

c) The funds raised with the contribution should be used in development of green Brazilian technology for mounting of electric cars, development of new forms of biodiesel (for example, it is possible to transform peel potatoes and other vegetables into fuel) and even for the promotion of "green" initiatives such as increased efficiency in the recycling project, replanting of forests (which are also internationally known as "carbon sinks" as we consume and re-absorb carbon from the atmosphere), construction of bike lanes to encourage bicycle use by local people, etc.. (Tatiana Falcão Otaviano).

j)The Non-Regression Principle in Environmental Law

International Recommendations

1) Integration of the principals of non-regression from the area of human rights into environmental law. (Michel Prieur).

2) In order to preserve the sustainable development and ensure the necessary protection of the environment, States may not take legislative, administrative or judicial measures importing an unlawful reduction of their levels of protection granting by laws that protect the environment except in public interest prevalent case. (Maria Morelli).

3) In the event that the States adopt a legislative, administrative or judicial measure which reduces levels of environmental protection in force, shall justify the reasonableness and proportionality of the measure. (Maria Morelli)

National Recommendations

1) The environmental objectives should be achieved in a gradual manner, through interim and final targets, projected on the basis of a state planning that facilitates the implementation of activities related to these goals (Maria Morelli)

2) Efforts to ensure environment protection and conservation can not decrease. In this case, it is forbidden to adopt appropriate legislative, administrative or judicial measures that illegitimately reduce levels of environmental protection legislation, except in public interest prevalent case.(Maria Morelli)

4) Green Economy on Sustainable Development context: eradication of poverty

a) Regularization

1) The proposal of fixing of property rights in forested areas and biomes in order to prevent illegal deforestation. (Fernando Meneguin).

2) The concession of rights to public lands to ensure better monitoring of national resources and to facilitate land regularization. (Fernando Meneguin).

3) Imposing limits on land use; the concession of land rights, which are not absolute, but provide benefits to the title holder and to the state though terms and restrictions on the use of the land. (Fernando Meneguin).

4) Establish an effective policy and a coordinated regional planning (Jose Heder Benatti).

a) The State must be proactive and coordinate the process of regional planning for public policies that are effective, because the lack of a policy for allocation of public goods may leave space for the occurrence of a chaotic land of the public areas, through land grabbing and deforestation - which often happens when there is no such policy.

b) Therefore, it is necessary to establish a regional planning policy to include: regulation; environmental licensing of rural properties; fulfill the social function of ownership; control, enforcement and economic instruments to stimulate the sustainable management of natural resources, specially the forest.

i) For example, the economic or tax incentives can stimulate private spending in certain areas, discourage bad behavior, and correct the market trends that can encourage actions against nature conservation and protection of natural resources.

5) The regularization to ensure control and define property rights, allowing the public power to know who is occupying land and how they are being used. (Jose Heder Benatti).

a) To overcome the current chaos, must first be defined perty areas - who is the owner of the land, public or private? If public, which federative entity?

b) The official recognition of the different existing forms of occupation should allow the state and society the control over the use of land and other natural resources. Therefore, the regularization will be positive and not negative, since it prioritizes the family occupation.

c) Another positive effect of land tenure policy is to combat illegal occupation of public lands.

6) There are several necessary steps to implement a land use: (José Heder Benatti).

d) to overcome the limited management capacity of agencies responsible for planning land, whether in its technical or staff.

e) understand that the consolidation of rural property, respecting the social and environmental assumptions, represents an important step towards the strengthening of citizenship and environmental protection.

7) The process of regularization of land occupation should: (José Heder Benatti)

f) be accompanied by descriptive memorandum plant and georeferenced. The financial costs for its preparation should be the responsibility of recipient of legitimacy, with exception of the processes of settlement of small estates.

g) include in the title-deeds issued by the national land, clauses requiring the beneficiary to maintain, conserve and, where appropriate, to restore the permanent preservation areas and legal reserves.

8) Other necessary and complementary actions to the regularization (Jose Heder Benatti).

h) scanning of the land collection;

i) modernization of access to registry information of rural land in order to increase the reliability of the processes of property records and ensure that information can be obtained quickly and the distance by public authorities relating to questions of land federal unit.

b)Environmental Education

International Recommendations

1) Make the investment in education a priority in developing countries and underdeveloped countries, since the lack of education contributes to unemployment, which reflects in crime and poverty. And also ensure that education serves as a tool for public awareness to the current problems in the world, such as politics, health and environmental preservation. The maldistribution of wealth is also a result of poor education. (Patricia Pellanda).

National Recommendations

1) Environmental Education, at all levels, is everyone's responsibility because it reflects the reduction of social inequalities, and in schools, should be adhered to the principle of transversality. (Maria Collares). 2) Public Power should be able to train teachers to teach environmental education at all levels of government and to monitor the effectiveness of the method adopted. (Maria Collares). 3) Information on Environmental Education requires transparency necessary for understanding of all because it contributes to the protection of natural resources, to promote population health and to collaborate with the eradication of poverty. (Maria Collares).

4) Environmental education propels sustainable development, due to it would be compulsory in schools, social, professional and public activities. (Maria Collares). 5) The inclusion of Environmental Law as a subject in graduation aims to form student as a professional to make effective environmental legislation in all work activities. (Maria Collares).

c)The fundamental right to land and food International Recommendations

1) Regarding the right to food is the focus of discussion on hunger eradication of people. This problem can not be based on instruments that aim at increasing food production in the world, but on appropriate means to combat social inequalities and unequal distribution of wealth. (Patricia Pellanda).

2) Promote the application of the Solidarity Economy in the countries, aware that the private donations and supportive attitudes may contribute to the results of the company itself (Patricia Pellanda).

National Recommendations

4) Value and respect the concept of land and territories granted to indigenous people and traditional communities as a collective right, transcending the idea of merely individual property (Patricia Pellanda).

5) Prevent the assimilation of indigenous lands to the family farm in the States domestic law, through the international commitment and recognition of specific features to indigenous people and their cultural practices. This measure will prevent even the rampant development of agribusiness lands and other explorations that have been occurring frequently on these populations (Patricia Pellanda).

3) The commitment of states to their respective populations in order to reduce / eliminate corruption policy and allocate funds to sectors that should be effectively benefited by punishing those who divert funds, individual enrichment and 'forget' their true function forward the government and social powers. (Patricia Pellanda).

4) The public awareness that many problems can be solved in the short term from the measures introduced and practiced by the population itself, independent of the Government and effective political action, since problems like world hunger and the current devastation environmental problems are all human problems in the world. If each citizen help only one needy person, the difference would be huge. (Patricia Pellanda).

5) In addition to food in sufficient quantity to meet basic human needs, should also be prioritized food (including water) quality, mainly food security internationally wanted. By quantitatively and qualitatively adequate food may also be displayed positive results in the health sector, with the reduction of diseases, especially those arising from the use and consumption of pesticides and new technologies such as transgenic (Patricia Pellanda).

d)Definition and Criteria for a Sustainable City

National Recommendations 1) Definition and promotion of sustainability indicators that can be used for the formulation of local environmental policies. Indicators that reconcile the protection and preservation of goods, services and environmental and cultural resources with the needs of economic and social development (PDMA).

e)The rights of indigenous people and of traditional communities

International Recommendations

1) Protocol to bring definitions, obligations and rights more accurate on (PDMA):

a) prior, free and informed consent in relation to any activity held in indigenous areas;

b) participation in project implementation;

c) protect and guarantee access to land, natural resources and the benefits derived there from;

d) recognition of traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples (how?), protection of people relocating to other areas (how?)

e) monitoring mechanism should be created at the international and national levels to ensure transparency and effectiveness of these rights in practice.

2) Indigenous people may be impacted from the consequences of global climate change. It is necessary to ensure that such impacts are mitigated and that training and adaptation to climate change are rights of these peoples (PDMA).

3) Indigenous people have a crucial role in the conservation of environmental resources and this role should be recognized for compensation for environmental services and distribution of benefits of REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) (PDMA). National Recommendations

1) Greater access to information and participation of indigenous people in the implementation and development of projects that affect them directly or indirectly (PDMA).

4) Value and respect the concept of land and territories granted to indigenous people and traditional communities as a collective right, transcending the idea of merely individual property (Patricia Pellanda).

5) Prevent the assimilation of indigenous lands to the family farm in the States domestic law, through the international commitment and recognition of specific features to indigenous people and their cultural practices. This measure will prevent even the rampant development of agribusiness lands and other explorations that have been occurring frequently on these populations (Patricia Pellanda).

6)Define the meaning of traditional communities. (Colin Crawford).

NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

5) National Institutional Framework

a) Legal/Procedural instruments

International Recommendations: procedural instruments

1) Forecast for civil society participation through representative bodies in case of conflict resolution in international environmental institutions as amicus curiae. (Larissa Clare Pochmann da Silva).

2) Establishment, into national tribunals, of a right to action with the aim to punish the International Conventions noncompliance. (Gérard Monédaire).

3) Creation of Regional Unions, provided with a distinct legal personality from the Member States, that can sign Environmental Treaties, resulting in a better engagement of these States with environmental issues. (Gérard Monédaire).

4) Need of a right to petition to the citizen or to the society, with what they can intervene in the Legislative Assemblies or the Committee. (Gérard Monédaire).

5) Imposition of financial sanctions to noncompliance or incomplete compliance of the Tribunals decisions or laws concerning environment. (Gérard Monédaire).

6) Reversal of burden of proof in environmental disputes. (Carole Peychaud).

International Recommendations: legal instruments

1) Preparation of a treaty on the repair of environmental transnational damage affecting direct and individually citizens of other countries. (Larissa Clare Pochmann da Silva).

National Recommendations: procedural instruments

1) Disclosure of the values of a conviction for environmental damage to the environmental fund, allowing the advertising of such values should be applied from convictions for environmental degradation in repairing the environment (Larissa Pochmann Clare da Silva)

b) Analytical methods to measure the effectiveness of law enforcement

International Recommendations

1) The Secretariats of the Conventions require states to designate national institutions that are National Points of Contact responsible for identifying the breach of environmental treaties that have been ratified by the states. (PDMA).

2) The priority is not the creation of new laws and international treaties, but in political and social commitment to the implementation and effectiveness of existing standards. (Patricia Pellanda).

National Recommendations

1) Goals for improving environmental quality (eg, goals to ban the use of pesticides that harm human health and the environment, already banned in Europe). (Solange Teles).

2) Creation of legal environmental sustainability indicators - indicators of environmental governance and policy of environmental governance.(Solange Teles).

6) International Institutional Framework

a) Existing Institutions

International Recommendations

1) Creation of a new international council within the United Nations to discuss sustainable development. This new body would incorporate the UNEP and the committee inside the ECOSOC responsible for sustainable development. (PDMA).

2) Creation of a committee inside this new body that would represent international NGO?s, previously chosen by of group of experts, that are know by their efforts in the subject. (PDMA).

3) Focus on UNEP.

4) The transformation of the UN Economic and Social Council to the Economic, Social, and Environmental Council (PDMA).

5) Reform of the Commission on Sustainable Development in the General Assembly (PDMA).

b) New Necessary Institutions: The World Environmental Court

International Recommendations

Considering the International Court of Justice (ICJ) importance in the international community, we propose reform of the ICJ or the foundation of a World Environment Court, based on the following proposals (Rafael Prado):

1) Flexibility of ICJ Environmental Chamber, and encouragement of the use of principle of participation and access of stakeholders to justice (not just government but also civil society). The principle of participation, a fundamental one in International Environmental Law, was recognized by the ICJ Judgment in the same case of the Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay. (Rafael Prado).

2) Manifestation of ICJ on its wide competence in environmental matters involving Member States, and no modifying necessity in its Statute entered in the UN Charter, which allows the materialization of the principle of participation and access to information and to justice in the case of environmental issues that directly affect national populations of litigants countries. (Rafael Prado).

c) New Necessary Institutions: World Environmental Organization

International Recommendations

1) Environmental conventions Secretariats, as technical instances of conventions, would be specialized organs in the new International Organization. (Sandro Schmitz dos Santos).

2) One of the body structure proposed is a Settlement Body in the model used by the WTO with activities of mediation and arbitration of violations of International Environmental Law performing functions similar to the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR). (Sandro Schmitz dos Santos).

3) Three would be the sources of the new organization: the quota-share of the participant countries, the resources of the major environmental damage penalties, and fees on their roles certification of carbon credits and environmental economics in general. (Sandro Schmitz dos Santos).

FGV DIREITO RIO+20

Terceira fase do Forum de Sustentabilidade

FGV DIREITO RIO+20

(14 de setembro ate 2 de outubro)

A terceira fase consiste no debate em portugues, espanhol e ingles sobre as recomendadoes que serao feitas sobre os temas da Rio+20. Essas recomendacoes decorreram das Jordnadas que foram relizadas pelo PDMA e das discussoes que ocorreram durante a 2. fase do forum.

As recomendacoes internacionais serao entregues para o Secretariado da ONU para a Conferencia Rio+20 e as recomendacoes nacionais serao entregues para a Comissao Nacional formada para construir a posicao brasileira para a Rio+20.

RECOMENDAÇÕES NORMATIVAS PARA A

RIO + 20

As recomendações que serão feitas nesse documento são resultado de iniciativas que foram realizadas e que continuam a ser organizadas pelo Programa em Direito e Meio Ambiente-PDMA da FGV-Direito Rio. Entre elas podem ser citadas: a Jornada Internacional Preparatória para a Rio + 20, nos dias 24 e 25 de junho de 2011. O tema da Jornada, ?A economia verde no contexto do desenvolvimento sustentável: a governança dos atores públicos e privados? resultou em um livro organizado por Carina Costa de Oliveira e Rômulo Sampaio. Duas outras iniciativas foram: o site Forum de sustentabilidade FGV Direito Rio + 20 (http://riomais20.direitorio.fgv.br/), que continua fomentando o debate sobre 70 temas ligados às discussões da Rio + 20; e a participação do PDMA no The Access Iniciative ? rede de organizações não governamentais que trabalham com a implementação do Princípio 10 da Agenda 21 que trata dos temas de Acesso à informação e de participação pública.

Diversas parcerias foram fundamentais e são co-autoras dessa proposta: o Centre International de Droit Comparé de l?Environnement, a Pace University, o Núcleo de Estudos e Pesquisas do Senado Federal Consultoria do Senado, o Instituto de Direito e Meio Ambiente Brasil-Estados-Unidos, a EMERJ ? Escola da Magistratura do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, a Academia Paranaense de direito ambiental, o Ministério Público da União, a PUC-Goiás, a Secretaria de Assuntos Estratégicos, a Universidade Católica de Brasília, o Uniceub, a Universidade Federal do Pará, o IEDC - Instituto Estudos Direito e Cidadania, o Mackenzi-SP, a Prefeitura do Rio, a CEDA, NKF advogados, a Tribuna Animal, o CEDAM, FEMPERJ, PUC-São Paulo, a IBRADA e a Universidade Estadual do Amazonas. Além disso, os seguintes professores, pesquisadores e/ou profissionais, que não fazem parte das instituições supra-citads, tiveram uma participação nas propostas: Priscila Pereira de Andrade, Carole Peychaud, João Renato L. Paulon, Larissa Clare Pochmann da Silva, Luiz Gustavo Escorcio Bezerra, Maria Collares, Meryem Deffairi, Patricia Pellanda, Rafael Prado, Sandro Schmitz, Tatiana Falcão Octaviano, Virgilio Gibbon, Maria Morelli, Luiz Borges, Teresa Vilac, Colin Crawford.

Serão feitas algumas recomendações sobre os temas gerais da conferência tendo por base os seguintes grandes tópicos: 1) Definições; 2) Investimento e Comércio Sustentáveis; 3) Governança nacional e internacional; 4) Quadro institucional nacional para o desenvolvimento sustentável; 5) Quadro institucional internacional para o desenvolvimento sustentável. Cada tema possui recomendações nacionais e internacionais. As nacionais representam o aspecto da governança nacional, da implementação e da efetividade de temas ligados à economia verde e ao desenvolvimento sustentável. As internacionais tratam de aspectos de governança internacional desses temas.

A ECONOMIA VERDE NO CONTEXTO DO DESENVOLVIMENTO SUSTENTÁVEL E DA ERRADICAÇÃO DA POBREZA..........................................................4

1)Definições...............................................................................................................................4

a) Aspectos importantes para o Conceito de economia verde..........................................4

b) Aspectos importantes para o conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável......................4

2) Investimento e Comércio Sustentáveis..................................................................................5

a) Florestas........................................................................................................................5

b) Energias renováveis......................................................................................................6

c) Biodiversidade e mecanismos de compensação...........................................................7

d) Contratos privados verdes............................................................................................8

e) Transferência de tecnologia..........................................................................................8

f) Regimes financeiros nacionais e internacionais...........................................................9

g) Produção Sustentável..................................................................................................10

h) Consumo Sustentável.................................................................................................10

3) A Economia Verde no contexto do desenvolvimento sustentável: a governança nacional e internacional.............................................................................................................................10

a) A responsabilidade dos Estados.................................................................................10

b) A responsabilidade das empresas...............................................................................11

c) A responsabilidade das instituições financeiras.........................................................13

d) O acesso à informação e a participação pública.........................................................14

e) O Monitoramento e a Accountability.........................................................................15

f) As licitações verdes....................................................................................................15

g) Águas: A cobrança pelo uso da água..........................................................................16

h) Águas: A criação de áreas protegidas em alto-mar....................................................16

i) Águas: a gestão de aquíferos sob o território de diversos Estados.............................16

j) A tributação como mecanismo de gestão ambiental..................................................17

k) O princípio da interdição do retrocesso no direito ambiental.....................................18

l) Definição e critérios para a sustentabilidade local.....................................................19

4) A Economia Verde no contexto do desenvolvimento sustentável: a erradicação da pobreza..................................................................................................................................................19

a) A regularização fundiária...........................................................................................19

b) A educação ambiental.................................................................................................21

c) O direito fundamental à terra e à alimentação............................................................21

d) O direito dos povos indígenas e das populações tradicionais.....................................22

5) O Quadro Institucional Nacional.........................................................................................24

a) Instrumentos processuais e materiais........................................................................24

b) A integração das políticas municipais, estaduais e federais.......................................25

c) Métodos de análise da efetividade da aplicação das leis............................................25

6) O Quadro Institucional Internacional...................................................................................25

a) Instituições existentes................................................................................................25

b) Necessidade de novas instituições: Corte Mundial do Meio Ambiente.....................26

c) Necessidade de novas instituições: A Organização Mundial do Meio Ambiente......26

A ECONOMIA VERDE NO CONTEXTO DO DESENVOLVIMENTO SUSTENTÁVEL E DA ERRADICAÇÃO DA POBREZA

1)Definições

a) Aspectos importantes para o Conceito de economia verde

1) A internalização das externalidades dos custos sociais e ambientais. Algumas políticas para fomentar essa internalização seriam, por exemplo, a valoração dos recursos naturais por meio de taxas e os incentivos fiscais às práticas sustentáveis (PDMA).

2) A determinação de objetivos sociais que poderiam ser implementados pela ?economia verde?. Os objetivos poderiam ser: o aumento de empregos, a diminuição do consumo, a produção mais sustentável ou a garantia de moradia. As políticas correspondentes seriam promover licitações com critérios sustentáveis, viabilizar a regularização fundiária e incentivar investimentos públicos em áreas prioritárias (PDMA).

3) Com relação à economia verde, observa -se que quanto mais setorizada é feita a análise, mais facilmente podem ser identificadas políticas que possam fomentar a construção da perspectiva ?Verde?. Cada área específica, como as construções, o turismo, a biodiversidade, a energia, as cidades, têm as suas peculiaridades. O conceito de economia verde poderia ser tirado dos avanços sustentáveis de cada setor econômico (PDMA).

b) Aspectos importantes para o conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável

1) Identificar critérios gerais de sustentabilidade a partir de uma definição dada por cada país. Que cada país possa enviar ao Secretariado da ONU para a Rio + 20 sua definição do que seja desenvolvimento sustentável. Essa proposta decorre das disparidades entre o desenvolvimento econômico, social e ambiental de cada Estado. Cada um deve identificar de que modo poderá contribuir com as vidas presentes e futuras (PDMA).

2) Sugere-se que seja construído um conceito brasileiro de desenvolvimento sustentável de acordo com as prioridades de políticas públicas para o país (PDMA).

3) Opinião sobre a relevância do conceito de cada Estado:

?Um conceito é uma abstração que é utilizando para intelectualizar um assunto complexo. Assim, é possível explicar a complexidade da realidade que se torna mais acessível. No entanto, o risco que nasce com a utilização de um conceito é a sua simplificação e a sua banalização. Ele pode ser considerado como o espelho perfeito da realidade. E um erro tanto metodológico quanto cientifico. Às vezes, este caminho é tomado para o conceito do desenvolvimento sustentável. Há uma vontade das pessoas que trabalham com esse assunto de universalizar e de uniformizar o conceito. Por conseguinte, elas matam o conteúdo do desenvolvimento sustentável. Os princípios do desenvolvimento sustentável devem ser aplicados por cada Estado. Cada Estado tem seus próprios níveis de desenvolvimento, suas economias e sua sociedade. São, portanto, diferentes e não possuem nem os mesmos objetivos, nem os mesmos meios para realizar seus objetivos. As considerações ambientais, por exemplo, não têm o mesmo valor em cada Estado. Nesse sentido, o que é o desenvolvimento sustentável para um Estado não é necessariamente a mesma coisa para um outro Estado. Por isso, não é útil ter uma única definição do conceito do desenvolvimento sustentável. Praticamente cada Estado conhece suas necessidades no âmbito de seu desenvolvimento. Portanto, ele pode decidir sozinho suas políticas em função de sua realidade. Finalmente, é útil sublinhar um último ponto. Os recipientes finais das teorias do desenvolvimento e do desenvolvimento sustentável -os humanos- são às vezes esquecidos e negligenciados pelas pessoas que trabalham sobre esses assuntos. Suas realidades são tão complexas, tão diversas que é difícil entender como é possível fazer uma teoria sobre o desenvolvimento sustentável sem nunca realizar alguns estudos práticos no campo. Além disso, essas teorias são frequentemente construídas nos escritórios, em poucas horas. É uma razão porque o desenvolvimento sustentável tem poucos efeitos práticos? (Nitish Monebhurrun).

2) Investimento e Comércio Sustentáveis

a) Florestas Recomendações Internacionais

1) Adoção de uma Convenção sobre o tema. (Luciene Araújo)

2)Maior aporte de recursos financeiros para implantação de Pagamento por Serviços Ambientais como o Fundo Mundial para o Meio Ambiente (Global Environmental Facility ? GEF). (Luciene Araújo).

3)Estabelecer certificação socioambiental (José Antônio Tietzzman Silva).

4)Que sejam inseridas recomendações relativas a danos ambientais, no âmbito do Conselho de Direitos Humanos da ONU e em conselhos ou comissões do sistema regional de proteção aos Direitos Humanos. (José Antônio Tietzzman Silva). Recomendações Nacionais

1) Implementação de mecanismos e de instrumentos de conservação, por meio de medidas coercitivas e voluntárias. (Fernando Meneguin).

2) Implementação de políticas e de medidas que incentivem a redução do desmatamento ilegal. (Fernando Meneguin).

3) A implementação pelos Estados de incentivos financeiros para a preservação do meio ambiente, com a possibilidade de participação de entes públicos e privados. (Fernando Meneguin).

4) Foco na regularização fundiária e definição de direitos e benefícios oriundos de instrumentos diversos para a conservação. (Fernando Meneguin).

5) Definição de um marco regulatório nacional que privilegie a conservação e valorize a floresta em pé (PDMA).

6) Conciliar políticas públicas de desenvolvimento (ex. PAC) com políticas de conservação (ex. PNMC) (PDMA).

7)Direitos de propriedade claros e reconhecidos, visto que tal segurança trará a possibilidade de fazer um planejamento a longo prazo pelo detentor da terra (Fernando Meneguin e PDMA).

REDD:

8)Utilizar, não os estoques de carbono, mas os fluxos anuais de custo da oportunidade das terras com cobertura florestal (Virgílio Gibbon).

9)Unificação dos registros dos creditos de todos os Estados em uma única Empresa de Registro para evitar a dupla contagem no nível nacional (Virgílio Gibbon).

10)Necessidade de incorporar o conceito de custo de oportunidade na busca de soluções para o tema do desmatamento das florestas nativas (Virgílio Gibbon).

11) Estabelecer um regime de REDD+ demanda que os direitos e os deveres sejam claros tanto no nível nacional quanto no internacional (PDMA).

12)A participação local e a transparência no processo de definição do acesso a benefícios e da alocação de recursos de REDD+ são cruciais para a garantia de uma governança efetiva. (PDMA).

b) Energias renováveis

Recomendações Internacionais

1) Especificamente, uma Convenção-Quadro poderia:

a) Estabelecer uma lista das energias renováveis classificadas de acordo com critérios econômicos (custo de produção, nível de tecnologia necessário, os recursos necessários para a sua produção, os níveis de importação / exportação, a capacidade de criação de emprego, etc.) e ambientais (taxa de substituição de combustíveis fósseis, impacto ambiental, balanço de carbono do processo de produção, etc.) (Meryem Deffairi).

b) Estabelecer uma meta vinculativa, "um mínimo", de energia renovável em 10 anos para os países desenvolvidos e em 15 ou 20 anos para os países em desenvolvimento (obrigação de resultado, deixando os Estados livres dos meios utilizados para alcançar este) e, finalmente, integrar as necessidades de planejamento para cada Estado (Meryem Deffairi).

c) Fornecer um mecanismo para sanções financeiras aplicáveis em 10 anos, e a cada 5 anos, dependendo do nível de energia renovável em cada Estado, mediante o pagamento de uma multa a uma instituição internacional independente, responsável pela ?reinjeção? de fundos em projetos de desenvolvimento de tecnologia de produção de energia renovável. (Meryem Deffairi).

2) Ao invés de discutir um novo marco institucional deveríamos questionar a função e a capacidade de atuação da Agência Internacional para Energia Renovável criada em Janeiro de 2009 (IRENA - http://www.irena.org/home/index.aspx?PriMenuID=12&mnu=Pri) (Priscila Pereira de Andrade). Recomendações Nacionais

1)Fazer parte da Agência Internacional para Energia Renovável criada em Janeiro de 2009 (IRENA - http://www.irena.org/home/index.aspx?PriMenuID=12&mnu=Pri) (Priscila Pereira de Andrade).

2)Regulamentação do etanol no Brasil ? promulgar o Regulamento de Avaliação da Conformidade para Etanol combustível, cuja finalidade é estabelecer os critérios para avaliar as propriedades intrínsecas do etanol, considerando as normas técnicas estabelecidas, além de avaliar os requisitos socioambientais aplicáveis a seu processo produtivo, baseados nas legislações trabalhistas e ambientais brasileiras e internacionais, das quais o Brasil é signatário (PDMA).

3)Adoção de políticas governamentais de incentivo à substituição das fontes de energia baseadas em combustíveis fósseis por energias renováveis (Luciane Martins).

4) Implementação dos governos locais de legislação de fomento e de regulamentação da utilização de energias renováveis (Luciane Martins).

5)Promoção de concessão dos direitos de propriedade intelectual relativas às energias renováveis que possam favorecer os países em desenvolvimento (Luciane Martins).

6) Aquisição mais favorável de patentes tendo em vista a necessidade de investimento em energias renováveis em função dos problemas climáticos vivenciados (Luciane Martins).

7)Redução de tarifas e de subsídios visando a implementação de tecnologias empregadas para a geração de energias renováveis a fim de diminuir os custos e aumentar a sua produção (Luciane Martins). 8)Políticas públicas visando redução no consumo com o objetivo de reduzir também o consumo de energia. (Luciane Martins).

c) Biodiversidade e mecanismos de compensação

Recomendações Internacionais

1)Qualificar juridicamente a biodiversidade e dar-lhe um estatuto jurídico no âmbito internacional (Jessica Makowiak).

2)Definir no âmbito internacional a compensação e os seus critérios (Jessica Makowiak).

3)Situar a noção de compensação juntamente com os princípios reconhecidos e consagrados do direito internacional do meio ambiente (princípio da prevenção, do poluidor-pagador). A compensação pode antecipar ou intervir antes da realização do dano (Jessica Makowiak).

4)Hierarquizar as prioridades com relação à supressão da perda da biodiversidade, de redução das perdas e da compensação das perdas (Jessica Makowiak).

5) Reservar as ações de compensação aos projetos que não causem uma perda importante ou irreversível da biodiversidade (Jessica Makowiak).

6) Définir, classificar e hierarquizar as modalidades de compensação no âmbito da biodiversidade (Jessica Makowiak).

7)Prever, nos textos que permitem compensação, as medidas de acompanhamento, de fiscalização e de controle das medidas de compensação (Jessica Makowiak).

8)Prever as sanções em caso de desrespeito às medidas de compensação e de acompanhamento de seus efeitos (Jessica Makowiak).

9) Avaliar as experiências de compensação no plano institucional (problema dos atores que devem decidir, implementar e controlar as medidas de compensação) (Jessica Makowiak).

10) Identificar meios para canalizar recursos econômicos de conservação da biodiversidade para os países em desenvolvimento com rica biodiversidade. (Luiz Gustavo Bezerra).

d) Contratos privados verdes

Recomendações Internacionais

1) Na área de Direito Privado, a inserção de cláusulas socioambientais e também a exclusão de cláusulas chamadas de ?estabilização? para permitir a adoção de regras de direitos humanos e ambientais ratificadas posteriormente à assinatura dos acordos (Sílvia Pinheiro).

e) Transferência de tecnologia

Recomendações Internacionais

1)Promoção de mecanismos de financiamento mais favoráveis para aquisição de tecnologias limpas por empresas de países em desenvolvimento (Renata Calsing, Maria Marinho e Carlos Henrique Rubens Tomé Silva).

2) Formação de um fundo que permita a compra de licenças de tecnologias consideradas relevantes para a proteção do meio ambiente (Renata Calsing e Maria Marinho).

3)Necessidade de um estimulo à formação de plataformas de compartilhamento de licenças de tecnologias limpas (Renata Calsing e Maria Marinho).

4)Promoção da discussão sobre a adaptabilidade da licença compulsória às necessidades de acesso a tecnologia limpas e discussão de outros mecanismos (o invento representa um avanço, uma melhoria, uma redução de custos de produção e por isso a empresa titular utiliza de seu direito de exclusividade para se diferenciar no mercado. Logo, o estímulo a transferência de tecnologia, através do licenciamento só será efetivo se os Estados criarem mecanismos de incentivo ao setor privado titular ou co-titular de tecnologias protegidas que tenham impacto na proteção do meio ambiente) (Renata Calsing e Maria Marinho). Recomendações Nacionais

1)Avaliação, no âmbito doméstico, das formas criativas de flexibilização dos direitos de propriedade intelectual, que não violem os compromissos internacionais assumidos pelo País e, ao mesmo tempo, possibilitem a incorporação de tecnologias desenvolvidas no exterior (Carlos Henrique Rubens Tomé Silva).

2)Criação e aprimoramento de mecanismos nacionais de financiamento e desoneração tributária da inovação tecnológica, em especial voltados para as tecnologias ambientalmente saudáveis (Carlos Henrique Rubens Tomé Silva).

3)Adoção de políticas mais eficazes de estímulo à inovação tecnológica no ambiente empresarial (Carlos Henrique Rubens Tomé Silva).

f) Regimes financeiros nacionais e internacionais

1) Colocar os títulos da dívida pública americana que compõem as reservas internacionais dos países integrantes do grupo dos BRICS (Brasil, Rússia, Índia, China e África do Sul) em um Fundo de Investimentos administrado pelos próprios cotistas (Virgílio Gibbon).

2) Elaborar um regulamento para esse Fundo de tal forma que ele possa emitir ?Moeda Verde? até o limite de seu ativo, e que tal moeda só possa ser aplicada em ações ou financiamento de projetos sustentáveis de países que aceitem ser beneficiários das aplicações do Fundo (Virgílio Gibbon).

3) Assinar um Acordo de Cotistas de tal forma que a Moeda Verde tenha, por parte dos países cotistas, o mesmo tratamento que hoje se dá ao dólar. Isto é, seja computada como reserva e enseje a emissão correspondente de moeda nacional (Virgílio Gibbon)

4) Adoção de índices sociais e ambientais nas bolsas de valores. Exemplos: Domini 400 Social Index (DSI) , Dow Jones Sustainable Index (PDMA).

g) Produção Sustentável

1)Realizar uma política integrada de produtos fundada em um exame do impacto dos produtos ao longo de seu ciclo de vida. Promover o debate entre o poder público e privado sobre o tema para que as medidas sejam eficazes e que tenham o menor custo (PDMA).

2) Responsabilidade social da empresa para todo o ciclo de produção, incluindo: comunidades locais, salariados, acionistas, parceiros comerciais, fornecedores, clientes, poderes públicos (PDMA).

3) Financiamento sustentável : financiamento direto para áreas específicas : o financiamento beneficiaria algumas comunidades ou municípios desfavorizados. Fazer empréstimos por meio de depósitos em bancos desenvolvimento local, com taxas iguais ou abaixo do preço do mercado (PDMA).

h) Consumo Sustentável

1)Responsabilização dos indivíduos e das empresas pelo seu consumo sustentável (PDMA).

2)Controle pelos consumidores da publicidade enganosa das empresas que têm cláusulas em seus Códigos de Conduta sobre proteção ambiental ou certificações ligadas à Responsabilidade Social das Empresas (PDMA).

3) A Economia Verde no contexto do desenvolvimento sustentável: a governança nacional e internacional

a) A responsabilidade dos Estados

Recomendações Internacionais

1)Todas as Partes signatárias devem promover a gestão sustentável, especialmente no âmbito da Administração Pública (Maria Augusta Ferreira).

2)Por gestão sustentável entende-se aquela realizada com transparência, comportamento ético, respeito aos interesses das partes interessadas (stakeholders ? trabalhadores/servidores, consumidores, fornecedores, sociedade, governo), respeito aos Direitos Humanos, respeito ao meio ambiente (Maria Augusta Ferreira).

3) O respeito ao meio ambiente na gestão pública se fundamenta nos seguintes pilares: o uso racional dos recursos, a destinação adequada dos resíduos, as contratações públicas sustentáveis, o meio ambiente do trabalho sadio (Maria Augusta Ferreira). Recomendações Nacionais

1) A responsabilidade socioambiental dos órgão públicos federais, estaduais e municipais compreende, além da responsabilização por danos causados, a prevenção a esses danos, pela redução do impacto ambiental causado pelas atividades estatais, a partir da adoção de práticas de gestão sustentável (Maria Augusta Ferreira).

b) A responsabilidade das empresas

Recomendações internacionais

1) Dispositivo que indique a responsabilidade objetiva das empresas no caso de danos ambientais causados por empresas, com solidariedade entre a matriz e as filiais (Carole Peychaud).

2)Acordo sobre ?Direitos e responsabilidades dos atores do mercado? com dispositivos como: (PDMA).

a)Critérios mínimos que componham o Código de Conduta das empresas (destinatários e obrigações precisas e claras) (PDMA).

b) Obrigação de realizar os balanços anuais considerando critérios ambientais e sociais (PDMA).

c) Responsabilidade pelas certificações voluntárias obtidas de certificadoras como a ISO. (PDMA)

3) Acréscimo nas Convenções ambientais de dispositivos de conflito de leis e de conflito de jurisdição que indiquem as leis e os tribunais que poderão trazer a melhor reparação para os danos. Exemplo de regras (PDMA):

a) De conflito de leis:

1) no caso de indenizações por danos ambientais, deverá ser aplicada a regra mais favorável à vítima e à proteção do meio ambiente;

2) no caso de existirem seguros ambientais, a lei relativa aos direitos do segurado deve ser aplicada;

3) no caso de danos ambientais, a lei da matriz pode ser aplicada caso ela tenha controle sobre as atividades de sua filial.

b) De conflito de jurisdições:

1) As vítimas de danos ambientais podem escolher o tribunal que poderá decidir pela melhor reparação dos danos em razão, por exemplo, da proximidade das provas;

2) Se a matriz tiver o controle sobre as atividades de sua filial, a jurisdição da matriz terá competência para julgar o caso;

3) Uma ação contra uma multinacional pode ser interposta diante do tribunal do domicílio do réu. Se o réu for uma empresa, o domicílio do requerido pode ser localizado em qualquer um dos três lugares: a) onde a empresa tiver sido registrada; b) o local onde está a sua administração central, c) o principal local de realização das atividades da sociedade.

Recomendações específicas para o Direito internacional dos investimentos

1)A integração das disposições de proteção ao meio ambiente nos Acordos Internacionais de Investimento: os Acordos de investimento futuros ou a renegociação da existência de Acordos deveria incluir disposições específicas de proteção ao meio ambiente. Essas disposições podem considerar (Nitish Monebhurrun):

(i) A definição de uma atividade de investimento: as atividades das companhias constituídas de uma absoluta ignorância em leis ambientais nacionais não deveriam ser qualificadas como um investimento e, portanto, não deveriam se beneficiar de uma proteção a acordos de investimento. As disposições nos acordos internacionais de investimento sobre a definição do ambiente deveriam ressaltar esse ponto. O acordo deveria constatar que o investidor tem o dever de checar, examinar e entender o quadro legal do Estado de acolhimento, especialmente aquele aplicável ao ambiente e, assim, ele deverá começar e conduzir sua atividade conforme o acordo.

(ii) A definição de meio ambiente: meio ambiente não é uma abstração e, seguindo a linha do raciocínio acima, alguns detalhes devem estar disponíveis para definir ou identificar o que deve ser entendido por meio ambiente. Pode ser uma tarefa complexa prover uma definição exaustiva, porém, não é impossível listar indicadores de seu significado. Tais indicadores podem variar de um Estado para o outro.

(iii) Afirmação dos direitos dos Estados de regular de acordo com seus interesses ambientais: compensação é, normalmente, feita em caso de exploração, por exemplo, expropriação com motivos ambientais deveria ter um status específico e a compensação por essa expropriação deveria ser modulada para dar legitimidade ao objetivo de proteção ambiental.

(iv) As legítimas expectativas dos Estados: o Acordo deve, além de tudo, afirmar que os Estados tenham expectativas legítimas em que companhias privadas que investem em seu território sempre agirão de boa-fé para colaborar com eles, sempre que objetivos ambientais estão envolvidos. As empresas privadas devem agir de acordo com essas regras e não devem frustrar essas expectativas.

2)A integração de regras claras de conflito em Acordos internacionais de investimento, destacando a prevalência de normas de proteção ambiental sobre normas de proteção de investimentos (Nitish Monebhurrun):

(i) O princípio: toda vez que houver um conflito potencial entre a proteção ao investidor ou ao investimento e a proteção ao ambiente, os acordos de investimento devem apresentar regras claras de conflito. O acordo do investimento pode declarar que sempre que a proteção a um investimento entrar em conflito com uma norma ambiental, o último deve prevalecer sobre o anterior. Como a proteção ambiental é um objetivo unânime, considerado fundamental, deve-se dar a ela prioridade.

3)Promoção do uso de princípios sistêmicos de integração (Nitish Monebhurrun):

(i) O princípio: por este meio, os Acordos deveriam observar que as leis internacionais de investimento não são clinicamente isoladas do resto das leis internacionais e que a interpretação de um tratado internacional de investimento não exclui referências a outras leis que não tratem de investimento, como leis ambientais. Isso está de acordo com o artigo 31 (1) c) da Convenção de Viena sobre Tratados. Logo, normas ambientais podem ser integradas em setores de disputa sobre investimentos internacionais. Elas também podem ser invocadas por Estados e deverão ser consideradas por tribunais arbitrais.

Recomendações Nacionais

1)Implementar e divulgar o sistema de Pontos de Contatos Nacionais da OCDE no Brasil para que as empresas possam ser questionadas sobre as suas ações pela sociedade (PDMA).

2)Controlar as atividades privadas por meio de: 1) criação de critérios de sustentabilidade precisos os quais as empresas deveriam apresentar; 2) apresentação obrigatória desses critérios e 3) fiscalização do governo das informações publicadas. Esses critérios podem ter como base o GRI (PDMA).

3)Votação do Projeto de Lei 6826/2010 sobre a responsabilização administrativa e civil de pessoas jurídicas pela prática de atos contra a administração pública, nacional ou estrangeira e dá outras providências. Disponível em: http://www.camara.gov.br/proposicoesWeb/fichadetramitacao?idProposicao=4... (PDMA).

c) A responsabilidade das instituições financeiras Recomendações internacionais

1) As organizações públicas e privadas, nacionais, estrangeiras ou internacionais, financiadoras ou patrocinadoras de atividades ou de projetos de atividades poluidoras ou potencialmente poluidoras, devem exigir a apresentação de todos os documentos referentes ao licenciamento ambiental do empreendimento por elas financiados, emitidos pelos órgãos de controle responsáveis, sob pena de se tornarem co-responsáveis pelos eventuais efeitos decorrentes do descumprimento desta Lei ou de sua regulamentação (Bruna Acerbi).

2) Deve-se, também, atentar para análise de custo-benefício ambiental, definindo o objeto e identificando seus impactos, definindo-os de acordo com sua relevância e quantificação em unidades físicas, valorando-os monetariamente (Luiz Borges).

Recomendações nacionais

1) O Conselho Monetário Nacional deverá estabelecer uma resolução sobre os critérios de análise de riscos ambientais na concessão, pelo sistema financeiro brasileiro, de créditos para atividades efetiva ou potencialmente poluidoras (Bruna Acerbi).

2) O Conselho Monetário Nacional deverá estabelecer resolução sobre a limitação da responsabilidade dos agentes financiadores de projetos que venham a causar dano ao meio ambiente, proporcionalmente aos cuidados de análise prévia de riscos ambientais na concessão, pelo sistema financeiro brasileiro, de créditos para atividades efetiva ou potencialmente poluidoras (Bruna Acerbi).

3) Criação, no âmbito do Ministério do Meio Ambiente, de uma Comissão de Risco Ambiental, com o objetivo de auxiliar na implementação e da fiscalização da incorporação da variável ambiental nas instituições financeiras, além de aperfeiçoar a gestão de recursos financeiros governamentais e privados aplicados ao meio ambiente (Bruna Acerbi).

d) O acesso à informação e a participação pública

Recomendações internacionais

1) É necessário definir melhor o que significa o direito de acesso à informação tanto no âmbito internacional como no nacional (PDMA).

2) Que seja assinada uma Convenção Regional na América Latina para que seja implementado o acesso à informação na região, sob o controle de alguma instituição como a CEPAL (rede TAI).

3)Que seja ratificada a Convenção Aarhus (PDMA). Recomendações nacionais

1) Prazos para a publicação de todos os documentos referentes a decisões ambientais (PDMA).

2) Multas por descumprimento dos prazos de publicação (PDMA).

3) Que seja ratificada a Convenção Aarhus (PDMA).

4) Que seja assinada uma Convenção Regional na América Latina para que seja implementado o acesso à informação na região, sob

o controle de alguma instituição como a CEPAL (PDMA).

5) Que um Decreto seja promulgado com um maior detalhamento de termos que são normalmente muito imprecisos sobre a participação cidadã, com alguns exemplos de artigos (PDMA):

a) Que as audiências públicas possam ser realizadas, por exemplo, por setor, por população ou por comunidade para que não haja uma dominação das audiências por populações que tenham maior possibilidade de se expressar (Colin Crawford).

b) Obrigar que haja mecanismos eficazes de acesso da população e das comunidades interessadas a todos os documentos pertinentes à audiência pública, bem como o acesso a versões com linguagem de fácil compreensão para leigos dos detalhes dos projetos propostos(PDMA).

c) Oferecimento de cursos de capacitação para líderes comunitários e técnicas de mediação com o objetivo de qualificar os que necessitam do procedimento da audiência pública(PDMA).

d) Obrigar que a participação pública ocorra desde o início do procedimento ou do processo que atingirá a comunidade específica(PDMA).

6) Obrigar a elaboração de Relatório de Impacto Ambiental (RIMA) vinculado ao Estudo Prévio de Impacto Ambiental (EIA) (PDMA).

7)As leis devem compor os três níveis de controle (Federal, Estadual, e Municipal) e devem conter a provisão das audiências públicas por setor, ao menos no início dos processos ambientais. (Colin Crawford).

8) A disponibilização na internet dos Termos de Ajustamento de Condutas (TACs) e das Ações Civis Públicas em matéria ambiental, nos termos da Resolução Conjunta nº 02 do CNMP e do CNJ, destacando especificamente o objeto da presente ação, com a separação na indicação do que seria para prevenir danos ao meio ambiente e do que seria para reparar danos já causados ao meio ambiente. (Larissa Clare Pochmann da Silva).

e) O Monitoramento e a Accountability

1) Transposição do sistema de Monitoramento, como o exemplo do GRI, no Brasil(PDMA).

2) Controle das informações dadas pelas empresas de seus balanços anuais pelo Estado, por meio de um dos Ministérios. Esse Órgão nacional poderia representar o GRI no Brasil. Hoje essas informações não são controladas pelo Estado (PDMA).

3) Divulgação dos balanços das empresas pela internet (com dados comparáveis estabelecidos pelos Estados) (PDMA).

4) Norma sobre a obrigatoriedade dos balanços sociais, com a previsão de aspectos ambientais e sociais. (PDMA).

5) Decreto estipulando quais critérios devem constar no balanço social anual da empresa, para que as informações sejam comparáveis (PDMA).

f) As licitações verdes

Recomendações Internacionais

1) Redação de diretrizes mais específicas sobre o tema na Rio +20 (Teresa Villac). 2) Fortalecimento das contratações públicas sustentáveis no MERCOSUL (Teresa Villac).

Recomendações nacionais

1) Necessidade de regulamentação do art. 6º, XII e da Lei 12.187/09 (Teresa Villac).

2) Atuação governamental em prol da ampla disseminação da constitucionalidade e legalidade das contratações públicas sustentáveis em todos os entes federativos (Teresa Villac).

3) Fortalecimento do assessoramento jurídico-ambiental nos órgãos públicos de consultoria para que, nos processos licitatórios (artigo 38, parágrafo único, Lei 8.666/93) orientem a implementação das contratações públicas sustentáveis com segurança jurídica e observância dos princípios constitucionais, da Administração Pública e licitatórios (Teresa Villac). públicos (TeresaVillac).

5) Atuação integrada das contratações sustentáveis como mecanismo de gestão pública socioambiental (Teresa Villac).

6) Divulgação de programas existentes, como Agenda Ambiental na Administração Pública (A3P ? MMA) (Teresa Villac).

g) Águas: A cobrança pelo uso da água

Recomendações Nacionais

1) A Tarifa Progressiva deve ser abolida do sistema jurídico por representar uma ameaça à hidrodignidade com a categorização dos excluídos da água (João Renato L. Paulon).

h) Águas: A criação de áreas protegidas em alto-mar

1) A fim de se alcançar o desenvolvimento sustentável, compete aos Estados a criação de áreas marinhas protegidas (Fernanda Borges).

2) As áreas marinhas protegidas devem ser consideradas como áreas de proteção integral, essenciais para a preservação da biodiversidade e para a manutenção dos processos ecológicos marinhos essenciais (Fernanda Borges).

3) Toda e qualquer atividade lesiva ou potencialmente lesiva ao equilíbrio ecológico e à preservação da biodiversidade nas áreas marinhas protegidas devem ser consideradas proibidas, em respeito ao direito ao meio ambiente ecologicamente equilibrado das presentes e das futuras gerações (Fernanda Borges).

4) As áreas marinhas protegidas devem garantir a proteção da biodiversidade e a qualidade das águas marinhas, para se evitar a acidificação e a morte dos organismos bióticos e abióticos necessários à captação de carbono da atmosfera, responsáveis pela mitigação do aquecimento global e da mudança climática (Fernanda Borges).

5) As áreas marinhas protegidas devem garantir a preservação de recursos naturais pesqueiros, necessários à segurança alimentar das presentes e futuras gerações (Fernanda Borges).

6) As áreas marinhas e as zonas costeiras consideradas pelo Ministério do Meio Ambiente Brasileiro, no PROBIO I e II, devem ser constituídas, por lei, como áreas marinhas protegidas e Unidades de Conservação, para o fim de preservar e manter os processos ecológicos marinhos essenciais (Fernanda Borges).

i) Águas: a gestão de aquíferos sob o território de diversos Estados

1) Redução da informação assimétrica no âmbito dos aquíferos (caso específico: Aqüífero Guarani) (David Cassuto e Romulo Sampaio).

2) Aumento do envolvimento regional e local (sensibilização, capacitação e conhecimento tradicional). (David Cassuto e Romulo Sampaio)´.

3) Harmonização das legislações nacionais. (David Cassuto e Romulo Sampaio).

4) Estabelecimento de estruturas regulatórias (serviços ambientais). (David Cassuto e Romulo Sampaio).

j) A tributação como mecanismo de gestão ambiental

Recomendações Internacionais

1) Estabelecer um limite (cap) para cada país, de emissão de carbono. O cap inicial deverá ser resultado da média de carbono emitido ao longo dos últimos 3 a cinco anos. Uma regra de transição poderá ser criada (regra mais leniente) para países em desenvolvimento e para os países menos desenvolvidos (Least developed countries ? conforme classificação da OMC) ? para que estes países não sejam prejudicados em virtude de seu pouco grau de desenvolvimento atual, e para que eles possam desenvolver-se a despeito das metas para redução de carbono (Tatiana Falcão Octaviano).

2) O carbono emitido em cada país deverá passar a ser tributado, de modo a incentivar as empresas a empregarem recursos no desenvolvimento de novas tecnologias para produção de energia limpa. As alíquotas do imposto deverão der uniformes em cada país (sugerimos o estabelecimento de uma alíquota máxima e uma alíquota mínima), de modo a que não sejam criados ?paraísos fiscais de carbono? (Tatiana Falcão Octaviano).

3) O estabelecimento de alíquotas máxima e mínima também impedirá a adoção de ajustes tarifários de importação de produtos (Border Tax Adjustments ?BTA?) (Tatiana Falcão Octaviano).

4) Criar-se um tratado que estabeleça uma origem para o carbono emitido em decorrência de atividades internacionais (Tatiana Falcão Octaviano).

5) Criação de um novo organismo internacional, dotado de poder de polícia para fiscalizar e eventualmente penalizar aqueles que não estiverem obedecendo aos limites impostos pelo tratado (Tatiana Falcão Octaviano).

Recomendações Nacionais

1) Do tributo verde:

a) Instituir uma forma menos onerosa para o consumidor final, de tributação dos combustíveis, de modo a incentivar o consumo de combustíveis menos poluentes (tais como o biodiesel e o álcool) com o objetivo de reduzir o consumo de combustíveis de maior concentração carbônica e, portanto, mais poluentes, tais como o diesel e a queima de carvão (Tatiana Falcão Octaviano).

b) Instituir uma contribuição verde (cuja finalidade tivesse o fim precípuo de criar-se um fundo para o combate das alterações climáticas e a redução dos efeitos nocivos do aquecimento global) sobre combustíveis. A contribuição seria progressiva, onerado mais o combustível diesel e menos o biodiesel, por exemplo (Tatiana Falcão Octaviano).

c) Os recursos arrecadados com a contribuição verde devem ser empregados no desenvolvimento de tecnologia brasileira para montagem de carros elétricos, desenvolvimento de novas fórmulas de biodiesel (por exemplo, sabe-se que é possível transformar casca de batata e outras verduras em combustível) e até mesmo para a promoção de iniciativas ?verdes? tais como aumento da eficiência no projeto de reciclagem, replantio de florestas (que também são internacionalmente denominadas ?carbon sinks,? já que consomem e re-absorvem o carbono presente na atmosfera), construção de ciclovias para estimular a utilização de bicicletas pela população local, etc. (Tatiana Falcão Octaviano).

2) ICMS

a) Sugerimos que seja concedido pelo governo federal uma dedução na base de cálculo do imposto de renda, para as pessoas jurídicas que comprovarem estar adotando práticas que contribuam para a redução das emissões de carbono. Este é um incentivo que já foi testado em países europeus e se mostrou altamente efetivo na redução das emissões de carbono (Tatiana Falcão Octaviano).

b) Sugere-se que o governo federal estabeleça metas para que cada estado reduza a quantidade de carbono emitida em seus respectivos estados (Tatiana Falcão Octaviano).

c) Instituir incentivo governamental na forma de um ?prêmio? em dinheiro. Os cinco Estados que conseguissem efetuar a maior redução de emissões (proporcionalmente à média histórica de cada estado) ganhariam este prêmio, que nada mais seria do que um repasse adicional de recursos para utilização no desenvolvimento de obras de infraestrutura ?verdes? tais como a construção de novas linhas de metrô e de trem. Esta sugestão estadual é compatível com a política mundial de controle às mudanças climáticas (Tatiana Falcão Octaviano).

k) O princípio da interdição do retrocesso no direito ambiental

Recomendações Internacionais

1) Migração dos princípios da interdição de retrocesso do âmbito dos direitos humanos para o de direito ambiental (Michel Prieur).

2) Com o objetivo de preservar o desenvolvimento sustentável e garantir a necessária tutela do meio ambiente, os Estados não poderão adotar medidas legislativas, administrativas ou judiciais, que importem uma redução ilegítima dos respectivos níveis de proteção que concedem as leis protetoras do meio ambiente, exceto que concorresse um interesse público prevalente (Maria Morelli). 3) No caso que os Estados adotem uma medida legislativa, administrativa ou judicial, que reduza os níveis de proteção ambiental vigentes, deverão justificar devidamente a razoabilidade e a proporcionalidade da medida (Maria Morelli). Recomendações Nacionais

1) Os objetivos ambientais devem ser obtidos em forma gradual, através de metas provisórias e finais, projetadas sobre a base de uma planificação estatal que facilite a execução das atividades relacionadas com esses objetivos. (Maria Morelli).

2) Os esforços feitos para garantir a devida proteção e conservação do meio ambiente não podem diminuir. Neste sentido, é proibida a adoção de medidas legislativas, administrativas ou judiciais que reduzam ilegitimamente os níveis de proteção da legislação ambiental, exceto no caso de concorrência com um interesse público que seja prevalente. (Maria Morelli).

l) Definição e critérios para a sustentabilidade local

Recomendações Nacionais

1) Definição e promoção de indicadores de sustentabilidades que possam ser utilizados para formulação de políticas públicas ambientais locais. Indicadores que compatibilizem a proteção e a preservação dos bens, serviços e recursos ambientais e culturais com as necessidades de desenvolvimento econômico e social. (PDMA).

4) A Economia Verde no contexto do desenvolvimento sustentável: a erradicação da pobreza

a) A regularização fundiária

1)Propõe-se a fixação de direitos da propriedade nas florestas e biomas para evitar o desmatamento ilegal (Fernando Meneguin).

2)A concessão dos direitos da propriedade imóvel pública para melhorar o controle dos recursos nacionais e facilitar a regularização fundaria (Fernando Meneguin).

3)A imposição de limites no uso da terra; a concessão de direitos que não sejam absolutos, mais forneçam benefícios a detentor do direto e ao Estado por meio de diretrizes voltadas para o uso da terra (Fernando Meneguin).

4)É necessário estabelecer uma política efetiva e um processo coordenado do ordenamento territorial (José Heder Benatti).

a) O Estado deve ser proativo e coordenar o processo do ordenamento territorial para que suas políticas públicas sejam eficazes, pois a falta de uma política de destinação de bens públicos pode deixar espaço para que ocorra um ordenamento caótico das áreas públicas, por meio da grilagem e do desmatamento ? o que, na maioria das vezes, acontece quando tal política não existe.

b) Para tanto, é necessário estabelecer uma política de ordenamento territorial que inclua: regularização fundiária; licenciamento ambiental das propriedades rurais; cumprimento da função social da propriedade; controle, fiscalização e instrumentos econômicos capazes de estimular a gestão sustentável dos recursos naturais, de maneira especial, da floresta.

i) Por exemplo, o incentivo econômico ou fiscal pode estimular gastos privados em certas áreas, desestimular comportamentos danificados, e corrigir tendências do mercado que podem encorajar ações contra a conservação da natureza e proteção dos recursos naturais.

5)A regularização fundiária para assegurar o controle e definir o direito de propriedade, permitindo o poder público conhecer quem está ocupando as glebas de terra e como estão sendo utilizados. (José Heder Benatti).

c) Para superar o atual caos fundiário, primeiramente deverá ser definida a dominialidade das áreas ? quem é o proprietário da terra: público ou privado? Se for público, de qual ente federativo?

d) O reconhecimento oficial das diferentes formas de ocupação existentes permitirá ao Estado e à sociedade o controle sobre o uso da terra e dos demais recursos naturais. Portanto, a regularização fundiária terá impacto positivo e não negativo, desde que priorize a ocupação familiar.

e) Outro efeito positivo da política de regularização fundiária é o combate à grilagem de terras públicas.

6) Há várias medidas necessárias para implementar um ordenamento territorial: (José Heder Benatti).

f) superar a limitada capacidade de gestão dos órgãos competentes para o ordenamento fundiário, seja no seu corpo técnico, seja no material.

g) compreender que a consolidação da propriedade rural, respeitando os pressupostos sociais e ambientais, representa um importante passo para o fortalecimento da cidadania e para a proteção ambiental.

h) no caso amazônico, a institucionalização da propriedade privada é, também, uma condição para a consolidação de um modelo democrático e participativo de distribuição e de gestão da terra e dos recursos naturais e, consequentemente, de proteção do meio ambiente.

i) promover ?[a] arrecadação das terras devolutas, hoje ocupadas ilegalmente, [que] torna-se o primeiro passo no processo de ordenamento territorial.

7) Os processos de regularização de ocupação de terra devem: (José Heder Benatti).

j) ser acompanhados de planta e de memorial descritivo georreferenciado. Os custos financeiros para a sua elaboração deverão ser de responsabilidade da (o) beneficiária (o) da legitimação, com exceção dos processos de regularização das pequenas propriedades.

k) incluir, nos títulos de domínio expedidos pelo órgão fundiário, ?cláusulas que obriguem o beneficiário a manter, a conservar e, se for o caso, a restaurar as áreas de preservação permanente e de reserva legal.

l) realizar o processo de varredura fundiária territorial, que leva ?um processo de gestão territorial contínua, transparente e democrática, pactuado com os diferentes atores sociais ? federal, estadual, municipal e sociedade civil,? seguindo o exemplo do programa já testado no Estado do Pará.

8) Outras ações indispensáveis e complementares à regularização fundiária: (José Heder Benatti).

m) a digitalização do acervo fundiário dos órgãos fundiários estaduais e federais? para contribuir à ?resolução de várias problemáticas referentes às questões de terra, principalmente aquelas relacionadas à segurança jurídica dos títulos de propriedade rural.

n) a modernização do acesso às informações de registro de imóveis rurais? com o objetivo de ?aumentar a confiabilidade dos processos de registros de imóveis e garantir que as informações possam ser obtidas de maneira rápida e a distância pelas entidades públicas ligadas às questões de terra da unidade federativa.

o)

a implementação do cadastro ambiental rural? (CAR) seguindo o exemplo do Estado do Pará (CAR-PA)

b) A educação ambiental

Recomendações Internacionais

1) Tornar o investimento em educação prioridade em países em desenvolvimento e subdesenvolvidos, uma vez que a inexistência de educação contribui ao desemprego, que, por sua vez, reflete na criminalidade e na pobreza. E, ainda, garantir que a educação sirva como instrumento para a conscientização da população para os atuais problemas no mundo, como a política, a saúde e a preservação do meio ambiente. A má distribuição das riquezas também é fruto de uma precária educação (Patricia Pellanda).

Recomendações Nacionais

1) A educação Ambiental, em todos os níveis, é responsabilidade de todos porque tem reflexo na redução das desigualdades sociais, devendo, nas escolas, ser obedecido ao princípio da transversalidade. (Maria Collares).

2) O poder Público deverá capacitar professores para o ensino da Educação Ambiental em todos os níveis de governo e acompanhar a eficácia do método adotado. (Maria Collares).

3) As informações sobre a Educação Ambiental exigem a transparência necessária para a compreensão de todos porque contribui para a proteção dos recursos naturais, para promover a saúde da população e para colaborar com a erradicação da pobreza. (Maria Collares).

4) A EducaçãoAmbiental é propulsora do desenvolvimento sustentável, razão de ser obrigatória nas escolas, nas atividades sociais, profissionais e públicas. (Maria Collares).

5) É obrigatória a inclusão da matéria Direito Ambiental na graduação objetivando formar o estudante um profissional capacitado para tornar efetiva a legislação ambiental em todas as atividades laborais. (Maria Collares).

c) O direito fundamental à terra e à alimentação

Recomendações Internacionais

1) No que tange ao direito à alimentação o foco da discussão encontra-se na erradicação da fome das populações. Tal problema não pode basear-se em instrumentos que objetivem o aumento da produção de alimentos no mundo, mas sim em meios adequados ao combate das desigualdades sociais e da má distribuição das riquezas. (Patricia Pellanda).

2) Incentivar a aplicação da Economia Solidária nos países, conscientizando a iniciativa privada de que doações e atitudes solidárias podem contribuir aos resultados da própria empresa, a exemplo da interpretação e aplicação conjunta do Decreto Municipal nº 51.907, de 5 de novembro de 2010, e da Portaria nº 40.497, de 27 de abril de 2001, da cidade brasileira de São Paulo (Patricia Pellanda).

Recomendações Nacionais

1) Valorizar e respeitar o conceito de terras e territórios reconhecidos aos povos indígenas e às comunidades tradicionais como direito coletivo, transcendendo a ideia de propriedade meramente individual (Patricia Pellanda).

2) Impedir a equiparação de terras indígenas à propriedade rural familiar no ordenamento jurídico interno dos Estados, por meio do compromisso internacional e do reconhecimento das características específicas aos povos indígenas e suas práticas culturais. Tal medida impedirá, ainda, o desenvolvimento desenfreado do agronegócio em terras indígenas e demais explorações que vêm ocorrendo com frequência sobre essas populações (Patricia Pellanda).

3) O compromisso dos Estados com as suas respectivas populações, no intuito de reduzir/erradicar a corrupção política e destinar as verbas aos setores que efetivamente devem ser beneficiados, punindo aqueles que desviam verbas, enriquecem individualmente e ?esquecem? a sua verdadeira função frente ao poder público e social (Patricia Pellanda).

4) A conscientização da população de que muitos problemas podem ser resolvidos em curto prazo a partir de medidas criadas e praticadas pela própria população, independente do Poder Público e da ação efetiva de políticos, uma vez que problemas como a fome no mundo e a atual devastação do meio ambiente são problemas de todos os seres humanos no mundo. Se cada cidadão ajudasse apenas uma pessoa necessitada, a diferença já seria imensa (Patricia Pellanda).

5) Além da alimentação em quantidade suficiente para satisfazer as necessidades básicas humanas, também devem ser priorizados alimentos (incluindo a água) com qualidade, com vistas à segurança alimentar internacionalmente almejada. Por meio da alimentação quantitativa e qualitativamente adequadas também poderão ser visualizados resultados positivos no setor da saúde, com a redução de doenças, especialmente aquelas provenientes do uso e consumo de agrotóxicos e novas tecnologias, como os transgênicos (Patricia Pellanda).

d) O direito dos povos indígenas e das populações tradicionais

Recomendações Internacionais

1)Protocolo que traga definições, obrigações e direitos mais precisos sobre (PDMA):

a) consentimento prévio, livre e informado em relação a qualquer atividade realizada em áreas indígenas;

b)participação na implementação de projetos;

c) proteção e garantia do acesso à terra, dos recursos naturais e dos benefícios oriundos dos mesmos;

d) reconhecimento do conhecimento tradicional de povos indígenas (como?), proteção contra realocação de povos para outros territórios (como?);

e) mecanismo de monitoramento deve ser criado no âmbito internacional e nacional para garantir a transparência e a efetividade de tais direitos na prática.

2)Os povos indígenas podem sofrer impactos das consequências das mudanças climáticas globais. É necessário garantir que tais impactos sejam mitigados e que capacitação e adaptação às mudanças climáticas sejam direitos desses povos (PDMA).

3) Os povos indígenas têm um papel fundamental na conservação de recursos ambientais e esse papel deve ser reconhecido para fins de compensação por serviços ambientais e distribuição de benefícios de REDD (Redução de Emissão de Desmatamento e Degradação)

(PDMA). Recomendações Nacionais

1)A FUNAI deve se estruturar melhor para garantir que os compromissos assumidos pelo Brasil a nível internacional sejam implementados. É preciso garantir o cumprimento efetivo de princípios e direitos indígenas (PDMA).

2)Deve haver um maior acesso a informação e participação de povos indígenas na implementação e na elaboração de projetos que possam afetá-los direta ou indiretamente (PDMA).

3)É necessário garantir que povos indígenas exerçam o direito previsto na Constituição Federal de usufruto dos benefícios de suas terras, incluindo os serviços ambientais prestados pelas florestas nas quais vivem (PDMA).

4)Valorizar e respeitar o conceito de terras e territórios reconhecidos aos povos indígenas e às comunidades tradicionais como direito coletivo, transcendendo a ideia de propriedade meramente individual. (Patricia Pellanda).

5)Impedir a equiparação de terras indígenas à propriedade rural familiar no ordenamento jurídico interno dos Estados, por meio do compromisso internacional e do reconhecimento das características específicas aos povos indígenas e suas práticas culturais. Tal medida impedirá, ainda, o desenvolvimento desenfreado do agronegócio em terras indígenas e demais explorações que vêm ocorrendo com frequência sobre essas populações. (Patricia Pellanda).

6)Definição do que seriam populações tradicionais (Colin Crawford).

QUADRO INSTITUCIONAL NACIONAL E INTERNACIONAL PARA O DESENVOLVIMENTO SUSTENTÁVEL.

5) O Quadro Institucional Nacional

a) Instrumentos processuais e materiais

Recomendações Internacionais: instrumentos-processuais

1) Previsão de participação da sociedade civil por meio de entidades representativas no caso de solução de conflitos em matéria ambiental nas instituições internacionais como amicus curiae. (Larissa Clare Pochmann da Silva).

2) Estabelecimento de um direito de ação nos tribunais nacionais para punir o descumprimento de Tratados ambientais (Gérard Monédaire).

3) Criação de Uniões regionais dotadas de uma personalidade jurídica distinta dos Estados Membros, que possam assinar Tratados Ambientais, tendo como resultado um maior engajamento desses Estados nas questões ambientais (Gérard Monédaire).

4) Necessidade de que o cidadão ou a sociedade civil tenha direitos de petição para intervir nas Assembleias Legislativas ou nas Comissões (Gérard Monédaire).

5) Imposição de sanções financeiras para o descumprimento ou cumprimento incompleto das decisões de Tribunais ou das leis voltadas para o meio ambiente (Gérard Monédaire).

6) Inversão do ônus da prova em disputas ambientais (Carole Peychaud).

Recomendações Internacionais: instrumentos materiais

1) Elaboração de um tratado sobre a reparação de danos ambientais transnacionais que afetem direta e individualmente nacionais de outros países (Larissa Clare Pochmann da Silva). Recomendações Nacionais: instrumentos-processuais

1) Realização de audiências públicas ou de consultas antes de se firmar Termos de Ajustamento de Conduta em matéria ambiental, discutindo-se os termos que o compromisso será proposto, para que haja a participação dos demais legitimados e da sociedade civil na construção da melhor solução na reparação de danos ambientais (Larissa Clare Pochmann da Silva).

2) Criação de varas especializadas em tutela coletiva nos Códigos de Organização e Divisão Judiciária de cada Estado, para que seja dado um tratamento mais técnico e prioridade de tramitação nas questões ambientais (Larissa Clare Pochmann da Silva).

3) Divulgação dos valores de condenação a danos ambientais destinados ao fundo em matéria ambiental, permitindo a publicidade de como serão aplicados os valores oriundos de condenações por degradações ambientais na reparação do meio ambiente (Larissa Clare Pochmann da Silva).

b) A integração das políticas municipais, estaduais e federais

Recomendações Nacionais

1) A integração de políticas ambientais passa pela criação de critérios claros sobre regras de cooperação entre os entes das diferentes esferas da federação. Capacitação do regulador, principalmente do local, visando aumentar o grau de confiança institucional para evitar o controle estatal múltiplo e ineficiente (PDMA).

c)

Métodos de análise da efetividade da aplicação das leis Recomendações Internacionais

1) Os Secretariados das Convenções requeiram aos Estados a designação de instituições nacionais que sejam de Pontos Nacionais de Contato competentes para identificar o descumprimento dos Tratados ambientais que tiverem sido ratificados pelos Estados (PDMA).

2) A prioridade não está na criação de novas leis e tratados internacionais, mas no comprometimento político e social para a aplicação e efetividade das normas já existentes (Patricia Pellanda). Recomendações Nacionais

1) Analisar a efetividade das leis ambientais com variáveis como o fato de possuir Plano Diretor, lei instituindo o Conselho Municipal de Meio Ambiente, dotação orçamentária prevista em lei e ser habilitado a realizar licenciamento ambiental ? método utilizado na pesquisa do PDMA e CPDE (Romulo Sampaio).

2) Metas para melhoria da qualidade ambiental (por exemplo, metas para banir o uso de agrotóxicos que causam danos a saúde humana e ao meio ambiente já proibidos na Europa). (Solange Teles).

3) Criação de indicadores jurídicos de sustentabilidade ambiental - indicadores de governança ambiental ou de política de governança ambiental. (Solange Teles).

6) O Quadro Institucional Internacional

a) Instituições existentes

Recomendações Internacionais

1) Criação de uma agência no âmbito da ONU com competência para o tratamento do desenvolvimento sustentável - esse novo órgão deverá incorporar o PNUMA e o comitê dentro do ECOSOC responsável por desenvolvimento sustentável (PDMA).

2) Criação de um comitê dentro do novo órgão que representaria ONGs internacionais selecionadas por sua atuação (PDMA).

3) Foco no PNUMA.

4) Transformação do Conselho Econômico e Social das Nações Unidas em Conselho Econômico, Social e Ambiental (PDMA).

5) Reforma da Comissão de Desenvolvimento Sustentável na Assembleia Geral (PDMA).

b) Necessidade de novas instituições: Corte Mundial do Meio Ambiente

Recomendações Internacionais

Tendo em consideração o papel e o peso desempenhado pela Corte Internacional de Justiça (CIJ) na comunidade internacional, propomos fundamente a reforma da CIJ ou a fundação de uma Corte Mundial do Meio Ambiente, com base nas seguintes propostas (Rafael Prado):

1) Que a CIJ flexibilize a sua Câmara Ambiental, e que fomente a utilização do princípio de participação e de acesso à justiça das partes interessadas (não apenas estatais, mas também da sociedade civil). O princípio de participação, um dos fundamentais do Direito Internacional Ambiental, foi reconhecido pela CIJ mesma na Sentença do Caso das Usinas de Pasta de Papel no rio Uruguai (ARG vs. URU) (Rafael Prado).

2) Que a CIJ se manifeste sobre a sua competência abrangente em matéria ambiental entre Estados-membros, e que sem necesidade de modificar o seu Estatuto inserido na Carta das Nações Unidas, que se permita a materialização do principio de participação e acesso à informação e à justiça no caso de questões ambientais que afetem diretamente populações nacionais dos países litigantes. (Rafael Prado)

c) Necessidade de novas instituições: A Organização Mundial do Meio Ambiente

Recomendações Internacionais

1) Os Secretariados das Convenções ambientais, assim como as instâncias técnicas das Convenções seriam Órgãos especializados da nova Organização Internacional (Sandro Schmitz dos Santos).

2) Um dos Órgãos da Organização seria um Órgão de Solução de Controvérsias (OSC) no modelo da estrutura da OMC, com consultas e arbitragem sobre controvérsias relacionadas ao Direito Internacional do Meio Ambiente. O Órgão seria constituído também por uma Comissão com competências similares à Comissão Interamericana de Direitos Humanos (CIDH) (Sandro Schmitz dos Santos).

3) Três seriam as fontes de recursos da nova organização: as cotas-partes dos Estados que a integram, os recursos de condenações a grandes danos ambientais e taxas cobradas em suas funções de certificação de créditos de carbono e da economia ambiental em geral (Sandro Schmitz dos Santos).

FGV DIREITO RIO+20

Terceira fase do Forum de Sustentabiliidade

FGV DIREITO RIO+20

(14 de setembro ate 2 de outubro)

Aterceira fase consiste no debate em portugues, espanhol e ingles sobre as recomendacoes que serao feitas sobre os temas da Rio+20. Essas recomendacoes decorreram das Jornadas que foram realizadad pelo PDMA e das discussoes que ocorreram durante a 2. fase do forum. As recomendacoes internacionais serao entreques para o Secretariado da ONU para a Conferencia Rio+20 e as recomendacoes nacionais serao entregues para a Comissao Nacional formada para construir a posicao brasileira para a Rio+20.

CHART OF SAO PAULO PRE RIO +20 / 2011

Participants of the International Symposium towards the UN Conference on En-vironment, Rio - 2012 Workshop and MPF Rio + 20, which featured the partici-pation of lecturers Antonio Herman V. Benjamin, Minister of the Superior Court of Justice and Professor of Environmental Law and Comparative Law and Bio-diversity at the University of Texas / USA, Gérard Monédiaire - Professor at the University of Limoges / France, Director of the Center for Interdisciplinary Re-search on environmental law, planning and urbanism (CRIDEAU), Jessica Ma-kowiak, master of conferences at the University of Limoges, Frederic Bouin, master of conferences at the University of Perpignan, Michel Prieur, Professor Emeritus at the University of Limoges (2004) ? France and the gold medal of environmental law of the University of Brussels and Paulo Affonso Leme Machado, lawyer, professor of environmental law at the Methodist University of Piracicaba (UNIMEP); of the debaters Alvaro Luiz Valery Mirra, Judge - TJ / SP, Solange Teles da Silva, lawyer and Professor of Environmental Law at the Mackenzie University / SP, Colin Crawford, professor of environmental law in the Law School at Tulane University, New Orleans / USA; Ricardo Stanziola Vieira, lawyer and coordinator of projects on human rights and public policies at the IEDC - Institute of Studies on Law and Citizenship, Consuelo Moromizato Yoshida, federal judge, TRF/ 3rd Region, and Sandra Cureau ? Sub General Republic Prosecutor and Vice Electoral General Prosecutor, the panels being chaired by José Leonidas Bellem de Lima, the Regional Republic Prosecutor /PRR-3 ª R, Regina Helena Furtado Strong, Promoter of Justice, MP / SP and Nicolao Dino Neto, Regional Republic prosecutor/PRR-1rst region, General Director of the Union Public Prosecution School, held on 27 and 28 June 2011, at the headquarters of the Regional Republic Prosecutor of the 3rd Region, São Paulo, after discussing the themes of the International Symposium towards Rio + 20 in workshops, expose and, ultimately, conclude the folowing:

I) Regarding environmental displaced people:

Considering that according to the report "Climate Change and Forced Migration Scenarios," prepared by the Institute for Sustainable Development for the European Commission, and presented during the conference of Poznan (Poland, 1rst to 12th, december, 2008), the number environmental displaced people exceeded 25 million, and is expected to have achieved 50 million people last year (2010); Considering that the ?United Nations Office for the Coordination of Hu-manitarian Affairs (OCHA) in partnership with Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) conducted a study on the relationship between people dis-placement and climate change. In this research it became clear that in 2008 approximately 36 million people were displaced as a result of natural disasters, including: earthquakes, floods and rains. About 28 million people have com-pletely lost their homes, and nearly 8 million had to be evacuated from their homes because they were temporarily uninhabitable. The most affected region by these disasters was Asia. (OCHA / IDMC, 2009) In the same year, for com-parison, the number of internally displaced due to conflicts accounted for 26 million people. (UNHCR, 2009)."

Considering that soon the number of environmental displaced people can exceed the number of refugees as established by the Geneva Convention (1951), recorded at the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), following predictions of the United Nations Institute for Environment and Human Security;

Considering that "The Global Humanitarian Forum (GFH) recently did a survey showing the impact of climate change on human society, exploring is-sues of that impact on food, health, poverty, security and human displacement.

Regarding this last item, the study acknowledges that it is difficult to prove that a heavy rain or a cyclone arises from the effects of climate change. However, the conclusion shows that 40% of weather-related disasters come from the climate change effect, taking in account the increase of this kind of event in the last thirty years. As a result, the research argues that it should be used the concept of displaced people due to climate reasons, which has grown to 26 million people and will triple by 2020.?

Considering that, in a prediction exercise, Conisbee and Simms (2003) report that, until 2050, in case of continuing the present level of ecological de-gradation, about 150 million people will move due to global warming. Inter-national reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2008) and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (2004) also point to the growing number of people affected by extreme environmental events such as hurricanes, floods and landslides. The rise in the average sea level will affect even urban areas such as Alexandria, Manila, Shanghai and Jakarta, with estimative of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), predicting that the number of displaced people will reach 190 million by 2050, population close to the Brazilian territory;

Considering that even countries like Brazil, where climatic conditions historically have produced favorable conditions, keeping it free of major disas-ters, there are problems with the environmental "displaced" or "plagued" people (as in the case of northeastern drought, forcing the secular people displacement towards large urban centers, especially the city of São Paulo), stated that in the case of torrential rains with flooding and landslides, as the recent drastic hydro-logical events in the states of Santa Catarina, Rio de Janeiro, Alagoas, Per-nambuco and Vale do Paraiba (Sao Paulo State), there were many dead and displaced people; Considering that "The Stockholm Conference of 1972, already provides for the recognition of early and differentiated responsibilities of States. And the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, in the Principle 13 also pro-vides for State responsibility for environmental damage and cooperation of those States to the development of international environmental law rules relat-ing to liability and compensation."

Considering that the environmental displaced people, to be covered by the Legal Global Statute are those "forced", that is, those to which there is no alternative but to leave their "habitat", not to be confused with voluntary move-ment, of free choice of individuals and affected groups.

Considering that the concept of forced displacement also includes the displacement of livelihoods, especially in cases of tribal and traditional popula-tions, situations in wich displaced people choose to stay in the degraded envi-ronment also deserve protection; Considering that the forced displacement caused by development projects are linked to economic activities, in most cases predominantly private interest, and that the principle of solidarity implies the costs transfer of econom-ic activities for the whole society, there should be the accountability of the en-trepreneur, based on the polluter pays principle.

Participants of the International Symposium towards the UN Conference on Environment, Rio - 2012 Workshop and MPF Rio + 20, convinced of the ur-gency of taking appropriate measures for effective protection of the environ-mental displaced people, conclude: 1.Aimed at ensuring human dignity and effectiveness of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to deterritorialized people or groups, often victims of economic marginalization, should be approved the "Draft Statute of the Inter-national Convention on Environmental Displaced People" as independent and biding standard, rather than as an addendum or supplement to the 1951 Gene-va Convention, 1967 New York Protocol on the Status of Refugees and the United Nations Convention for Climate Change, in order to avoid creating situa-tions of discrimination and inequalities in relation to other refugees. This con-vention shall be prepared as part of an international conference, with the partic-ipation of various international organizations and with invitation to all countries. 2. It is necessary to create a Global Legal Statute, with international and domestic norms, with the objective of protection of the environmental displaced people, as well as providing preventive principles to combat its alarming growth. There should also be provided chances of repatriation to the country of origin or resettlement and transfer of environmental displaced people to a third country, as well as integration with the population to which they were displaced, either the stay may be temporary or permanent. The details of that legal statute will occur at the regional level, such as the Convention of Kampala, October 2009, for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in the African Union, due to natural or human-made disasters, recognized in the United Na-tions Guiding Principles on People Internal Displacement.

3.In principle, the Global Legal Statute should cover the obligation of the signatory States, on behalf of solidarity laid down in ECO -92 Principle 13, to provide full legal and material support to victims of extreme environmental events consequences, according to the category of displacement (temporarily, due to changes in the "habitat" or search for better living conditions), taking into account the origin, speed and degree of the displacement cause - events, as well as the real mobility needs, distances and degree of organization of origin country of those displaced people and affected group itself.

4.In case of livelihoods displacement, States shall take all measures aim-ing at the recovery of degraded environments, ensuring the restoration of live-lihoods and full compensation for losses incurred by the displaced people;

5. Such Convention should provide protection for persons affected by events such as earthquakes, tsunamis, droughts (difficulties in food production and access to water), erosion, landslides, storms (tornadoes, hurricanes, ty-phoons), floods, desertification, destruction of biodiversity, epidemics, disap-pearance of rivers and lakes, the appearance of hydroelectric dams or similar ones, water pollution, industrial accidents, nuclear accidents, mining activities, changes in sea level, temperature increases, natural causes, with or without evidence of anthropogenic interference and geological risks. Besides these causes, others may be included with the prior hearsay of the International Pro-gram on Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change (IHDP) or specif-ic international body to be created, always open to interdisciplinary scientific contributions of civil society organizations or other public or private militants in the area.

6.The forced displaced people due to development projects linked to economic activities imply cost responsibility to the developer, based on the pol-luter pays principle. II) Regarding the right to landscape:

Considering that the landscape is an ?autonomous legal good?, with aesthetic value or not, placed in the unitary conception of the environment, ob-ject of an integrated management, in view of its cultural, natural and social as-pects;

Considering the cooperation between UNESCO Conventions in the field of culture and the Convention on Biological Diversity (1992), which resulted in the recent Declaration on Biocultural Diversity (Montreal, June 2010);

Considering that the landscape is a major factor in cultural identity for-mation and consolidation, as well as shared by all human beings, involving cur-rent and future generations;

Considering that everyone has the right to the landscape and share re-sponsibility for its protection, with social interconnectivity, and between territo-ries and regions, justifying its collective protection and cross-border and region-al protective approaches, and cooperation among nations in an intergovern-mental and intersectoral collaboration;

Considering that the quality of life also depends on the landscape and that the physical, social and cultural conditions influence the welfare of the people; Participants of the International Symposium towards the UN Conference on Environment, Rio ? 2012 and MPF Rio + 20 workshop, convinced of the ur-gency of taking appropriate measures for effective protection of the landscape heritage, conclude:

1.That civil society, international organizations and States should be en-gaged in the structuring of a World Landscape Convention; 2. To be taken in account the landscape features such as: dynamic, not static and complex, multidisciplinary, sensitive, spiritual, heterogeneous, integra-tive and public interest, demanding to preserve its diversity;

3.That the concern about the ambience requires planning and new legal instruments to preserve the landscape.

4.That should be found solutions and mechanisms that safeguard the in-formation and participation of civil society and communities directly involved in protecting the landscape, through consultations, public hearings, prior advertis- ing of projects, studies and decisions, and foster global environmental gover-nance;

5. For the necessary enhancement of environmental education in tourism related to the landscape protection;

6.That countries should be urged to sign and ratify UN and UNESCO in-ternational conventions and declarations, considering their instruments of land-scape protection, incorporating such protection systems into their systems;

7.That it should be created within UNESCO and UN context, in relation to their respective conventions, oversight committees regarding compliance with the commitments made about landscape protection;

8. To be highlighted and promoted the urgent need for international co-operation for the sustainable use of spaces and territories, given the frequent threats to the global landscape.

9.To be created financial and non-financial instruments, for landscape improvement also in the urban environment, in order to prevent or mitigate pol-lution in the city, aiming at integrating the built spaces with natural environ-ments. III) Regarding the effectiveness of environmental law:

Considering that since the 1972 Stockholm Declaration, the international community recognizes that "the protection and improvement of the human envi-ronment is a fundamental issue that affects the welfare of people and economic development around the world, an urgent desire of the worldwide people and a duty of all governments ";

Considering that the 1992 Rio Declaration Principle 11 says that "States should enact effective laws for the protection of the environment";

Considering that Agenda 21 provides the basis for actions, objectives, activities and means of implementation for strategies and measures to halt and reverse the effects of environmental degradation in the context of intensifying national and international efforts to promote environmentally healthy and sus-tainable development in all countries;

Considering that the 2002 Johannesburg Declaration and Plan of Action highlights the need of international community's commitment to act and take concrete measures at all levels for effective environmental protection;

Considering that several national legal systems have constitutions, like the 1988 Brazilian Constitution, which expressly provide a right to an ecological-ly balanced environment, including the stipulation of obligations and instruments to guarantee this fundamental right, besides the infra constitutional normative texts that supplements the legal environmental protection;

Considering that despite the existence of the international and national normative framework in a significant number of States, "the global environment continues to suffer, biodiversity loss continues, fish stocks continue to be dep-leted, desertification claims more and more fertile soils, the adverse effects of climate change are already evident, natural disasters are more frequent and devastating, developing countries are the most vulnerable, and the air, water and the sea pollution keep millions of people away from a decent life". This sce-nario has been only worse since the 2002 -Johannesburg Declaration;

Considering the Chart of Limoges II, providing subsidies for the 2002 -Johannesburg Summit, contains several instruments ensuring the effectiveness of environmental legal protection, and that their proposals were not fully adopted in international legal texts;

Participants of the International Symposium towards the UN Conference on Environment, Rio ? 2012 and MPF Rio + 20 workshop, convinced of the ur-gency in accomplishing the environment protection instruments, conclude for the adoption of the following measures: 1. Ratification of all propositions contained in the Chart of Limoges II;

2. Promotion of campaigns within the United Nations system to pro-mote and encourage, even financially if necessary, the membership of the larg-est possible number of countries to the Conventions on environmental protec-tion, especially to their Additional Protocols, with the articulation with non-governmental organizations in order to clarify to citizens the importance of the commitment of their States representatives for international standardization of environmental protection;

3. Express provision about the necessary considering of the envi-ronmental issue in internal regulations and in international forums resolutions on trade, agriculture, human rights, energy exploration, military agreements and all other matters object of the international community deliberation;

4. Deliberation of the United Nations system in the sense that the States hosting international sport events as World Cups, meetings of various sports and Olympics, should observe existing environmental standards in carry-ing out the necessary works and economic activities related to these events;

5. Resolution of the United Nations system to bind conditions for the international and national financial institutions funding, to the commitment of application the resources in compliance with international and national environ-mental standards, and evaluation of environmental impacts in the case of spe-cific works, emphasizing the public character of all information on environmental mater involved in these financing processes;

6. Affirmation of the principle of Non Retrogression in environmental protection, whether at international or national sphere, in occasion of the legisla-tive procedural or material amendments, or organizational changes, considering that by the time of application of environmental standards it should always be privileged the highest protection level of the healthy environment;

7. The statement of administrative and financial independence of the environmental agencies, with mechanisms able to support the declaration of incompatibilities and impediments of any nature of its officers and servants;

8. Recognition of the express admissibility of the broad legitimacy to environmental protection postulation, including citizens (individually or collec-tively represented), the local regional and international forums, and ensuring that legitimate access to justice in environmental matters is free;

9. The inclusion of disciplines on environmental, technical and legal ones, in formation and training schools of legal professions and public servants in general that can act on the environment issue;

10. Combination of greater efforts into the environmental education promotion at all teaching levels, as well as courses in applied social sciences, so that environmental law should be a compulsory course in the legal area, with the ongoing training of teachers; 11. Establishment of juridical bodies specialized in environmental and socio-environmental conflict resolution, members or not of the existing judiciary framework, but having, necessarily, the appropriate technical support;

12. The implementation of economic instruments for environmental public management already included in the National Environmental Policy of Brazil (forest concession, environmental insurance) and others such as the generation desertification combat credits, the creation of positive environmental balance systems, based on a universal environmental metric;

13. The implementation by national governments of environmental mapping for contexts likely to suffer environmental impacts in all its areas, in a way to provide citizens, with previous environmental information within the envi-ronmental impacts evaluation processes;

14. The incorporation of economic compensation mechanisms at the international level under the principle of common but differentiated responsibili-ties in the forest conservation and reforestation processes, as well as the estab-lishment of mechanisms for these environmental resources distribution in the domestic plan, in order to encourage sustainable development practices;

15. The statement at the international level, of a principle which re-cognises that the legal liability of multinational corporations that exploit envi-ronmental resources is the most protective of the environment, whether based in the corporation headquarters host country, whether based in the environmen-tal exploitation country;

16. The effective protection of environmental leaders in all countries, especially in remote areas, due to the upsurge of political persecution and at-tacks on the lives of those who engage in the struggle of environmental protec-tion in various quarters of the world, as it is succeeding in the Northern region of Brazil;

17. Assurance of information, participation and transparency of envi-ronmental data to allow an effective participatory management of environmental resources as well as giving rise to the corruption combat in environmental mat-ters;

18. Affirmation of the principle of the prevalence of most protective environmental criteria in all spheres - international, regional, national and local ones;

19. The improvement of assistance measures to States that have diffi-culty in complying with international environmental goals, whether by structural deficiencies whether by conjectural limitations such the occurrence of disasters;

20. Recognition of the need to emphasize the adoption of preventive measures, including the implementation of environmental management tools, such as management plans, previous studies of environmental impact, envi-ronmental zoning, without neglecting the need to mitigate the use of the materi-al fact theory in environment matter, both in the adoption of administrative poli-cies as in judicial decisions, since the continuity of environmental degradation also deserves to be fought.

IV) Regarding environmental governance:

Participants of the International Symposium towards the UN Conference on Environment, Rio ± 2012 and MPF Rio + 20 workshop, convinced of the ur- gency in accomplishing the environmental protective standards, conclude for the adoption of the following measures:

1. Transform the United Nations Economic and Social Council into Eco- nomic, Social and Environmental Council. This change is essential, even for countries that are not currently members of this Council. This is because it is essential that the UN structure include a permanent commitment to environ- mental governance.

2. Encourage States to take part of the Aarhus Convention. It is essential to pay attention to the geographical and economic peculiarities of the States concerned, which may state exceptions and adjustments according to their real- ity. It is suggested that the mobilization for adoption of this convention happens at the regional level through organizations such as ECLAC.

3. Make effective at the State level the 26 February 2010 UNEP directive. It is worth emphasizing again that any application of this policy, even as 'soft law', must take into account local peculiarities.

4. Encourage international organizations to adopt NGOs conduct code. The conduct code established under the Barcelona Convention of 1976 through the 2009 decision, should be taken as a reference.

5. Approve the Almaty statement in every international organizations. It is extremely important to create mechanisms that enable that the rights to infor- mation and participation of NGOs in the international arena be guaranteed, in- cluding the possibility of administrative appeals. It is suggested to create an in- dependent board, under this and / or other conventions, for the prosecution of remedies for alleged denial of access to information and / or participation.

6. Generalize the "amicus curiae" institute in all international jurisdictions as well as in administrative bodies. The intervention of the "amicus curiae" must be given since the beginning of the process with proof of interest and legitimacy, according to its institutional objectives.

7. Invite the Conference of the Parties to establish a controlling board in all conventions. The assembled group agreed with this suggestion. Furthermo- re, this is the essence of the idea already expressed in the second paragraph of Item 5 above.

8. Give NGOs the right of having access to all existing controlling com- mittees. Also, the assembled group supports this idea. The suggestion is that there ought be well-defined and widely disseminated access mechanisms.

V) Regarding the right to information, and environment:

Considering that the Convention on Access to Information, Public Partic- ipation in Decision-Making Process and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (known as "Aarhus Convention" of 25 June 1998) aims at guaranteeing certain rights, imposes Member States and public authorities obligations regard- ing access to information, public participation and access to justice in environ- mental matters.

Considering that the improvement of access to information and broader participation in decision-making processes, as well as access to justice are es- sential and indispensable tools to strengthen and make more effective environ- mental protection policies and the consolidation of the democratic State of Law itself.

Considering that ratification, acceptance, approval or accession to the Aarhus Convention implies of recognition by Member States of the importance of its objectives and a commitment to adopt the necessary measures to accede to the Convention, adopting binding instruments to align the countries domestic legislation to the requirements of the Convention.

Considering and remembering the Stockholm Declaration on the Human Environment Principle 1, and also Rio Declaration on Environment and Devel- opment Principle 10;

Participants of the International Symposium towards the UN Conference on Environment, Rio ± 2012 and MPF Rio + 20 workshop, convinced of the ur- gency in accomplishing the environmental protective standards, conclude for the adoption of the following measures:

1. That the Aarhus Convention should be ratified by the largest poss- ible number of Member States, including Brazil, which should be encouraged to that;

2. That the public right to environmental information be effectively recognized and guaranteed;

3. To be adopted concrete and immediate measures taken by States seeking to assure everyone, without distinction and regardless demonstration of particular interest, free access to environmental information, eliminating legal and administrative constraints which would avoid the achievement of environ- mental information;

4. That the environmental information should be provided in a truth- ful, timely and complete way for all. Confidentiality and secrecy are limits to the information and constitute exceptions to the principle of publicity, and should be expressed and properly grounded when invoked. However, it cannot be argued to contradict the social interest, harm to human health and the environment.

5. That environmental information should be collected, organized, updated, made available and disseminated in the most efficient, comprehensive and accessible way, using all available means of communication, current and future, media, electronics and others. In case of complex technical content is- sues, they should be transmitted in clear and understandable way to every one;

6. Effective measures should be taken in order to inform the public of the participation procedures, creating mechanisms that allow free access to them and to their use; there also must be ensured, to the public, including or- ganizations, the access to judicial effective mechanisms in a way to protect their legitimate interests and ensure enforcement of the law.

7. That environmental education should be encouraged and pro- moted, encouraging the widespread public awareness and participation in deci- sions affecting the environment.

8. That instrument should be created and enhanced in order to en- sure transparency, participation and social control in the design of public poli- cies in the process of decision-making and policy implementation. In case of non-observance, should be considered invalid administrative acts performed.

9. That there should be an improvement and effectiveness of civil liability, criminal and administrative cases of omission, refusal, withdrawal or any form of undue restriction of information access, participation and exercise of social control.

10. That juridical and political means should be encouraged, to ensure the direct popular participation, as the plebiscite, the referendum and the popu- lar initiative, putting in practice and extending such participation forms and its scope.

11. That a new communications regulatory framework should be sought, aiming at ensuring the full dissemination of information, a prerequisite for the exercise of citizenship in the ecological and democratic State.

Attached to this Propositions Chart, follows the poster, the event schedule and the list of participants.

São Paulo, June 28, 2011.

CARTA DE SÃO PAULO PRÉ-RIO+20/2011

Os participantes do Simpósio Internacional rumo a Conferência da ONU sobre Meio Ambiente, Rio ± 2012 e Oficina de Trabalho MPF Rio + 20, que contou com as participações dos conferencistas Antônio Herman V. Benjamin, Ministro do Superior Tribunal de Justiça e Professor de Direito Ambiental e Comparado e Direito da Biodiversidade na Universidade do Texas/EUA, Gérard Monédiaire ± Professor na Universidade de Limoges/França, Diretor do Centro de Pesquisas Interdisciplinares em direito ambiental, de ordenamento e de urbanismo (CRIDEAU), Jessica Makowiak, mestre de conferências da Universidade de Limoges, Frederic Bouin, mestre de conferências da Universidade de Perpignan, Michel Prieur, Professor Emérito na Universidade de Limoges (2004)- França e medalha de ouro do direito do meio ambiente da Universidade de Bruxelas e Paulo Affonso Leme Machado, jurista, professor de direito ambiental na Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP); dos debatedores Álvaro Luiz Valery Mirra, Juiz de Direito - TJ/SP, Solange Teles da Silva, advogada e Professora de Direito Ambiental na Universidade Mackenzie/SP, Colin Crawford, professor de direito ambiental na Faculdade de Direito da Universidade de Tulane, Nova Orleans/EUA; Ricardo Stanziola Vieira, advogado e coordenador de projetos sobre direitos humanos e políticas públicas do IEDC - Instituto Estudos Direito e Cidadania, Consuelo Moromizato Yoshida, Desembargadora Federal, TRF/3ªR e Sandra Cureau - Subprocuradora-Geral da República e Vice Procuradora-Geral Eleitoral, sendo os painéis presididos por José Leonidas Bellem de Lima, Procurador Regional da República/PRR-3ªR, Regina Helena Fortes Furtado, Promotora de Justiça, MP/SP e Nicolao Dino Neto, Procurador Regional da República/PRR-1ªR e Diretor-Geral da Escola Superior do Ministério Público da União, realizados nos dias 27 e 28 de junho de 2011, na sede da Procuradoria Regional da República da 3ª Região, em São Paulo, após debaterem as temáticas do Simpósio Internacional rumo a Rio + 20 em oficinas de trabalho, expõem e, ao final, concluem

I) No que se refere a deslocados ambientais:

CONSIDERANDO que o segundo o relatório Alterações Climáticas e Cenários de Migrações Forçadas, elaborado pelo Instituto para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável para a Comissão Europeia, e apresentado durante a Conferência de Poznan (Polônia, 1° a 12 de dezembro de 2008), o número de descolados ambientais ultrapassava 25 milhões de pessoas, com previsão de ter alcançado no ano passado 50 milhões de pessoas;

CONSIDERANDO que ³O Gabinete das Nações Unidas paroard ean açCoão dos Assuntos Humanitários (OCHA) em parceria com o Centro de Monitoramento de Deslocamento (IDMC) realizaram um estudo sobre a relação entre o deslocamento de pessoas e a mudança climática. Nessa pesquisa ficou evidenciado que, em 2008, aproximadamente 36 milhões de pessoas foram deslocadas em virtude de desastres naturais, entre os quais:

terremotos, enchentes e chuvas. Cerca de 28 milhões de pessoas perderam completamente suas casas; e perto de 8 milhões tiveram que ser evacuadas de suas residências, porque elas estavam temporariamente em condições inabitadas. A principal região afetada por esses desastres foi a Ásia. (OCHA/ IDMC, 2009) No mesmo ano, para efeitos de comparação, o número de deslocados internos por conflitos representou 26 milhões de pessoas. (ACNUR, 2009) .

CONSIDERANDO que em breve esse número de deslocados ambientais pode ultrapassar o número de refugiados assim considerados pela Convenção de Genebra (1951), contabilizados pelo Alto Comissariado das Nações Unidas para Refugiados (UNHCR), segundo previsões do Instituto para o Meio Ambiente e Segurança Humana da ONU;

CONSIDERANDO que ³O Fórum Humanitário Global (GFH) fez recentemente uma pesquisa que mostra o impacto das mudanças climáticas na sociedade humana, explorando as questões desse impacto na alimentação, saúde, pobreza, segurança e deslocamento humano. Com relação a este último item, o estudo reconhece que é difícil provar que uma forte chuva ou um ciclone tenha origem nos efeitos da mudança climática. No entanto, a conclusão aponta que 40% dos desastres relacionados com o tempo são oriundos do efeito das mudanças climáticas tendo em vista o aumento desse tipo de evento nos últimos trinta anos. Como resultado, a pesquisa defende que seja utilizado, o conceito de deslocados por razões do clima, que já chegam a 26 milhões de pessoas e triplicará até 2020.

CONSIDERANDO que ³Num exercício premonitório, Conisbee e Simms (2003) referem que, até 2050, no caso de continuar o nível de degradação ecológica agora verificado, se deslocarão cerca de 150 milhões de pessoas devido ao aquecimento global. Relatórios internacionais do Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2008) e da International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (2004), apontam também para o crescente número de populações afetadas por manifestações ambientais extremas, como furacões, cheias e deslizamentos de terras. A subida do nível médio das águas do mar afetará mesmo áreas urbanas como Alexandria, Manila, Xangai ou Jacarta, havendo previsão do Painel Intergovernamental sobre Mudanças Climáticas (IPCC), prevendo que o número de deslocados chegará a 190 milhões de pessoas até 2050, população próxima à do território brasileiro;

CONSIDERANDO que mesmo países como o Brasil, cujas condições climáticas historicamente têm apresentado condições favoráveis, mantendo-o isentos de grandes catástrofes, há problemas com os ³deslocados ou ³flagelados´ ambientais (como no caso da seca do nordeste obrigando o secular deslocamento de pessoas para grandes centros urbanos, especialmente a cidade de São Paulo), sendo que no caso das chuvas torrenciais, com deslizamento de terras e inundações, como os recentes eventos hidrológicos drásticos nos Estados de Santa Catarina, Rio de Janeiro, Alagoas, Pernambuco e no Vale do Paraíba (Estado de São Paulo), houve inúmeras pessoas mortas e desalojadas;

CONSIDERANDO que ³A Convenção de Estocolmo de 1972, já previa o reconhecimento das responsabilidades primeiras e diferenciadas dos Estados. E, a Declaração do Rio sobre o Meio Ambiente e Desenvolvimento, no principio 13, também prevê a responsabilidade dos Estados pelos danos ambientais e a cooperação desses Estados para o desenvolvimento de normas de direito ambiental internacional relativas a responsabilidade e indenização.

CONSIDERANDO que os deslocamentos por causas ambientais que devem ser abrangidos pelo Estatuto Jurídico Mundial são aqueles ³forçados, ou seja, aqueles aos quais não resta alternativa que não a de deixar o seu habitat, não se confundindo com o deslocamento voluntário, de livre escolha dos indivíduos e grupos afetados.

CONSIDERANDO que o conceito de deslocamento forçado abrange ainda os deslocamentos de modos de vida, especialmente nos casos de populações tribais e tradicionais, situações em que os deslocados optam pela permanência no ambiente degradado também merecem proteção;

CONSIDERANDO que os deslocamentos forçados decorrentes de projetos de desenvolvimento são ligados a atividades econômicas, na maior parte das vezes de interesse predominantemente privado, e que a aplicação do princípio da solidariedade implicaria na transferência de custos da atividades econômica para toda a sociedade, deve-se buscar a responsabilização do empreendedor, com base no princípio do poluidor-pagador.

Os participantes do Simpósio Internacional rumo a Conferência da ONU sobre Meio Ambiente, Rio ± 2012 e Oficina de Trabalho MPF Rio + 20, convencidos da urgência em adotar medidas apropriadas para a efetiva proteção dos deslocados ambientais:

1.Visando garantir dignidade humana e efetividade da Declaração Universal dos Direitos Humanos às pessoas ou grupos desterritorializados, não raro vítimas da marginalização econômica, deve ser aprovado o Projeto de Convenção do Estatuto Internacional dos Deslocados Ambientais, como norma independente, vinculante e não como adendo ou complemento da Convenção de Genebra de 1.951, Protocolo sobre o Estatuto do Refugiado de New York de 1967 e Convenção das Nações Unidas para Mudanças do Clima, visando a evitar que se criem situações de discriminação e desigualdades em relação aos demais refugiados. Tal convenção deverá ser elaborada no âmbito de uma Conferência Internacional, da qual participem diversos organismos internacionais e com convite a todos os países.

2.Há necessidade de criação de um Estatuto Jurídico Mundial, com normas internacionais e internas aos países signatários, com o objetivo de proteção dos deslocados ambientais, bem como prevendo princípios preventivos para combater seu alarmante crescimento. Também deverão estar previstas hipóteses de repatriação ao país de origem, reassentamento ou traslado dos deslocados ambientais a um terceiro país, bem como integração com a população do local para onde houve o deslocamento, quer a permanência seja temporária ou definitiva. O detalhamento desse estatuto jurídico ocorrerá em nível regional, a exemplo da Convenção de Campala, de outubro de 2009, para Proteção e Assistência dos Deslocados Internos na União Africana, em razão de calamidades humanas ou naturais, reconhecidos nos Princípios Orientadores Relativos ao Deslocamento Interno de Pessoas da ONU.

3.Como princípio, o Estatuto Jurídico Mundial deverá abarcar a obrigatoriedade dos Estados signatários, em nome da solidariedade prevista no princípio 13 da ECO-92, prestar integral apoio material e jurídico às vítimas de eventos ambientais de consequências extremas, segundo a categoria dos deslocamentos (temporário, por mudanças no ³habitat´ ou busca de melhores condições de vida), levando-se em consideração a origem, velocidade e grau dos fatos geradores do deslocamento, bem como as reais necessidades de mobilidade, as distâncias e o grau de organização do país de origem desses deslocados e do próprio grupo afetado.

4.No caso de deslocamentos de modos de vida os Estados deverão adotar todas as providências com vistas à recuperação dos ambientes degradados, garantindo a reconstituição dos modos de vida e a plena reparação das perdas suportadas pelos deslocados;

5.Tal convenção deverá prever proteção às pessoas afetadas por eventos como terremotos, tsunamis, secas (dificuldades na produção de alimentos e no acesso à água), erosões, deslizamentos de terras, tempestades (tornados, furacões, tufões), alagamentos, desertificação, destruição da biodiversidade, epidemias, desaparecimento de rios e lagos, surgimento de represas hidrelétricas ou similares, poluição hídrica, acidentes industriais, acidentes nucleares, atividades minerárias, alteração no nível do mar, aumentos de temperaturas, causas naturais, com ou sem comprovação de interferências antrópicas, e riscos geológicos. Além dessas causas, outras poderão ser incluídas, com prévia oitiva do Programa Internacional de Dimensões Humanas das Mudanças Globais Ambientais (IHDP) ou específico organismo internacional a ser criado, sempre com abertura às contribuições científicas interdisciplinares da sociedade civil organizada ou de outros organismos públicos ou particulares militantes na área.

6.Os deslocamentos forçados decorrentes de projetos de desenvolvimento ligados a atividades econômicas constituem custo de responsabilidade do empreendedor, com base no princípio do poluidor-pagador.

II) no que se refere ao direito à paisagem:

Considerando que a paisagem é um bem jurídico autônomo, dotado ou não de valor estético, inserido na concepção unitária de meio ambiente, sujeito a uma gestão integrada, tendo em vista seus aspectos culturais, naturais e sociais;

Considerando a cooperação entre as convenções da UNESCO no campo da cultura e da Convenção sobre a Diversidade Biológica (1992), que resultou na recente Declaração sobre a Diversidade Biocultural (Montreal, junho de 2010);

Considerando que a paisagem é um fator determinante para a identidade cultural, sua formação e consolidação, enquanto bem compartilhado por todos os seres humanos, envolvendo presentes e futuras gerações;

Considerando que todos têm o direito à paisagem e compartilham a responsabilidade por sua proteção, com interconectividade social e entre territórios e regiões, justificando sua tutela coletiva e abordagens protetivas regionais e transfronteiriças e cooperação entre as nações, em colaboração intergovernamental e intersetorial;

Considerando que a qualidade de vida depende também das paisagens e que as condições físicas, sociais e culturais condicionam o bem estar das populações;

Os participantes do Simpósio Internacional rumo a Conferência da ONU sobre Meio Ambiente, Rio ± 2012 e Oficina de Trabalho MPF Rio + 20, convencidos da urgência em adotar medidas apropriadas para a efetiva proteção do patrimônio paisagístico, concluem

1.que a sociedade civil, os organismos internacionais e os Estados se envolvam na estruturação de uma Convenção Mundial Sobre a Paisagem;

2.que seja considerada a natureza de bem dinâmico, complexo e não estático, multidisciplinar, sensitivo-espiritual, heterogênea, integrativa e de interesse público da paisagem, devendo ser preservada a sua diversidade;

3.que a preocupação com a ambiência exige planejamento e novos instrumentos jurídicos para se preservar a paisagem; (aprimorar redação)

4.que sejam buscadas soluções e mecanismos que resguardem a informação e participação da sociedade civil e das comunidades diretamente envolvidas na proteção da paisagem, através de consultas, audiências públicas, publicidade prévia dos projetos, estudos e das decisões e estimulando a governança ambiental mundial,

5.pela necessária valorização da educação ambiental do turismo em relação à proteção da paisagem;

6.que os países seja instigados a assinar e ratificar convenções e declarações internacionais da UNESCO e da ONU, considerando seus instrumentos de proteção da paisagem, incorporando tais sistemas de proteção em seus sistemas;

7.que sejam criados no âmbito da UNESCO e da ONU, em relação às suas respectivas Convenções, comissões de fiscalização quanto ao cumprimento das compromissos assumidos, em relação à proteção da paisagem;

8.que seja ressaltada e divulgada a necessidade urgente de colaboração internacional para o uso sustentável dos espaços e territórios, haja vista as frequentes ameaças globais às paisagens.

9.Que sejam criados instrumentos financeiros e não financeiros de melhoria das paisagens também no ambiente urbano, com vistas a evitar ou mitigar a poluição na cidade, visando à integração dos espaços construídos com os ambientes naturais.

III) no que se refere à efetividade do direito ambiental:

Considerando que, desde a declaração de Estocolmo de 1972, a comunidade internacional reconhece que ³a proteção e o melhoramento do meio ambiente humano é uma questão fundamental que afeta o bem-estar dos povos e o desenvolvimento econômico do mundo inteiro, um desejo urgente dos povos de todo o mundo e um dever de todos os g overnos;

Considerando que o Princípio 11 da Declaração do Rio de 1992 afirma que ³os Estados deverão promulgar leis eficazes para a proteção do meio ambiente;

Considerando que na Agenda 21são descritas as bases para as ações, os objetivos, as atividades e os meios de implementação para elaborar estratégias e medidas para deter e inverter os efeitos da degradação do meio ambiente no contexto da intensificação de esforços nacionais e internacionais para promover o desenvolvimento sustentável e ambientalmente saudável em todos os países;

Considerando que a Declaração de Joahnesburgo de 2001 e seu Projeto de implementação atenta para a necessidade do compromisso da comunidade internacional a atuar e a adotar medidas concretas em todos os níveis para a efetiva proteção do meio ambiente;

Considerando que várias ordens jurídicas nacionais contam com Constituições, como a Constituição brasileira de 1988, que prevêem expressamente o direito ao meio ambiente ecologicamente equilibrado, inclusive com a estipulação de obrigações e de instrumentos para a garantia deste direito fundamental, além de textos normativos infra-constitucionais que complementam a proteção jurídica ao meio ambiente;

Considerando que a despeito da existência do arcabouço normativo internacional e nacional, em significativa parcela dos Estados, ³o meio ambiente global continua sofrendo, a perda de biodiversidade prossegue, estoques pesqueiros continuam a ser exauridos, a desertificação toma mais e mais terras férteis, os efeitos adversos da mudança do clima já são evidentes e desastres naturais são mais frequentes e mais devastadores , países em desenvolvimento são mais vulneráveis e a poluição do ar, da água e do mar segue privando milhões de pessoas de uma vida digna´ quadro que só vem se agravando desde a sua constatação na Declaração de Joanesburgo de 2002;

Considerando que a Carta de Limoges II, contendo subsídios para a Conferência de Joanesburgo de 2002, contém vários instrumentos asseguradores da efetividade da tutela jurídica ambiental, e que suas propostas não foram plenamente adotadas nos textos jurídicos internacionais;

Os participantes do Simpósio Internacional rumo a Conferência da ONU sobre Meio Ambiente, Rio ± 2012 e Oficina de Trabalho MPF Rio + 20, convencidos da urgência na efetivação das normas protetivas ao meio ambiente, concluem pela adoção das seguintes medidas:

1. a ratificação de todas as proposições constantes da Carta de Limoges II;

2.a promoção de campanhas pelo sistema da Nações Unidas para promover e fomentar, inclusive, financeiramente, se necessário, a adesão do maior número possível de países às Convenções de proteção ao meio ambiente, especialmente a seus Protocolos adicionais, com a atuação articulada com organizações não governamentais de modo a esclarecer aos cidadãos a importância do compromisso dos representantes dos seus Estados com a normatização internacional de proteção ao meio ambiente;

3.a previsão expressa da necessidade do pronunciamento sobre a variável ambiental nos regimentos internos e nas resoluções dos foros internacionais sobre comércio, agricultura, direitos humanos, exploração de energia, acordos militares e todos outros assuntos objetos de deliberação da comunidade internacional;

4.a deliberação pelo sistema das Nações Unidas no sentido de que os Estados que sediem eventos esportivos de dimensão internacional como Copas de mundo das diversas modalidades esportivas e Olimpíadas, observem as normas ambientais vigentes na realização das obras necessárias e das atividades econômicas relacionadas a estes eventos;

5. a deliberação do sistema das Nações Unidas pelo condicionamento dos financiamentos de instituições financeiras internacionais e nacionais ao compromisso de aplicação dos recursos com observância das normas ambientais internacionais e nacionais, e à avaliação dos impactos ambientais no caso de obras específicas, ressaltando o caráter público de todas as informações de natureza ambiental envolvidas nestes processos de financiamento;

6. a afirmação do princípio da proibição do retrocesso na proteção ambiental, seja na esfera internacional ou nacional, quando das alterações normativas materiais e procedimentais, ou mudanças organizacionais, devendo no momento da aplicação da norma ambiental sempre se prestigiar a máxima protetividade ao meio ambiente sadio;

7. a afirmação da independência administrativa e financeira dos órgãos e agências ambientais, com a previsão de mecanismos para ensejar a declaração de incompatibilidades e impedimentos de qualquer natureza de seus dirigentes e servidores;

8. o reconhecimento da expressa admissibilidade da ampla legitimidade para postulação da defesa do meio ambiente, abrangendo cidadãos (individual ou coletivamente representados), nos foros internacionais regionais e locais, sendo legítimo que este acesso à justiça em matéria ambiental seja gratuito;

9. a inclusão de disciplinas de meio ambiente, técnicas e jurídicas, nas escolas de formação e de capacitação de carreiras jurídicas públicas e de servidores públicos em geral que possam atuar em matéria ambiental;

10.a conjugação de maiores esforços na promoção da educação ambiental em todos os níveis de ensino, bem como nos cursos das ciências sociais aplicadas, devendo o direito ambiental ser disciplina obrigatória nos cursos da área jurídica, com a capacitação permanente dos professores;

11.o estabelecimento de órgãos jurisdicionais especializados em soluções de conflitos ambientais e sócio-ambientais, integrantes ou não da estrutura judiciária já existentes, mas contando, necessariamente, com devido apoio técnico;

12. a implementação dos instrumentos econômicos de gestão ambiental públicos já contemplados na Política Nacional do Meio Ambiente (concessão florestal, seguro ambiental) e outros como por exemplo a geração de créditos de combate à desertificação, a criação de sistemas de saldos ambientais positivos, com base em uma métrica ambiental universal

13. a realização pelos governos nacionais de mapeamentos ambientais e demais aspectos passíveis de sofrerem impactos ambientais em todas suas áreas, de modo a fornecer aos administrados, previamente, as informações ambientais suscitadoras de questionamentos no âmbito dos processos de avaliação de impactos ambientais;

14. a incorporação de mecanismos de compensação econômica no plano internacional à luz do princípio das responsabilidades comuns mas diferenciadas nos processos de conservação das florestas e no reflorestamento, bem como estabelecimento de mecanismos de distribuição desses recursos ambientais, no plano interno, de modo a estimular práticas de desenvolvimento sustentável;

15. a afirmação, na esfera internacional, de princípio que preconize que o regime legal da responsabilidade das empresas multinacionais que explorem recursos ambientais seja o mais protetivo ao meio ambiente, seja do país de sede da matriz ou do local de exploração ambiental;

16. a proteção efetiva das lideranças ambientalistas em todos os países, especialmente em áreas remotas, em virtude do recrudescimento da perseguição política e dos atentados à vida daqueles que se engajam na luta da defesa do meio ambiente em vários quadrantes do mundo, como vem ocorrendo na região Norte do Brasil;

17. a garantia da informação, da participação e da transparência dos dados ambientais, para permitir uma efetiva gestão participativa dos recursos ambientais bem como ensejar o combate à corrupção em matéria ambiental;

18. a afirmação do princípio da prevalência dos critérios mais protetivos ao meio ambiente, em todas as esferas, internacional, regional, nacional e local;

19. o aprimoramento das medidas de assistência aos Estados que tenham dificuldade no cumprimento das metas internacionais ambientais, seja por deficiências estruturais seja por limitações conjunturais como na ocorrência de catástrofes;

20. o reconhecimento da necessidade de ênfase na adoção de medidas preventivas, com a implementação dos instrumentos de gestão ambiental, como planos de manejo, estudos prévios de impacto ambiental, zoneamento ambiental, sem descurar da necessidade de mitigar o uso da teoria do fato consumado em matéria ambiental tanto na adoção de políticas administrativas quanto em decisões judiciais, uma vez que a continuidade da degradação ambiental merece também ser combatida.

IV) no que se refere à governança ambiental: Os participantes do Simpósio Internacional rumo a Conferência da ONU sobre Meio Ambiente, Rio ± 2012 e Oficina de Trabalho MPF Rio + 20, convencidos da urgência na efetivação das normas protetivas ao meio ambiente, concluem pela adoção das seguintes medidas:

1.Transformar o Conselho Econômico e Social da ONU em Conselho Econômico, Social e Ambiental. Essa alteração é fundamental, mesmo para os países que não sejam atualmente membros desse Conselho. Isso porque é indispensável que a própria estrutura da ONU passe a contemplar de modo permanente o compromisso com a governança ambiental.

2.Encorajar os Estados a aderirem a Convenção de Aarhus. É imprescindível atentar para as peculiaridades geográficas e econômicas dos Estados interessados, que poderão fazer as ressalvas e adequações à sua realidade. Sugere-se que a mobilização para a adesão se dê em nível regional por meio de organizações, como é o caso da CEPAL.

3.Fazer aplicar pelos Estados a Diretiva de 26 de fevereiro de 2010 do PNUMA. Vale frisar novamente que qualquer aplicação dessa diretiva, mesmo que como « soft law », deve levar em conta as peculiaridades locais.

4.Fazer adotar pelas organizações internacionais os códigos de condutas das ONGs. Fazer com que o código de conduta estabelecido no âmbito da Convenção de Barcelona de 1976, através da decisão de 2009, seja tomado como referência.

5.Fazer aprovar a declaração de Almaty em cada uma das organizações internacionais. É extremamente relevante criar mecanismos para viabilizar que os direitos de informação e participação das ONGs no cenário internacional sejam garantidos, inclusive com a possibilidade de interposição de recursos administrativos. Sugere-se criar um conselho independente, no âmbito dessa e/ou de outras convenções, para o julgamento de recursos em caso de alegada recusa de acesso à informação e/ou participação.

6.Generalizar o « amicus curiae » em todas as jurisdições internacionais e também nas instâncias administrativas. A intervenção do « amicus curiae » deve se dar desde o início dos processos, com comprovação do interesse e da legitimidade, de acordo com seus fins institucionais.

7.Convidar a conferência das partes a instituir um comitê de controle em todas as convenções. O grupo reunido concorda com essa sugestão. Inclusive, essa é a essência da ideia já exposta no segundo parágrafo do item 5 acima.

8. Dar às ONGs o direito de ter acesso a todos os comitês de controle existentes. Igualmente, o grupo reunido apóia essa idéia. A sugestão é que haja mecanismos de acesso bem definidos e amplamente divulgados.

V) no que se refere ao direito à informação e meio ambiente:

Considerando que a Convenção sobre Acesso à Informação, Participação do Público no Processo de Tomada de Decisão e Acesso à Justiça em Matéria de Ambiente (designada ³Convenção de Adaer h2u5s de Junho de 1998) destina-se a garantir determinados direitos, impondo aos Estados-Membros e às autoridades públicas obrigações em matéria de acesso à informação, de participação do público e de acesso à justiça em questões ambientais.

Considerando que a melhoria do acesso à informação e da ampla participação nos processos de tomada de decisões, bem como de acesso à justiça são ferramentas essenciais e indispensáveis para reforçar e tornar mais eficazes as políticas de proteção do ambiente e a própria consolidação do Estado Democrático de Direito.

Considerando que ratificação, aceitação, aprovação ou adesão da Convenção de Aarhus importa no reconhecimento pelos Estados-Membros da importância dos seus objetivos e no compromisso de adoção das medidas necessárias para aderir à Convenção, adotando-se instrumentos vinculativos que alinhem a legislação interna dos países às exigências da Convenção.

Considerando e recordando o Princípio nº 1 da Declaração de Estocolmo sobre o Ambiente Humano e igualmente o Princípio nº 10 da Declaração do Rio sobre Ambiente e Desenvolvimento.

Os participantes do Simpósio Internacional rumo a Conferência da ONU sobre Meio Ambiente, Rio ± 2012 e Oficina de Trabalho MPF Rio + 20, convencidos da urgência na efetivação das normas protetivas ao meio ambiente, concluem pela adoção das seguintes medidas:

1. Que a Convenção de Aarhus seja ratificada pelo maior número possível de Estados-membros, inclusive pelo Brasil, os quais devem ser encorajados a is- so;

2. Que seja reconhecido e garantido efetivamente o direito público à informação ambiental;

3. Que sejam adotadas medidas concretas e imediatas pelos Estados visando a assegurar a todos, indistintamente e independentemente de demonstração de interesse particular, o livre acesso à informação ambiental, suprimindo os en- traves jurídicos e administrativos que obstem a obtenção de informações ambi- entais;

4. Que as informações ambientais sejam prestadas de forma veraz, tempestiva e completa a todos. O sigilo e o segredo são limites à informação e constituem exceções ao princípio da publicidade, devendo ser expressos e devidamente fundamentados quando invocados. Porém, não podem ser argüidos quando contrariarem o interesse social, prejudicarem a saúde humana e o meio ambi- ente.

5. Que as informações ambientais sejam coletadas, organizadas, atualizadas, disponibilizadas e difundidas da forma mais eficiente, ampla, integral e acessí- vel, utilizando-se de todos os meios de comunicação disponíveis, atuais e futu- ros, midiáticos, eletrônicos e outros. Na hipótese de conteúdos técnicos com- plexos, estes deverão ser transmitidos de forma clara e compreensível a todos;

6. Que sejam adotadas medidas eficientes no sentido de dar conhecimento ao público dos procedimentos relativos à participação, criando mecanismos que viabilizem o livre acesso aos mesmos e à sua utilização. Há que ser assegura- do, ainda, ao público, bem como às organizações, o acesso a mecanismos ju- diciais eficazes de forma a proteger os seus interesses legítimos e a garantir a aplicação da lei.

7. Que seja incentivada e promovida a educação ambiental, encorajando a ampla sensibilização do público e a sua participação nas decisões que afetem o am- biente.

8. Que sejam criados e aprimorados instrumentos que assegurem a transparên- cia, a participação e o controle social na concepção das políticas públicas, no processo de tomada de decisões e na execução das mesmas. No caso de i- nobservância, deverão ser considerados nulos os atos administrativos pratica- dos.

9. Que haja aperfeiçoamento e efetividade da responsabilização civil, penal e administrativa nos casos de omissão, recusa, supressão ou qualquer forma de cerceamento indevido do acesso à informação, à participação e do exercício do controle social.

10. Que sejam fomentados meios jurídicos e políticos que assegurem a participa- ção popular direta, como o plebiscito, o referendo e a iniciativa popular, concre- tizando e ampliando tais formas de participação e seu âmbito de aplicação.

11. Que seja buscado um novo marco regulatório das comunicações que vise garantir a plena difusão da informação, pressuposto para o exercício da cida- dania ecológica e do Estado Democrático de Direito.

Acompanham a presente Carta de Proposições o cartaz, a programação do evento e a lista de presença de seus participantes.

São Paulo, 28 de junho de 2011.

CENTRE I NTERNATIONAL de DROIT COMPARÉ de l?ENVIRONNEMENT 1 INTERNATIONAL CENTRE OF COMPARATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

RECOMMANDATIONS ISSUES DE LA 3ÈME REUNION MONDIALE DES JURISTES ET DES ASSOCIATIONS DE DROIT DE L?ENVIRONNEMENT (LIMOGES-FRANCE)

TABLE DES MATIÈRE

Droits de l'homme et environnement : les défis du droit

Recommandation n°1 : Le principe de non régression en droit de l?environnement page 3-4

Recommandation n°2 : Environnement et équité ou "environmental justice" page 7-10

Recommandation n°3 : Les catastrophes écologiques et les droits de l'homme page 15-18

Recommandation n°4 : L'effectivité du droit de l'environnement page 23-24

Recommandation n°5 : Le droit fondamental à la terre et à l'alimentation page 27-30

Les nouvelles conventions mondiales sur l'environnement

Recommandation n°6 : Le Projet de convention mondiale sur l?environnement page 34-35

Recommandation n°7 : Le projet de convention mondiale sur les évaluations environnementales page 38-39

Recommandation n°8 : Le projet de convention sur les sols (IUCN) page 42-43

Recommandation n°9 : Pour une convention sur la pollution d'origine tellurique des mers et des océans page 46-47

Recommandation n°10 : Le projet de convention relative au statut des déplacés environnementaux page 50-51

Recommandation n° 11 : Pour une convention pour la protection de l'environnement en cas de conflits armés page 55

Recommandation n°12 : Le projet de convention sur l'exploitation pétrolière offshore page 57-58

Recommandation n°13 : Le projet de convention sur le mercure page 61-62

Recommandation n°14 : Le projet de convention mondiale sur le paysage page 65

Le cadre institutionnel du développement durable et la gouvernance internationale de l'environnement

Recommandation n°15 : La Cour mondiale de l'environnement page 67-68

Recommandation n°16 : L'organisation mondiale de l'environnement page 71-73

Recommandation n°17 : La transformation du Conseil économique et social des Nations-Unies en Conseil économique, social et environnemental page 77

Recommandation n°18 : La place de la société civile et des ONG en droit international de l'environnement page 79

L'économie verte dans le cadre du développement durable et l'élimination de la pauvreté : des enjeux pour verdir la planète

Recommandation n°19 : Les forêts page 81-82

Recommandation n°20 : Les aires marines protégées en Haute-mer page 85-86

Recommandation n°21 : La gestion intégrée des zones côtières page 89-92

Recommandation n°22 : La responsabilité environnementale des entreprises page 97-103

Recommandation n°23 : Les énergies alternatives et durables page 112-114

Recommandation n°24 : Les nanotechnologies page 118-121

Recommandation n°25 : Biodiversité, problèmes fonciers des terres agricoles et mécanismes de compensation page 126-133

Recommandation n°26 : Tourisme durable page 142-144

CENTRE I NTERNATIONAL de DROIT COMPARÉ de l?ENVIRONNEMENT

INTERNATIONAL CENTRE OF COMPARATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

RECOMMENDATIONS RESULTING FROM THE 3RD WORLD MEETING OF THE LAWYERS AND ASSOCIATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL LAW (LIMOGES-FRANCE)

TABLE OF CONTENT

Human rights and environment: the challenges of the law

Recommendation n°1: The non regression principle in environmental law page 5-6

Recommendation n°2: The environmental justice page 11-14

Recommendation n°3: The ecological disasters and human rights page 19-22

Recommendation n°4: The effectiveness of the existing environmental law page 25-26

Recommendation n°5: The fundamental right to land and food page 31-33

The new world conventions on environment

Recommendation n°6: The draft world convention on environment page 36-37

Recommendation n°7: The draft world convention on environmental evaluation page 40-41

Recommendation n°8: The draft convention on soil (IUCN) page 44-45

Recommendation n°9: For a convention on land-based pollution of the seas and oceans page 48- 49

Recommendation n°10: The draft convention on the status of environmentally-displaced people page 52-54

Recommendation n°11: For a convention on environmental protection in case of armed conflicts page 56

Recommendation n°12: The draft convention on the offshore oil exploitation page 59-60

Recommendation n°13: The draft convention on mercury page 63-65

Recommendation n°14: The draft world convention on landscape page 66

The institutional framework for sustainable development and international environmental governance

Recommendation n°15: The World Environmental Court page 69-70

Recommendation n°16: The Environmental World Organization page 74-76

Recommendation n°17: The transformation of the UN Economical and Social Council in Economical, Social and Environmental Council page 78

Recommendation n°18: The place of the civil society and NGO in international law of the environment page 80

The green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication: issues for greening the planet

Recommendation n°19: The forests page 83-84

Recommendation n°20: The protected marine zones on the high seas page 87-88

Recommendation n°21: Integrated management of coastal zones page 93-96

Recommendation n°22: Corporate social responsibility page 104-111

Recommendation n°23: The alternative and sustainable energies page 115-117

Recommendation n°24: The nanotechnologies page 122-125

Recommendation n°25: Biodiversity, agricultural land tenure problem and compensatory mechanisms page 134-141

Recommendation n°26 : The sustainable tourism page 145-146

RECOMMANDATION N° 1

LE PRINCIPE DE NON RÉGRESSION EN DROIT DE L?ENVIRONNEMENT

La réunion mondiale des juristes et associations de droit de l?environnement réunis er à Limoges (France) du 29 septembre au 1 octobre 2011 soucieuse de contribuer aux progrès du droit de l?environnement, 

1. Constatant que toutes les conventions internationales en vigueur sur l?environnement, tant universelles que régionales, proclament comme une évidence que les Etats ont pour objectif l?amélioration continue de l?environnement en lien avec le progrès social et la lutte contre la pauvreté, 

2. Qu?il en résulte un consensus international sur la nécessité de prendre des mesures juridiques visant à atteindre un niveau élevé de protection et une amélioration de la qualité de l?environnement ce qui a pour effet de diminuer progressivement les pollutions portant atteinte à la santé et d? augmenter la préservation de la biodiversité indispensable à l?équilibre biologique entre les hommes et la nature, 

3. Affirmant que des mesures juridiques visant à empêcher la régression des niveaux actuels de protection de l?environnement sont indispensables pour respecter l?engagement d?améliorer progressivement la protection de l?environnement, 

4. Considérant que le droit et les politiques environnementales participent d'une évolution positive des sociétés, 

5. Prenant acte que l?environnement sain est désormais reconnu comme un droit de l?homme tant au niveau international que dans un grand nombre des Constitutions nationales, 

6. Constatant que les pactes internationaux des droits de l?homme de 1966 visent la progression constant des droits protégés ce qui est interprété comme interdisant la régression des droits fondamentaux, 

7. Mettant en évidence que le droit à un environnement sain est indispensable pour parvenir au développement durable 

8. Considérant que nous avons tous une responsabilité collective de ne pas porter atteinte aux droits des générations futures à la vie, à la santé et à l'environnement, et de leur transmettre le patrimoine environnemental dans le meilleur état possible, 

9. Soucieux des menaces multiples qui pèsent sur les politiques environnementales et qui, de façon explicite ou insidieuse, aboutissent à réduire les protections de la biodiversité et à augmenter les risques de pollutions et de désordres écologiques, 

10. Persuadés de la nécessité de prendre toutes les mesures qui empêchent tout recul ou toute régression dans le niveau de protection de l?environnement atteint par chaque Etat selon son propre rythme de développement, 

11. Considérant que la non régression peut résulter d?une disposition expresse contenue dans la Constitution ou dans des lois aussi bien que de la jurisprudence des tribunaux s?appuyant sur le principe du droit de l?homme à l?environnement ce qui conduit nécessairement à empêcher toute mesure ayant pour conséquence une diminution de la biodiversité ou une augmentation du niveau des pollutions, 

12. Prenant acte avec satisfaction de la résolution du Parlement européen du 29 septembre 2011 sur l'élaboration d'une position commune de l'Union dans la perspective de la conférence des Nations unies sur le développement durable (Rio+20) qui sans le paragraphe 97. « demande que le principe de non-régression soit reconnu dans le contexte de la protection de l'environnement et des droits fondamentaux »,  Demande solennellement aux chefs d?État et de gouvernement réunis à Rio de ème Janeiro en juin 2012 pour le 20 anniversaire de la Déclaration de Rio de proclamer officiellement dans la déclaration finale en tant que nouveau principe de droit de l?environnement complétant les principes déjà proclamés à Rio en 1992 que : « Pour empêcher tout recul dans la protection de l?environnement, les États doivent, dans l?intérêt commun de l?humanité, reconnaitre et consacrer le principe de non régression. Pour ce faire les États doivent prendre les dispositions nécessaires pour garantir qu?aucune mesure ne puisse diminuer le niveau de protection de l?environnement atteint jusqu?alors. »

RECOMMENDATION N°1

THE PRINCIPLE OF NON-REGRESSION OF ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

The international meeting of jurists and environmental law associations, having met in Limoges (France) from 29 September to 1 October 2011, and with a view to contributing to the advancement of environmental law,  

1. Noting that all current international environmental conventions, whether universal or regional, provide that an objective of States is the continuous improvement of the environment along with social progress and combatting poverty, 

2. Observing therefore that an international consensus exists on the need for legal measures to attain a higher level of environmental protection and improvement in environmental quality, including progressive reduction of pollution affecting health and greater preservation of biodiversity which is essential for harmony between humans and nature,  

3. Affirming that legal measures preventing regression of environmental protection are an essential component of the commitment to continuous improvement of environmental protection, 

4. Considering that sound environmental policy is a reflection of societal progress,  

5. Taking into account that a healthy environment is henceforth recognized as a human right at the international level as well as in the majority of national Constitutions, 

6. Acknowledging that the United Nations Human Rights Agreements of 1966 aim for the continual advancement of protected rights and are interpreted as prohibiting regression of fundamental rights, 

7. Underscoring that the right to a healthy environment is an essential element of sustainable development,  

8. Considering that human society has a collective responsibility not to harm the rights of future generations to life, health and a sound environment and to pass on the environment in the best possible condition,  

9. Mindful of the multiple threats that weigh on environmental policies and that, either explicitly or by stealth, may lead to reduced protection of biodiversity and increased risks of pollution and ecological distress, 

10. Convinced of the need for measures that prevent all backsliding or regression of the level of environmental protection attained by each State according to its development status,  

11. Considering that non-regression may be based on an express provision in the Constitution or laws of a State, as well as on judicial jurisprudence founded on the principle underlying the human right to a healthy environment, which necessarily calls for the prohibition of all measures having the effect of reducing biodiversity or increasing pollution levels, 

12. Taking note of the European Parliament resolution of 29 September 2011 on developing a common EU position ahead of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) which in the paragraph 97 calls for the recognition of the principle of non-regression in the context of environmental protection as well as fundamental rights;

HEREBY solemnly asks the Heads of State and of Government who will assemble in Rio de Janeiro in June 2012 for the 20th anniversary of the Rio Declaration to proclaim officially in the final declaration, as a new principle of environmental law complementing the principles already proclaimed in Rio in 1992, that :

« To prevent any weakening of environmental protection, States shall, in the common interest of humanity, recognize and adopt the principle of non-regression. To this end, States shall take the steps necessary to guarantee that no measure may diminish the existing level of environmental protection. »

RECOMMANDATION N°2

L'ÉQUITÉ ENVIRONNEMENTALE

Considérant le droit à la vie et à un environnement sain et équilibré pour tous,

Considérant que l?équité environnementale permet de protéger prioritairement les populations, communautés et individus vulnérables exposés aux risques environnementaux ou subissant une situation écologique défavorable,

Considérant le principe de non discrimination,

Considérant l?intérêt général de l?humanité de vivre dans un environnement sain et dans la paix,

Considérant l?équité entre les générations et les droits des générations futures,

Considérant que les injustices environnementales contribuent à accroitre la pauvreté,

Considérant que les impératifs de la justice sociale et de l?équité environnementale font partie des règles reconnues par la communauté internationale fondées sur le respect mutuel des États, des peuples et des individus participant à une communauté de vie,

Considérant les objectifs du développement durable,

Considérant la responsabilité des États de protéger les populations et les individus sans discrimination,

Considérant la responsabilité de la Communauté internationale d?assurer le respect de l?équité dans les relations internationales,

Considérant la nécessité d?assurer la sécurité internationale en évitant les déséquilibres et l?instabilité en matière d?environnement,

Considérant les principes de souveraineté, d?indépendance et d?intégrité territoriale des États,

Considérant le droit à l?indépendance environnementale des peuples pour une meilleure protection de l?environnement,

Considérant la compétence de l'État sur son territoire et le droit de ne pas subir de dommages causés par des activités exercées en dehors de sa juridiction,

Considérant que chaque État est le premier responsable de son propre développement durable, La Réunion mondiale des juristes de l?environnement de Limoges recommande l?adoption d?une déclaration de principes selon laquelle :

1) L?équité environnementale est l?expression de l?intérêt général de l?humanité et du devoir de respect envers la nature.

2) Les États s?engagent dans des modes de production et de consommation compatibles avec le respect de l?intérêt général de l?humanité et la protection des droits des générations futures.

3) Les États doivent s?abstenir de provoquer de manière directe ou indirecte par leurs politiques commerciales toute forme de surexploitation des ressources naturelles sur leur territoire ou sur celui d?autres États.

4) Les États reconnaissent un principe de solidarité internationale pour faire face aux catastrophes écologiques et s?engagent à soutenir par des moyens financiers et matériels ceux qui sont frappés par de telles catastrophes.

5) Les États s?engagent à mettre tout en ?uvre pour assumer leur contribution à la « dette écologique » mondiale en application du principe pollueur-payeur et du principe de responsabilités communes mais différenciées.

6) Les États doivent s?assurer du contrôle sur le territoire sous leur juridiction de toutes pratiques économiques et/ou commerciales susceptibles de menacer l?équité environnementale sur leur territoire ou sur le territoire d?un autre État. Ils doivent éventuellement prévoir des sanctions significatives pour les entreprises qui contreviendraient par leurs activités ou leurs pratiques aux principes d?équité environnementale. En cas de dommage environnemental, ils s?engagent à recourir et à appliquer la loi de l'État où s?est produit le fait générateur.

7) Les principes d?équité environnementale guident les actions de coopération internationale dans tous les domaines. Les États leur reconnaissent une valeur juridique supérieure.

8) L?équité environnementale oblige les États à élaborer des politiques respectueuses de l?intégrité et de la sécurité environnementales.

9) L?équité environnementale repose sur les principes suivants :

a. Le droit à un environnement sain et équilibré. Toute personne a droit à la préservation des conditions essentielles à sa subsistance et à des conditions de vie respectueuses de l?environnement quelque soit sa situation économique, sociale, culturelle, politique, ethnique, sa nationalité, son âge, son sexe, son lieu de résidence ou d?accueil. Aucune personne physique ou morale ni aucune entité ne peut faire supporter des risques environnementaux à une autre personne du fait de son action ou de son inaction, de son activité ou/et de sa méconnaissance du droit national ou/et international.

b. L?égalité en matière de sécurité environnementale basée sur le respect des obligations internationales notamment en matière de prévention de risques environnementaux et de lutte contre toutes les formes de pressions ou d?agressions écologiques transfrontières.

c. Le droit à l?éducation environnementale pour tous dans des conditions adaptées à la situation sociale, économique et culturelle de chacun et en considérant les risques environnementaux encourus.

d. L?accès pour tous dans des conditions équivalentes à des voies de recours auprès de juridictions internes ou/et internationales pour protéger le droit de chacun à un environnement sain et équilibré.

e. La solidarité des États et des peuples en matière d?accès aux ressources vitales

f. L?interdiction de toute activité susceptible de nuire aux écosystèmes et donc le contrôle de son territoire par l'État.

g. La précaution et la prévention en particulier pour toute activité humaine susceptible de nuire à une répartition équitable des bénéfices du développement durable.

h. La non-régression du droit de l?environnement.

i. L?obligation pour les États de prévenir et de réparer les dommages environnementaux dont ils ont la responsabilité.

j. La coopération internationale « éclairée » dans le domaine de l?environnement basée sur l?échange d?informations, le renforcement des capacités d'action et la gestion des risques environnementaux.

k. Des mécanismes de gouvernance environnementale internationale favorisant une participation éclairée de tous les membres de la société internationale.

10) Les groupes de population les plus vulnérables sur le plan social et économique doivent faire l?objet d?une attention particulière. Les droits des femmes en matière d?accès et de gestion des ressources vitales, et de participation aux décisions environnementales doivent être prioritairement soutenus.

11) Les États s?engagent à utiliser tous les moyens juridiques, humains, matériels et financiers pour assurer la mise en ?uvre de l?équité environnementale et notamment par les instruments suivants :

a. La fiscalité ;

b. L?étude d?impact environnemental ;

c. Le suivi et l?expertise de la réglementation environnementale ;

d. Les droits procéduraux : le droit à l?information, la participation, l?accès à la justice pour contester toute action ou décision susceptible de menacer l?équité environnementale ;

e. Les institutions juridictionnelles.

RECOMMENDATION N°2

ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE

Considering the right to life and to a clean and balanced environment for all,

Considering that environmental justice allows for priority protection of vulnerable populations, communities and individuals who are exposed to environmental risks or subjected to an unfavourable ecological situation,

Considering the principle of non-discrimination,

Considering the general interest of humanity to live in a clean environment and in peace,

Considering intergenerational equity and the rights of future generations,

Considering that environmental injustice contributes to increase poverty,

Considering that the imperatives of social justice and environmental equity are part of the rules recognized by the international community based on mutual respect of States, peoples and individuals participating in community life,

Considering the objectives of sustainable development,

Considering the responsibility of States to protect populations and individuals without discrimination,

Considering the responsibility of the international community to assure respect of equity in international relations,

Considering the need to ensure international security by avoiding environmental imbalance and instability,

Considering the principles of the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of States,

Considering peoples? right to environmental independence to improve environmental protection,

Considering the authority of each States over its territory and its right not to be subjected to hram caused by activities outside of its jurisdiction,

Considering that each State is primarily responsible for its own sustainable development, The world meeting of enviornmental lawyers at Limoges recommends the adoption of a declaration of principles as follows :

1) Environmental justice is the expression of humanity?s general interest and duty of respect with regard to nature ;

2) States commit to developing modes of production and consumption compatible with respect for the general interest of humanity and protection of the rights of future generations ;

3) States shall refrain from directly or indirectly promoting through their trade policies all forms of overexploitation of natural resources on their territory or the territory of another State ;

4) States recognize a principle of international solidarity in confronting ecological disasters and commit to provide material and financial support to those who are affected by such catastrophes ;

5) States commit to taking responsibility for their contribution to the global « ecological debt » by applying the polluter-payer principle and the principle of common but differentiated responsibility ;

6) States shall ensure control on all territory under their jurisdiction of all economic and/or commercial practices that may threaten environmental justice on their territory or the territory of another States. They shall put in place significant sanctions for enterprises that contravene the principle of environmental justice through their practices or activities. In case of environmental harm, they commit to using and applying the laws of the State in which the harmful act occurred.

7) Principles of environmental justice guide the acts of international cooperation in all areas. States accord these principles the highest legal value ;

8) Environmental justice requires States to elaborate policies that respect environmental integrity and security ;

9) Environmental justice is based on the following principles :

a. The right to a clean and balanced environment. Every person has a right to the preservation of conditions necessary for subsistence and conditions for life that respect the environment, regardless of economic, social, cultural, political or ethnic status, or nationality, age, gender, or place of permanent or temporary residence. Not physical or legal person or entity may subject another person to environmental risks through their actions or inactions and/or their ignorance of national or international law.

b. Equality regarding environmental security based on respect for international obligations, including prevention of environmental risks and the struggle against all forms of transboundary ecological pressure and aggression.

c. The right to environmental education for all, under conditions suited to social, economic and cultural conditions and taking into account existing environmental risks.

d. Access for all in equivalent conditions to remedies from domestic and/or international courts to protect the right to everyone to a balanced environment, favourable to human health.

e. Solidarity of States and peoples in terms of access to vital ressources.

f. Prohibition of any activity likely to damage ecosystems and thus the control of its territory by the State.

g. Precaution and prevention especially for any human activity that may affect the equitable distribution of benefits of sustainable development.

h. The principle of non-regresion in environmental Law.

i. The obligation of States to prevent and remedy environmental damages in accordance with their responsibility.

j. International cooperation "enlightened" in the field of environment based on exchange of information, capacity building action and management of environmental risks.

k. Mechanisms of international environmental governance to promote enlightened participation for all members of international society.

10) Instruments of environmental justice must be used in national policies to promote preservation and long-term protection of the right to a healthy environment for all. Population groups most vulnerable socially and economically should be given special attention. Women's rights of access and management of vital resources, and participation in environmental decisions should be primarily supported.

11) States undertake to use all legal instruments, human, material and financial resources to ensure implementation of environmental justice, including the following measures:

a. Taxation;

b. Environmental impact assessment;

c. Monitoring and expertise in environmental regulation;

d. Procedural rights: the right to information, participation, access to justice to contest any action or decision that would threaten environmental justice;

e. Jurisdictional institutions.

RECOMMANDATION N°3

LES CATASTROPHES ÉCOLOGIQUES ET LES DROITS DE L?HOMME

La réunion mondiale des juristes et associations de droit de l?environnement réunis à er Limoges (France) du 29 septembre au 1 octobre 2011, et considérant que :

1. Les catastrophes écologiques d?origine naturelle ou technologique sont caractérisées par leur dimension collective, l?incapacité des victimes de réhabilitation sans aide extérieure et la causalité complexe qui résulte de différents facteurs interdépendants, notamment les vulnérabilités environnementales et socioéconomiques qui affectent la capacité de prévention, de réponse et de réhabilitation.

2. Un cadre juridique des catastrophes écologiques doit adopter une définition élargie considérant tout le cycle des catastrophes (prévention, assistance et reconstruction) et faisant l?option pour une stratégie de gestion de catastrophes centrée dans la promotion du développement durable, la réduction des vulnérabilités environnementales et socioéconomiques, le renforcement de la résilience et la promotion des droits de l?homme, remplacent une vision restrictive centrée sur l?aide humanitaire et la réhabilitation.

3. Les causes diffuses et complexes qui sont derrière les catastrophes et l?intensification de leurs risques et leurs effets comme la dégradation de l?environnement, la pauvreté et d?autres vulnérabilités socioéconomiques, les obstacles au développement durable et les violations aux droits de l?homme, qui exigent l?attribution d?une approche éthique et environnementale au cadre juridique et institutionnel des catastrophes centré dans la promotion et la protection des droits de l?homme et de l?environnement dans un contexte de prévention, ainsi que dans les cas d?urgence et de reconstruction.

4. L?augmentation des risques de catastrophe et des mouvements de population dues aux changements climatiques et la modification des écosystèmes ont des conséquences sur les droits de l?homme, ce qui exige l?incorporation de la réduction des risques de catastrophe dans les stratégies d?adaptation aux changements climatiques ainsi que le respect des droits de l?homme.

5. L?absence de réglementation sur le sujet, une fois qui la plupart des documents et des textes juridiques internationaux ne sont pas contraignants et ne considèrent pas l?approche éthique de la gestion des catastrophes. Si le sujet a été déjà bien développé par rapport à la prévention, à la réponse et à la reconstruction, d?autre part la protection des individus par rapport à leurs droits, la situation des personnes déplacées, les responsabilités des organisations internationales, régionales et nationales et d?autres institutions doivent être développées, ce qui justifie les initiatives capables de donner cette approche éthique et environnementale exigée pour faire face à toutes les dimensions des catastrophes écologiques.

6. Les documents existants concernant la protection des personnes et leurs droits en cas de catastrophe ne sont pas contraignants et donnent la priorité aux catastrophes naturelles, s?appliquant la plupart des cas exclusivement pendant et après les catastrophes.

Les recommandations suivantes sont présentées :

- La relation entre la protection des droits de l?homme et la gestion des catastrophes doit être abordée à partir d'un cadre juridique capable d'intégrer le Droit de l'Environnement, le Droit International des Droits de l?Homme, le Droit Humanitaire et les normes spécifiques concernant les catastrophes, en considérant les différents facteurs qui sont derrière les risques de catastrophes et qui peuvent affecter la résilience.

- Les droits touchés par la catastrophe doivent être protégé de façon pleine et indivisible, en considérant les droits civils et politiques et droits économiques, sociaux et culturels. Les droits économiques, sociaux et culturels ont un rôle important dans la prévention et la reconstruction, compte tenu de leur contribution pour renforcer la résilience face aux risques et aux conséquences des catastrophes.

- L'adoption d'un texte international contraignant indiquant les droits de l?homme à protéger et à promouvoir dans la prévention, la réponse et la reconstruction des catastrophes concernant les victimes potentielles et effectives et le personnel de secours, et qui vise à renforcer la résilience et à réduire les vulnérabilités.

- Le texte contraignant doit adopter une définition intégrale de la gestion des catastrophes, concernant les catastrophes naturelles et les catastrophes technologiques, et tout le cycle des catastrophes, de la prévention à la reconstruction. L'accent doit être mis sur les mesures préventives. Il doit considérer les causes complexes et diffuses qui sont derrière les catastrophes et qui renforcent leurs effets comme la dégradation de l'environnement, la pauvreté et d'autres vulnérabilités socio-économiques, les obstacles au développement durable et les violations des droits de l?homme, ce qui exige une approche éthique et environnementale du cadre juridique des catastrophes. Cinq idées centrales doivent guider le texte:

1. Le développement durable comme le paradigme pour construire et renforcer la résilience en vue de réduire et de faire face aux risques et aux effets des catastrophes;

2. Les vulnérabilités socio-économiques et environnementales comme un facteur clé de l'exposition aux risques de catastrophes, notamment la pauvreté, ce qui exige la réduction des vulnérabilités et l'éradication de la pauvreté comme mesures de gestion des catastrophes dans une approche éthique et environnementale;

3. L'impact des catastrophes sur la jouissance des droits de l'homme et l'importance de renforcer leur protection comme une mesure pour réduire la vulnérabilité, promouvoir le développement durable et, en conséquence, renforcer la résilience;

4. La contribution des risques et des impacts des catastrophes sur l'augmentation des déplacements et des migrations et la condition spéciale de la vulnérabilité des personnes déplacées;

5. La protection de l'environnement comme une mesure nécessaire pour réduire les risques de catastrophes et de renforcer la résilience, par les services environnementaux rendus par les écosystèmes et leur fonction protectrice, ainsi que les effets de la dégradation de l'environnement sur l'augmentation des risques de catastrophe.

- Considérant qu'il y a un lien étroit entre la qualité de l'environnement, le niveau d'exposition aux risques de catastrophes et la capacité des communautés de faire face aux catastrophes, un droit à un environnement sain devrait être reconnu. Les services environnementaux rendus par les écosystèmes doivent être également reconnus et valorisés comme un moyen de réduire et de prévenir les risques de catastrophes et de préserver les ressources naturelles en tant que des moyens importants pour la reconstruction. Des mesures devraient être prises pour sauvegarder et réhabiliter l'environnement au plus vite possible après une catastrophe.

- Le droit aux mesures préventives et à la préparation aux catastrophes doit être reconnu, comme l'éducation, la formation et la prise de conscience des risques et le droit à une information appropriée pour créer une culture de la prévention en tant que moyens de résilience.

- Des mesures de précaution spéciales doivent être adoptées pour les personnes vulnérables. Les individus et les collectivités sont touchés de manière différente par les risques et les effets des catastrophes et il y aura différents degrés d'exposition selon les vulnérabilités, ce qui donne lieu à la nécessité d'intégration des principes de justice environnementale dans le cadre juridique relatif à la gestion des catastrophes. Les individus et des communautés vulnérables doivent bénéficier de mesures de prévention des catastrophes qui sont adaptés à leur vulnérabilité.

- La connaissance des populations autochtones et communautés traditionnelles sur son environnement et leur histoire peut être une contribution majeure à la réduction des risques et de la reconstruction après les catastrophes et devrait être reconnue et renforcée. Une attention particulière doit être accordée aux populations autochtones et les communautés traditionnelles dans les situations de catastrophes, compte tenu de leur forte relation avec leur environnement qui est essentiel pour le maintien de leur culture et de leur mode de vie.

- Parmi les groupes vulnérables, les personnes forcées de quitter leur domicile en raison des catastrophe, ou à risque d'être déplacées doivent avoir une attention particulière afin d'éviter les déplacements, ou lorsque c'est déjà arrivé, d?avoir leurs droits protégés compte tenu de leur extrême vulnérabilité. Cette vulnérabilité est aggravée par l'absence d'un statut juridique international des personnes déplacées. Par conséquent, les droits de l?homme concernant les personnes déplacées ou les personnes exposées au risque de déplacement en raison de catastrophes doivent avoir une reconnaissance et une protection internationales.

- Le droit à l'assistance humanitaire doit être reconnu, considérant que l'assistance humanitaire n'est pas actuellement reconnue officiellement pour le Droit International. L'assistance humanitaire doit être fournie de façon équitable, impartiale et sans discrimination, considérant et respectant la vulnérabilité des victimes et des groupes ayant des besoins spécifiques.

- Toutes les personnes et les communautés touchées par les catastrophes doivent être tenues informées et ont le droit de prendre part aux prises de décision en matière de réponse aux catastrophes.

- Toutes les personnes victimes des catastrophes doivent avoir reconnu leur droit à la dignité et l'accès à toutes les conditions requises pour mener une vie digne, afin de protéger la dignité humaine. La dignité humaine doit être au centre de la démarche éthique d'un cadre juridique sur la gestion des catastrophes.

- Les droits des personnels de l'aide et de secours doivent être également protégés.

- Les Etats doivent continuer à assurer la jouissance et le respect des droits de l'homme pendant et après les catastrophes. Les États ont la responsabilité de protéger les personnes sur leur territoire en assurant, en dépit de la catastrophe, la pleine application des droits de l'homme, tant pour leur peuple et pour le personnel d?aide humanitaire et de santé. Les entreprises et les autres organismes d'aide économique et humanitaire impliquée dans la reconstruction sont responsables du respect des droits humains et de la dignité de toutes les personnes impliquées dans les opérations de reconstruction ainsi que des victimes.

- Le rôle des juridictions internationales et régionales de protection des droits de l'homme dans l?analyse et la reconnaissance des violations des droits de l?homme en conséquence des catastrophes doit être reconnu et renforcé, ainsi que l'accès des victimes à ces juridictions.

RECOMMENDATION N°3

ECOLOGICAL DISASTERS AND HUMAN RIGHTS: CONSTRUCTING RESILIENCE BY AN ENVIRONMENTAL AND ETHICAL APPROACH

The International meeting of lawyers and environmental law associations, having met in Limoges (France) from 29 September to 1 October 2011, and considering that:

- Ecological disasters, with a natural or technological origin, are characterized by their collective dimension, by the incapacity of victims to rehabilitate without external assistance and by complex causes, as a result of different interrelated factors, in particular environmental and socio-economic vulnerability, which affect the ability to prevent, to react and to rehabilitate.

- A legal framework on ecological disasters should adopt a broader approach which considers all the aspects of the disaster cycle (prevention, assistance and reconstruction) and opts for a strategy of disaster management based on the promotion of sustainable development, the reduction of environmental and socio-economic vulnerabilities and the protection of human rights, which framework would replace a restrictive view of humanitarian assistance and rehabilitation.

- The complex and diffuse causes that are behind disasters and the growing intensity of their risks and their effects, like environmental pollution, poverty, socio-economic vulnerabilities, obstacles to sustainable development and human rights violations, gives rise to a need for a legal and institutional framework on disasters with an ethical and environmental approach, focusing on the promotion and protection of human rights and the environment in the context of measures for the prevention of such disasters as well as emergency measures and in reconstruction activities.

- The increase in disaster risks and in population movements due to climate change and ecosystems modification have consequences for human rights and requires the incorporation of disaster risk reduction measures and the protection of human rights into strategies for adaptation to climate change.

- There is a lack of regulation on this matter and most of the documents and legal international instruments on disasters are not binding and do not address the ethical approach to disaster management. Although the subject may have already been extensively explored in relation to prevention, preparedness and recovery, the protection of individuals and their human rights, the situation of displaced persons, the responsibilities of international, regional and national organizations needs to be developed and initiatives adopting the ethical and the environmental approach are required to cope with all aspects of ecological disasters.

- The existing documents dealing with the protection of persons and their rights in disasters are not binding and prioritize natural disasters and apply, for the most part, exclusively during and after disasters. Present the following recommendations:

- The relationship between the protection of human rights and disaster management must be addressed in a legal framework capable of integrating Environmental Law, International Human Rights Law, Humanitarian Law and specific norms applied to disasters, taking account of the different factors behind disaster risks, which affect resilience to them.

- The rights affected by disasters must be protected in a full and indivisible way, having regard to civil and political rights and economic, social and cultural rights. Economic, social and cultural rights have an important role in disaster prevention and reconstruction, having regard to their contribution in reinforcing resilience against risk and catastrophic consequences.

- The adoption of an internationally binding text that defines the human rights to be protected and promoted in disaster prevention, response and reconstruction measures and dealing with actual and potential victims and rescue workers, with the aims of strengthening disaster resilience and reducing vulnerability.

- This binding text should adopt an integrated approach to disaster management dealing with both natural and technological disasters, and dealing with the whole disaster cycle with an emphasis on preventive measures. It must consider the complex and diffuse causes behind disasters and which [contribute] to their effects, such as environmental pollution, poverty, socio-economic vulnerability, obstacles to sustainable development and breaches of human rights, which gives rise to a need for an ethical and environmental approach to a legal framework for disasters. The binding text must be based on five central themes:

1. Sustainable development as the paradigm to construct and reinforce resilience in order to reduce and manage the risks and effects of disasters;

2. Regarding socio-economic and environmental vulnerabilities as key factors in exposing people to disaster risks, especially poverty, which gives rise to a need to reduce vulnerability and the eradication of poverty, as measures to manage disaster in an ethical and environmental way;

3. The impact of disasters on the enjoyment of human rights and the importance of strengthening their protection as a measure to reduce vulnerabilities, to promote sustainable development and, in this way, to strengthen resilience;

4. The contribution of disaster risks and impacts on the increase of displaced persons and migration and the vulnerability of the displaced persons;

5. The protection of the environment as a necessary measure to reduce the risks of disasters and to reinforce resilience and having regard to ecological services provided by ecosystems and the effects of environmental pollution on increasing disaster risks and their impacts.

- Considering the relationship between the quality of the environment, the level of exposure to disaster risks and communities? ability to cope with disasters, a right to a healthy environment should be recognized. The environmental services provided by ecosystems must also be recognized and valued as a means of reducing and preventing disaster risk and preserving natural resources as important means to reconstruction. Measures should be taken to safeguard and rehabilitate the environment as soon as possible after the occurrence of disasters.

- A right to preventive measures and disaster preparedness must be recognized, as to include education, training and awareness of disaster risks and rights to adequate information to create a culture of prevention and as means to strength resilience.

- Special preventive measures must be adopted for vulnerable persons. Individuals and communities are affected in different ways by the risks and effects of disasters and there will be different degrees of exposure depending upon vulnerabilities, which gives rise to the need for incorporation of environmental justice principles in the legal framework on disaster management. Vulnerable individuals and communities must benefit from disaster prevention measures, which are tailored to their vulnerability.

- The knowledge of indigenous people and traditional communities about their environment and their history can be a major contributor to risk reduction and to reconstruction after disasters and should be recognized and supported. Special attention must be given to indigenous people and traditional communities in disaster situations, having regard to their strong relationship with their environment, which is essential to the maintenance of their culture and way of life.

- Among such vulnerable people, those people forced to leave their home due to disaster risk or at risk of being displaced, should have particular attention in order to avoid displacement or if that has already happened, to have their rights protected having regard to their extreme vulnerability. This vulnerability is compounded by the lack of any international legal status for such displaced persons. Therefore, the human rights of displaced persons or persons exposed to the risk of displacement as a result of disaster, should have international recognition and protection.

- The right to humanitarian assistance should be recognized, considering that humanitarian assistance is not formally recognized in International Law. Humanitarian assistance should be provided fairly, impartially and without discrimination, having due regard to the vulnerability of victims and people?s specific needs.

- All persons and communities affected by disasters shall be kept informed of and have the right to take part in decisions dealing with the response to disasters.

- All persons who are actual or potential victims of disaster should have their right to dignity recognized and have access to all the conditions required to lead a dignified life, so as to protect their human dignity. Human dignity should be at the center of an ethical approach to a legal framework on disaster management.

- The rights of assistance and rescue workers must also be equally protected.

- States must continue to ensure the enjoyment and respect for human rights during and after disasters. States have responsibility to protect people in their territory by ensuring that despite a disaster, human rights both for their people and for the humanitarian and health and aid personnel will be enforced. Companies and other economic and humanitarian aid agencies involved in reconstruction must respect the human rights and dignity of all people involved in reconstruction operations as well as of the victims.

- The role of international and regional courts dealing with the protection of human rights in recognition and analysis of human rights violations arising from disasters should be recognized and reinforced, as well as the access of victims to these courts.

RECOMMANDATION N°4

L?EFFECTIVITÉ DU DROIT INTERNATIONAL DE L?ENVIRONNEMENT

Considérant que l?environnement est un bien commun de l'Humanité,

Considérant qu?un environnement sain est vital pour la santé humaine,

Considérant que face aux enjeux environnementaux, l?utilisation de l?outil juridique ne peut être pleinement bénéfique que si l?effectivité des normes qui en résulte est assurée,

Considérant que l?effectivité du droit est indispensable à une « bonne » gouvernance,

Considérant que l?effectivité des normes internationales dans le domaine de l?environnement résulte de multiples facteurs qu?il convient d?envisager globalement,

Considérant qu?une action en faveur de l?effectivité des normes internationales dans le domaine de l?environnement implique des réformes internationales au niveau de l?architecture des normes et du contrôle de leur respect par les Etats,

Considérant que l?effectivité des normes internationales dans le domaine de l?environnement résulte en outre de la capacité de la société internationale à institutionnaliser les processus normatifs et juridictionnels, de même que de la reconnaissance du rôle des acteurs de la société civile,

Réaffirmant la place du droit, des acteurs et des mécanismes de contrôle au niveau interne pour l'effectivité du droit international de l'environnement, ème La 3 réunion mondiale des juristes et associations de droit de l?environnement recommande de:

1. Reconnaitre que le droit à l'environnement tout comme ses principes fondateurs font partie du jus cogens international, entendu comme une norme impérative du droit international général universellement acceptée et reconnue par la société internationale ;

2. Renforcer l'institutionnalisation de l'environnement au sein des organes permanents et spécialisés de l'ONU, de même qu'au niveau des conférences des parties des accords multilatéraux sur l'environnement;

3. Reconnaître et mettre en ?uvre le principe d?équilibre, selon lequel l'ambition des normes environnementales doit être en parfaite adéquation avec le niveau des enjeux environnementaux, notamment en intégrant en droit international, des procédures d'évaluation de l'impact sur l'environnement des traités;

4. Favoriser la participation du public à l?élaboration et au suivi de l?application des traités internationaux ;

5. Rendre le droit accessible, intelligible et prévisible, de même qu?en favoriser la diffusion ;

6. Améliorer de façon globale la mise en ?uvre et l?application du droit international de l?environnement ;

7. Multiplier et améliorer les procédures de non compliance dans les accords multilatéraux sur l?environnement en prenant comme exemple le compliance committee de la Convention d?Aarhus et en prévoyant leur ouverture aux ONG et au public ;

8. Favoriser la création d'une Cour internationale de l?environnement ouverte aux acteurs non étatiques;

9. Institutionnaliser le dialogue des juges en créant des mécanismes de renvoi préjudiciel entre juridictions internationales et entre juridictions nationales et internationales ;

10. Ratifier largement la Convention d?Aarhus pour l?étendre au niveau universel ; appliquer son article 3 §7 au niveau de toutes les COP, de toutes les procédures de non- respect et devant toutes les juridictions internationales qui ont à connaître des affaires portant sur l?environnement ; appliquer les trois piliers de la Convention d?Aarhus au niveau national et régional.

RECOMMENDATION N°4

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

Considering that the environment is a common good of Humanity,

Considering that a healthy environment is vital for human health,

Considering that given the environmental stakes, the use of legal tools can only be fully useful if the effectiveness of international environmental norms is guaranteed,

Considering that the effectiveness of law is crucial for ?good? governance,

Considering that the effectiveness of international environmental norms depends on multiple factors that have to be viewed globally,

Considering that action to advance the effectiveness of international environmental norms implies international reform of the normative architecture and of measures to ensure compliance by States,

Considering that the effectiveness of international environmental norms also depends on the capacity of international society to institutionalize normative and jurisdictional processes, as well as recognising the role of civil society parties,

Reaffirming the role of the law, relevant actors, and compliance mechanisms at the domestic level to improve effectiveness of international environmental law,

The third world meeting of environmental lawyers and environmental law associations recommends States to:

1) Recognize that the right to the environment, as well as the main principles of environmental law, are part of international jus cogens, to be understood as a peremptory norm of general international law universally accepted and recognized by the international community;

2) Reinforce institutionalization of the environment within permanent and specialized UN bodies, as well as within conferences of the Parties of multilateral environmental agreements;

3) Recognize and implement the principle of equilibrium, according to which environmental law should be fully adequate to address the needs of environmental degradation, notably by integrating within international law, procedures to assess the impact of the international treaties on the environment;

4) Promote public participation in the formulation and implementation of international treaties ;

5) Make the law accessible, intelligible, predictable and transparent to all, simultaneously promote awareness of and disseminate international environmental law;

6) To improve in a global manner the implementation and enforcement of international environmental law;

7) Multiply and improve the non-compliance procedures in multilateral environmental agreements by using as an example the Aarhus Convention Compliance Committee and by providing access to these procedures to NGOs and to the public;

8) Encourage the creation of an International Court of the Environment open to non-state actors ;

9) Institutionalize dialogue among judges by creating preliminary ruling procedures between international jurisdictions and between international jurisdictions and domestic courts;

10) Encourage wider ratification of the Aarhus Convention to give it universal application; apply its article 3(7) in all Conferences of the Parties, in all non-compliance procedures and before all international jurisdictions in which environmental cases may be brought; and apply the three pillars of the Aarhus Convention at the national and regional levels.

RECOMMANDATION N°5

DROIT À L?ALIMENTATION ET DÉVELOPPEMENT DURABLE

La réunion mondiale des juristes de l?environnement :

Consciente de la nécessité de lier la réalisation du droit à l?alimentation à un accès équitable aux ressources naturelles, en particulier pour les populations les plus vulnérables;

Consciente de la nécessité d?assurer la sécurité juridique des droits relatifs à la terre, à l?eau, aux forêts, et aux pêches;

Consciente de la menace qui pèse sur la sécurité alimentaire et le droit vital à l?alimentation des populations autochtones et des communautés locales, d?une part par une exploitation irrationnelle des ressources naturelles; et d?autre part, par un accès inéquitable à ces ressources;

Considérant que la survie de l?humanité se fera, également, par la réalisation du droit à une alimentation suffisante et adéquate, à travers une agriculture durable et une gestion intégrée de toutes les ressources naturelles;

Considérant la Résolution du Parlement européen du 29 septembre 2011, appelant à une réalisation effective du droit à l?alimentation ;

Recommande:

1. Sur le fondement conceptuel:

a) qu?en se fondant sur le concept d?agroécologie, il faut lier le développement agricole au droit à l?alimentation, pour faire en sorte que les systèmes alimentaires garantissent la disponibilité de la nourriture pour tous et que l?offre puisse répondre aux besoins mondiaux;

b) de veiller à ce que le développement agricole contribue à accroître les revenus des petits exploitants, réduisant ainsi la faim autant que la pauvreté ;

c) que le souci d?équité se double d?une exigence de durabilité, en veillant à ce que l?agriculture maintienne sa capacité à satisfaire les besoins des générations présentes et futurs moyennant la sauvegarde de la biodiversité agricole, la préservation de la qualité de l?eau et des sols, ainsi que la lutte contre la désertification et la sécheresse, le changement climatique et les catastrophes naturelles.

2. Sur le cadre juridique:

d) de reconnaître constitutionnellement, au profit de chaque être humain, le droit à une alimentation adéquate, lui permettant d?accéder à des aliments sains et nutritifs en quantité suffisante afin de jouir pleinement de ses capacités physiques et mentales;

e) d?adopter un dispositif juridique - éventuellement sous forme de loi-cadre - spécialement consacré au droit à l?alimentation, qui en spécifie le contenu normatif et définisse les obligations qui en découlent ainsi que les mesures d?ordre institutionnel, judiciaire, éducatif, budgétaire ou autres visant à renforcer son application;

f) que les Etats adhérent aux divers instruments internationaux pertinents, régionaux et mondiaux, relatifs au droit à l?alimentation;

g) l?application des orientations fournies par les Directives volontaires à l?appui de la concrétisation progressive du droit à une alimentation adéquate dans le contexte de la sécurité alimentaire nationale (2004);

h) la mise en ?uvre des futures Directives volontaires sur la gouvernance responsable de la tenure des terres, pêches et forêts dans le contexte de la sécurité alimentaire nationale (en cours de négociation).

3. Sur les politiques et législations foncières:

i) d?adopter, réviser et mettre en ?uvre des politiques foncières nationales cohérentes qui tiennent compte du droit à l?alimentation;

j) de réformer les législations foncières en ayant à l?esprit le droit à l?alimentation, notamment en termes d?accès à la terre agricole et aux autres ressources naturelles qui s?y rattachent;

k) de reconnaître la pluralité des régimes fonciers qui coexistent, y compris les droits coutumiers, afin de mieux répondre aux besoins de sécurisation des différents acteurs en milieu rural;

l) de réguler les marchés fonciers en vue de lutter contre la spéculation, en particulier sur le foncier urbain, en vue d?atténuer l?exclusion des populations les plus vulnérables par les mécanismes du marché.

4. Sur la gestion des ressources naturelles (terres, forêts, pâturages, eau, pêche, ressources phytogénétiques):

m) de réformer les législations relatives à la gestion des ressources naturelles en s?efforçant de mettre en cohérence le droit à l?alimentation avec les normes, pratiques et contraintes locales;

n) d?accorder une attention particulière aux mécanismes idoines de gestion locale des ressources naturelles, privilégiant la concertation entre les différents usagers (par ex. à travers des conventions locales consensuelles);

o) d?associer tous les acteurs concernés, notamment locaux, au processus d?élaboration, de mise en ?uvre et de suivi des législations relatives à la gestion des ressources naturelles.

5. Sur l?accès aux ressources par les groupes spécifiques (femmes, populations autochtones, minorités):

p) de veiller au respect des instruments internationaux relatifs aux droits des femmes, des populations autochtones et des minorités, et leur faciliter l?accès au moyens de recours en cas d?atteinte à leurs droits;

q) de mettre en place, et veiller à l?application effective, de dispositifs juridiques adaptés, équitables et non discriminatoires, garantissant l?accès des femmes, des populations autochtones et des minorités aux terres et autres ressources naturelles;

r) d?associer les femmes, les populations autochtones et les minorités à la gestion des terres et autres ressources naturelles assurant leur droit à l?alimentation, au partage des bénéfices qui en découlent et aux processus décisionnels y relatifs.

6. Sur les investissements agricoles et acquisitions foncières en milieu rural:

s) de promouvoir les investissements publics et privés en faveur de l?agriculture, notamment paysanne, ainsi que des activités agro-sylvo-pastorales et de la pêche artisanale;

t) d?adopter un cadre juridique garantissant la sécurité des investissements dans le foncier rural, en tenant dûment compte des dimensions environnementales et sociales;

u) de réaliser ces investissements sans mettre en péril la sécurité alimentaire locale et nationale, dans le respect de l?ensemble des droits individuels et collectifs y compris les droits fonciers existants, individuels comme collectifs, et suivant des procédures participatives transparentes;

v) d?encadrer juridiquement les acquisitions foncières à moyenne et grande échelle en milieu rural, en soumettant les cessions privées au consentement préalable informé des populations concernées, en sauvegardant les droits fonciers locaux et en garantissent le paiement effectif de la valeur réelle des terres cédées.

RECOMMENDATIONS N°5

THE RIGHT TO FOOD AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

The environmental legal experts global meeting:

Conscious of the necessity to link the achievement of the right to food to a fair access to natural resources, in particular for the most vulnerable populations;

Conscious of the necessity to ensure legal safety of the rights to land, water, forest, fisheries;

Conscious of the threat to food safety and to the vital right to food of indigenous people and local communities, due on the one hand to irrational exploitation of natural resources; and on the other hand to unfair access to these resources;

Considering that the survival of humanity will be done through the achievement of the right to sufficient and adequate food, and through sustainable agriculture and integrated management of all the natural resources;

Considering the European Parliament Resolution of 29 September 2011 calling for an effective achievement of the right to food;

Recommends:

1. Regarding the conceptual basis:

a) That by referring to the concept of agroecology, agriculture development and right to food should be linked so that food systems ensure food availability for all and that the supply satisfies the global needs;

b) To make sure that agriculture development contributes to the increase of small-scale farmers, thus reducing hunger as well as poverty;

c) That the concern for equity be associated with a requirement of sustainability, by ensuring that agriculture maintains its capacity to the needs of the present and future generations provided that agriculture biodiversity is safeguarded, that water and soil quality is preserved, and that desertification and drought, climate change and natural disasters are combated against.

2. Regarding the legal framework:

d) To constitutionally recognize the right to adequate food to every human being so that he/she can access sound and nutritious food in sufficient quantity to fully enjoy his/her physical and mental capacities;

e) To adopt a legal system- which may be in the form of a framework law- specifically focusing on the right to food that specifies its content and defines the resulting obligations as well as institutional, legal, educational, budgetary measures or any other measure aiming at strengthening its implementation;

f) That States accede to the relevant regional and international right to food instruments;

g) The implementation of the orientations of the Voluntary Guidelines to support the progressive realization of the right to adequate food in the context of national food security (2004);

h) The implementation of the future Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the context of national food safety (under negotiation).

3. Regarding land policies and legislations:

i) To adopt, review and implement coherent national land policies which take into account the right to food;

j) To reform land policies bearing in mind the right to food, in particular in terms of access to agricultural lands and to other related natural resources;

k) To recognize the plurality of land tenures that exist, including customary rights, in order to better satisfy the needs of security of the different actors of the rural area;

l) To regulate the land markets in order to fight against speculation, in particular on the urban land market, so as to mitigate the exclusion of the most vulnerable populations by the market mechanisms.

4. Regarding the natural resources management (land, forest, pasture, water, fisheries, plant genetic resources):

m) To reform legislation related to natural resources management through seeking to bring coherence between the right to food and the local rules, practices and constraints;

n) To grant specific attention to the appropriate mechanisms of local management of natural resources, giving priority to concertation/discussions between the different users (e.g. through consensual local conventions);

o) To associate all stakeholders, including the local ones, to the elaboration process, implementation and follow up of legislation related to the management of natural resources.

5. Regarding the access to resources by specific groups (women, indigenous people, minorities):

p) Ensure the respect of international instruments related to women, indigenous people and minorities rights, and to facilitate their access to appeal in case of infringement to their rights;

q) To establish and ensure the effective implementation of appropriate, fair and non discriminatory legal mechanisms that guarantee women, indigenous populations and minorities access to land and other natural resources;

r) To associate women, indigenous populations and minorities to the management of land and other natural resources guaranteeing their right to food, and to the resulting benefit sharing and decision process.

6. Regarding agriculture investments and land acquisition in rural area:

s) To promote public and private investment in favour of agriculture, including peasant agriculture, as well as agro-sylvo-pastoral and small-scale fisheries;

t) To adopt a legal framework that guarantees the safety of investments in rural land sector, duly taking into account the environmental and social aspects;

u) To realize the afore mentioned investments without jeopardizing the local and national food safety, respecting all individual and collective rights including the existing individual and collective land rights, and according to transparent participative procedures;

v) To legally define the rural small and large scale land acquisitions by submitting the private transfers to the prior consent of the populations involved, by safeguarding the local land rights and by ensuring the effective payment of the real value of the transferred lands.  

RECOMMANDATION N° 6

PACTE SUR L?ENVIRONNEMENT ET LE DÉVELOPPEMENT

La Réunion mondiale des juristes de l?environnement,

Ayant examiné le statut et le contenu actuels du projet d?un « Pacte international sur l?environnement et le Développement » qui comprend la plupart des principes acceptés par consensus depuis la conférence de Stockholm,

Notant que ce dernier a été introduit auprès de la communauté internationale en 1995 à l?occasion du cinquantième anniversaire de l?Organisation des Nations Unies,

Saluant la contribution de l?UICN et du Conseil international de droit de l?environnement à la formulation et à la promotion de cette initiative ;

Considérant que le projet de Pacte contribue au développement du droit international de l?environnement vise à renforcer, la construction d?un véritable droit du développement durable ;

Notant avec satisfaction les progrès accomplis depuis la présentation du projet de Pacte pour le développement durable qui a fait depuis lors l?objet de trois révisions qui l?ont périodiquement actualisé ;

Préoccupée fortement par l?absence persistance de versions du projet en d?autres langues de travail des Nations unies, particulièrement dans une version française,

Convaincue que la traduction en français du projet de Pacte est d?une haute importance pour les pays en développement de l?espace francophone qui doivent jouer un rôle important dans le processus d?adoption d?un tel instrument,

1. Accueille favorablement le projet de Pacte international sur l?environnement et le développement, dont elle recommande l?adoption ;

2. Décide de le recommander fortement à l?attention de l?AGONU pour discussion et adoption ;

3. Propose qu?à ces fins, l?AGONU, par l?intermédiaire d?un État membre, se saisisse du projet de Pacte et l?introduise en tant que document officiel en vue de garantir sa traduction dans les langues de travail des Nations Unies ;

4. Attire l?attention de l?Organisation internationale de la Francophonie sur l?urgence d?une version française avant la conférence Rio + 20, en vue de faciliter les discussions au sein de la communauté francophone ;

5. Recommande que l?AGONU adopte directement le projet de Pacte international sur ème l?environnement et le développement en Plénière, le cas échéant, sur recommandation de la 6 commission ;

6. Relève que plusieurs Etats ont utilisé le projet de Pacte international comme référence pour leur législation nationale ;

7. Relève également que les pays de l?UA ont utilisé le projet de Pacte international comme base de révision de la convention d?Alger de 1968 sur la conservation de la nature et des ressources naturelles et que les chefs d?Etats et de gouvernement l?ont accepté à Maputo en 2003 ;

8. Invite les Etats membres de l?UA à une ratification rapide de la convention africaine révisée adoptée lors du sommet des chefs d?Etats et de gouvernements à Maputo ;

9. Propose, si l?adoption par l?AGONU en plénière n?est pas possible, que l?AGONU crée sous son égide un Comité intergouvernemental de négociation chargé d?élaborer de la négociation et de l?adoption d?un tel instrument, en tenant compte des propositions que pourront soumettre les États participant au processus de négociation, de façon à ce que la convention soit mise au point d?ici à juin 2014 ;

10. Recommande instamment qu?une résolution de l?AGONU envisage rapidement la mise en place les conditions d?une adoption du projet de Pacte sur l?environnement et le développement, conformément à la pratique établie de l?AGONU ;

11. Prie le Secrétaire général de saisir dès que possible l?AGONU du projet de pacte aux fins de son examen et adoption ;

RECOMMENDATION N°6

PACT ON ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT

Having examined the actual status and content of the draft for an « International Covenant on Environment and Development » which includes a large number of principles accepted by consensus since the Stockholm Conference, 

Noting that the draft International Covenant on Environment and Development was introduced to the international community in 1995 on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the United Nations, 

Recognizing the contribution of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and the International Council of Environmental Law -toward sustainable development- (ICEL) in the formulation and promotion of this initiative; 

Considering that the draft Covenant contributes to the development of international environmental law, and aims to build a real sustainable development law; 

Noting with satisfaction the progress made since the initial presentation of the draft International

Covenant on Environment and Development, which has since undergone three revisions to periodically update it in accordance with the newest developments in the field; 

Deeply concerned by the continuing lack of a version of the draft Covenant in other working languages of the United Nations, particularly in French; 

Convinced that the French translation of the draft Covenant is of paramount importance to Francophone developing countries, which have an important role to play in the process of adopting such an instrument;

The Third Worldwide Conference of Environmental Law NGOs and Lawyers in Limoges (France), September 29-1 October, 2011: 

1. Welcomes the draft International Covenant on Environment and Development, and recommends its adoption;  

2. Decides to recommend it strongly to the attention of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) for discussion and adoption; 

3. Provides for such purposes that the UNGA, through a Member State, embrace the draft Covenant and introduce it as an official document to ensure its translation into the working languages of the United Nations; 

4. Draws the attention of the International Organization of La Francophonie to the urgent need for a French translation before the Rio+20 Conference, to facilitate discussions within the Francophone community; 

5. Recommends that the UNGA, upon recommendation of the 6th Committee, directly adopt the draft International Covenant on Environment and Development in Plenary; ; 

6. Notes that several states have used the draft Covenant as a check list for their national legislation, especially African Union (AU) Member States; 

7. Further Notes that AU Member States have concretely used the draft Covenant as a basis for the revision of the 1968African Covention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources and that all Heads of State and Government adopted this Revised African Convention (Maputo Convention) at the Second Summit of the African Union in 2003; 

8. Invites AU Member States to quickly ratify the Revised African Convention adopted by the Heads of State and Government at the Second Summit of the African Union in Maputo in 2003; 

9. Proposes, that if adoption of the draft International Covenant on Environment and Development by the UNGA in Plenary is not possible, the UNGA establish, under its aegis, an Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for the negotiation and adoption of such an instrument, taking into account proposals that could be submitted by the States participating in the negotiation process, so that the Convention be developed by June 2014; 

10. Urges the adoption of a resolution by the UNGA to quickly consider the establishment of conditions for the adoption of the draft International Covenant on Environment and Development, in accordance with the established practices of the UNGA; 

11. Requests the Secretary-General, as soon as possible, to bring the draft Covenant to the attention of the UNGA for its consideration and adoption; 

RECOMMANDATION N° 7

POUR UNE CONVENTION MONDIALE SUR LES ÉVALUATIONS ENVIRONNEMENTALES

Les participants à la réunion mondiale de juristes et des associations du droit de l?environnement sont conscients des incidences réciproques des activités économiques et de leurs conséquences sur l'environnement et de la nécessité d?intensifier la coopération internationale dans le domaine de l'évaluation environnementale pour une gestion de l?environnement et du développement durable meilleure et plus rationnelle.

Ils proposent l?élaboration d?une convention mondiale opérative (en anglais, implementable) sur les évaluations environnementales et la durabilité, sur la base des considérations suivantes :

1. Des nombreux Etats ont adopté des mesures pour que l'évaluation de l'impact sur l'environnement soit pratiquée en application de leurs lois et règlements administratifs et de leur politique nationale. Pourtant, les dispositions nationales existantes n?offrent pas toutes le même niveau d?exigence ni ne répondent à des critères harmonisées. Ce manque d?uniformité des législations nationales sur les évaluations a des effets indésirables sur la protection de l?environnement et peut générer des distorsions ayant des effets inéquitables dans les échanges économiques internationaux.

2. La jurisprudence internationale, notamment de la Cour Internationale de Justice (CIJ) et du Tribunal International de Droit de la Mer (TIDM), a constaté « qu?il existe, en droit international général, une obligation de procéder à une évaluation de l?impact sur l?environnement lorsque l?activité industrielle projetée risque d?avoir un impact préjudiciable important dans un cadre transfrontière, et en particulier sur une ressource partagée ». Cependant, la CIJ reconnait aussi que « le droit international général ne précise (pas) la portée et le contenu des évaluations de l?impact sur l?environnement » et que, par conséquent «il revient à chaque Etat de déterminer, dans le cadre de sa législation nationale ou du processus d?autorisation du projet, la teneur exacte de l?évaluation environnementale requise dans chaque cas ». Ce cadre normatif, manifestement incomplet, implique l?élaboration urgente de règles harmonisées, décidées par les États dans une convention internationale de portée mondiale, pour définir les standards minimaux que les dispositions nationales et internationales sur les évaluations environnementales et de durabilité devraient respecter.

3. À l?heure actuelle, les dispositions nationales et internationales sur les évaluations environnementales ne s?appliquent pas généralement aux espaces situés au-delà des juridictions nationales. Il est urgent de mettre en place des instruments juridiques qui comblent cette lacune pour renforcer la protection environnementale des espaces communs de la Planète.

4. Dans l?élaboration de la Convention, les lignes directrices suivantes devraient être prises en compte.

a. La Convention devrait avoir une portée mondiale, quitte à être suivie d?autres instruments de portée régionale et sous-régionale

b. Champ d'application : La Convention devrait avoir une portée étendue comprenant les études d?impact sur l?environnement et les évaluations stratégiques et transfrontières ainsi que la surveillance continue. Les évaluations devraient intégrer les aspects sociaux et culturels ainsi que les effets sur la consommation d?énergie.

c. Floor but no ceiling : La Convention établira les conditions minimales des procédures d?évaluation, tout en permettant aux Parties d?adopter des normes nationales plus protectrices. La Convention établira le contenu minimal de l?étude d?impact, la qualité technique et l?indépendance scientifique des auteurs de l?étude d?impact.

d. Screening : La Convention devra fixer la liste d?activités soumises aux procédures d?évaluation, soit sur la base de critères généraux soit par une énumération spécifique.

e. Ex ante approach : La procédure d?évaluation devra être complétée avant qu?une décision soit prise par l?autorité compétente autorisant le projet d?activité ou les lois, plans et programmes correspondants.

f. Global commons: La Convention s?applique aux évaluations transfrontières qui risquent d?affecter d?autres Etats ou des zones situées au-delà des juridictions nationales. Dans le cas des évaluations transfrontières, les procédures de notification et de consultation entre les États concernés seront exigées. Tous les États concernés pourront participer aux procédures d?évaluation.

g. Public participation : Dans tous les cas, la participation du public à la procédure d?évaluation sera garantie et prise en considération.

h. Compliance mecanisms : La Convention inclura un mécanisme de contrôle et de suivi avec un Comité composé d?experts indépendants qui peut recevoir des demandes de la part du public (independent body + public trigger)

i. La Convention pourra être complétée par des Protocoles en tant que de besoin.    

RECOMMENDATION N°7 

FOR A WORLD CONVENTION ON ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTS 

The participants in the global meeting of lawyers and environmental law associations are conscious of the reciprocal impacts of economic activities and their consequences on the environment and the need to intensify international co-operation in the field of environmental assessment for a better and more rational management of the environment and for sustainable development.  

They encourage the commencement of a process for the drafting of an enforceable world convention on environmental assessment and sustainability, based on the following considerations:  

1. Many States have adopted measures to ensure that environmental impact assessment is carried out as part of their laws and administrative regulations and their national policy. But existing national laws and regulations do not provide for the same requirements nor reflect harmonized criteria. This lack of uniformity of national laws on assessments has adverse effects on the protection of the environment and can generate distortions with unfair effects on international trade.  

2. International jurisprudence, particularly of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) and the International Tribunal of the Law of the Sea (ITLOS), has found ?that there is, in general international law, a duty to undertake an environmental impact assessment when the proposed industrial activity may have an adverse impact in a transboundary context, and in particular, on a shared resource?. However, the ICJ recognizes also that ?general international law does not specify the scope and content of an environmental impact assessment? and that therefore ?it is up to each State to determine, in its national legislation or in the authorization process, the specific content of the environmental assessment required in each case?. This clearly incomplete, normative framework gives rise to an urgent demand for the development of harmonized rules, agreed upon by States, in an international convention of global scope, to set minimum standards that must be complied with by national and international instruments dealing with environmental assessment and sustainability.  

3. Currently, national and international provisions on environmental assessments do not generally apply to areas located beyond national jurisdiction. Legal instruments to fill this Gap and to strengthen environmental protection of the common areas of the planet should be put in place as a matter of urgency.  

4. In drafting the Convention, the following guidelines should be considered:  

a. The Convention should have global scope, even if it is to be followed by other instruments of regional and sub-regional scope.  

b. Scope of application: the Convention should have broad scope covering environmental, strategic and transboundary assessments and continuing surveillance and monitoring. The assessments should integrate the social and cultural aspects and the effects of planed activities on consumption of energy.  

c. Floor but no ceiling: the Convention should establish the minimum requirements of the assessment procedures, while allowing the Parties to adopt more protective national standards. The Convention should establish the minimum content of the environmental assessment report and the technical quality and the scientific independence of its authors.  

d. Screening: the Convention should fix the list of activities subject to assessment procedures, either on the basis of general criteria or by a specific enumerating list.  

e. Ex-ante approach: the assessment procedure must be completed before a decision is made by the competent authority authorizing the project activity or under the corresponding laws, plans and programmes.  

f. Global commons: the Convention should apply to transboundary assessments which might affect other States or areas beyond national jurisdictions. In the case of transboundary assessments, procedures for notification and consultation among the States concerned will be required. All the States concerned can participate in the assessment procedures.  

g. Public participation: in all cases, public participation in the assessment procedures should be guaranteed and taken into consideration.  

h. Compliance mechanisms: the Convention should include a compliance mechanism with a Committee of independent experts who can receive requests from the public (independent body + public trigger)  

i. The Convention may be supplemented by Protocols as needed.  

RECOMMANDATION N°8

LA SÉCURITE ET L?UTILISATION DURABLE DU SOL

Considérant que le sol, en tant que base première pour toute biodiversité terrestre, a été jusqu?alors largement ignoré dans les forums internationaux et par les gouvernements nationaux, excepté dans le contexte de la désertification ;

Comprenant que le manque de prise en considération du sol constitue un déficit substantiel dans les politiques environnementales et que le sol, en tant que ressource biologique vitale, nécessite une protection urgente et spécifique, au même titre que d?autres régimes de protection, en particulier la diversité biologique et le changement climatique ;

Réalisant la nécessité d?initier une approche intégrée de la conservation, de la sécurité et de l?utilisation durable du sol et qui prenne le sol en considération dans les régimes environnementaux multilatéraux de la désertification, de la diversité biologique et du changement climatique ;

Rappelant que les objectifs de la Convention relative à la lutte contre la désertification doivent être poursuivis conformément à ses dispositions pertinentes, pour combattre la désertification, réduire les effets de la sécheresse, utiliser des stratégies à long terme axées sur l?amélioration de la productivité des terres, la remise en état, la conservation et la gestion durable des ressources du sol et de l?eau, conduisant à une amélioration des conditions de vie, en particulier au niveau de la communauté ;

Reconnaissant que plus de 70 % des terres pastorales dans le monde sont gravement touchées par la dégradation du sol et en vue de leur contribution dans l?adaptation au changement climatique, la gestion des risques de catastrophes, la protection de la biodiversité et l?agriculture durable et le développement rural ;

Prenant en compte le texte adopté à la séance du Parlement européen du 29 Septembre 2011 sur l?adoption d?une position commune de l'UE avant la Conférence des Nations Unies sur le développement durable (Rio +20), notamment l'article 52 qui « déplore la lenteur de l'avancée des négociations et des engagements dans le cadre de la Convention des Nations unies sur la lutte contre la désertification (CLD), estime que les sols sont une ressource rare et que leur dégradation et leur réaffectation nécessitent une réponse à l'échelle mondiale; appelle de ses v?ux des actions concrètes et efficaces et des mesures de contrôle, notamment pour ce qui concerne la production de biocarburants »;

Il est recommandé que, dans une première étape pour résoudre les problèmes de la conservation mondiale des sols, un protocole sur la sécurité et l'utilisation durable des sols soit négocié sous l?égide de la Convention relative à la lutte contre la désertification.

Il est en outre recommandé que la Conférence de Rio + 20 envisage l'élaboration d?un projet détaillé de Convention sur la sécurité et l'utilisation durable du sol, en se concentrant sur la dégradation des sols et la contamination et comportant des dispositions concernant le rôle du sol dans la conservation de la diversité biologique, l'atténuation et l'adaptation aux effets du changement climatique et la sécurité alimentaire à l'égard de toutes les terres.

RECOMMENDATION N°8

SECURITY AND SUSTAINABLE USE OF SOIL

Recognizing that soil, as the primary basis for all terrestrial biodiversity, has until recently been largely ignored in international fora and by national governments, except in the context of desertification.

Understanding that the lack of consideration of soil represents a substantial Gap in global policy making on the environment and that soil, as a vital biological resource demands urgent and specific protection on the same level as other environmental regimes, in particular biological diversity and climate change.

Accepting that it is necessary to initiate an integrated approach to soil conservation, soil security and sustainable use of soil and which takes soil into account within the multilateral environmental regimes of desertification, biological diversity and climate change.

Recalling the objectives of the Convention to Combat Desertification, to be pursued in accordance with its relevant provisions, to combat desertification, mitigate effects of drought, use long-term strategies that focus on improving productivity of land, rehabilitation, conservation and sustainable management of land and water resources, leading to improved living conditions, in particular at the community level;

Recognizing that over 70 percent of the world?s pastoral lands are severely affected by soil degradation and in view of their contributions to climate change adaptation and mitigation, disaster risk management, biodiversity protection, and sustainable agriculture and rural development;

Taking into account the text adopted at the sitting of the European Parliament on 29 September 2011 on developing a common EU position ahead of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) in particular clause 51 which ?Regrets the slow progress of negotiations and commitments in the context of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD); considers that soil is a scarce resource and that land degradation and land use change require a global response; calls for concrete action, efficient measures and monitoring, especially as regards the production of biofuels?;  

It is recommended that, as a first step in addressing issues of global soil conservation, a Protocol on Security and Sustainable Use of Soil be negotiated under the Convention to Combat Desertification It is further recommended that the Rio + 20 Conference consider the drafting of a comprehensive Convention on Security and Sustainable Use of Soil, focusing on soil degradation and contamination as well as including provisions concerning the role of soil in the conservation of biological diversity, mitigating and adapting to the effects of climate change, and food security with regard to all lands;

RECOMMANDATION N°9

CONVENTION POUR LA LUTTE CONTRE LA POLLUTION MARINE D'ORIGINE TELLURIQUE

La troisième réunion mondiale des juristes et associations de droit de l'environnement

Considérant que la pollution tellurique représente 80% de la pollution des mers,

Considérant le très grand nombre de sources de cette pollution, toutes situées à terre,

Considérant l'insuffisance du cadre international général et régional traitant de la question, il est nécessaire de proposer une convention mondiale de lutte contre ce fléau,

Recommande l'adoption de la convention selon les principes suivants:

1. recommande la prise en compte de toutes les sources de cette pollution y compris les apports sédimentaires, les déversements de déchets solides et les retombées aériennes de polluants volatiles;

2. recommande la prise en compte des trois origines des polluants: rivages, cours d'eau et retombées atmosphériques;

3. recommande la création d'une convention cadre contenant les dispositions minimales et de protocoles additionnels tenant compte des spécificités des écosystèmes océaniques et du développement économique des riverains de ces écosystèmes;

4. recommande que la convention repose sur trois piliers: la mise en place de programmes d'action de 5 à 6 ans déterminant des priorités, l'obligation pour les États parties de se doter de mesures législatives nécessaires pour une application effective des programmes d'action, l'instauration du principe de pollueur payeur mais dont les sanctions pécuniaires serviraient à inciter les acteurs économiques à se doter d'équipements diminuant ou supprimant les déversements polluants;

5. recommande que soit introduit un système de listes de produits interdits de déversement et de produits provisoirement autorisés sous la responsabilité de l'Etat.

6. recommande que la convention soit dotée d'organes permanents dont un secrétariat assurant la continuité et les liens entre les parties, une commission administrative dotée de pouvoirs de décision et de recommandation évaluant la mise en ?uvre de la convention, aidant à la coordination des actions, recevant les rapports annuels des parties. Les décisions de cette commission seraient adoptées par voie de consensus . Le recours à la votation serait évité autant que possible;

7. les protocoles additionnels permettraient une approche spécifique ratione materiae mais également une approche chronologique ratione temporis afin de privilégier les actions prioritaires et de permettre aux États les moins avancés de monter progressivement en puissance. Il conviendrait de prévoir des protocoles précisant les niveaux de rejet, tenant compte des bassins hydrographiques, luttant contre les eaux usées, instaurant une surveillance en continu, adoptant un schéma directeur pour les programmes d'action, fixant les objectifs des politiques publiques;

8. recommande de mettre en place un système de responsabilité des États parties assurant le respect des dispositions conventionnelles. Les États manquant à leurs obligations devraient réparer les dommages causés. Mais dans toute la mesure du possible, les États parties devraient aider l'État défaillant de bonne foi. Les Etats doivent prévoir des sanctions pénales au niveau national;

9. recommande aux parties d'utiliser toutes les formes de règlement pacifique des différends. En cas de non accord, le recours obligatoire au tribunal international du droit de la mer est privilégié.

RECOMMENDATION N°9

CONVENTION FOR THE LAND-BASED MARINE POLLUTION

The third global meeting of lawyers and associations for environmental law

Considering that the land- based marine pollution represents 80% of the pollutions of the seas,

Considering the great number of causes of this pollution, all of them land-based,

Considering the deficiency of juridical international and regional conventions on this question,

Think it necessary to propose a global convention to fight this pollution and recommend the adoption of a convention to take account of the following:

1. to take account of all the causes of this pollution, including sedimentary deposits, the dumping of solid waste and the atmospheric fallout of volatile pollutants;

2. to take into account the three origins of the pollutants : sea shores, rivers, and atmospheric fallout;

3. the creation of a framework convention including minimum provisions and additional protocols taking into account the requirements of oceanic ecosystems and of the economic development of coastal states;

4. the convention to be based on three pillars : the putting in place of programs of action for 5 or 6 years setting out priorities, the obligation on member States parties to adopt the legislative measures needed for the effective enforcement of the programs, the adoption of the polluter-pays principle while also providing for financial penalties to incite economic actors to adopt equipment to diminish or suppress polluting discharges;

5. the introduction of a system of lists of products which are prohibited from dumping and of products provisionally authorized under State responsibility;

6. the convention to provide for the establishment of permanent bodies to include a Secretariat ensuring continuity and links between parties, an administrative Commission with decision making powers and to make recommendations on the enforcement of the convention, helping to co-ordinate actions and receiving the annual reports of the parties. The decisions of the Commission would be adopted by consensus, recourse to voting being avoided insofar as possible;

7. the additional protocols would allow a specific approach ratione materiae and also a chronological approach ratione temporis in order to prioritise actions and to allow the less developed States to gradually increase their participation. Protocols should be provided specifying waste standards, taking account of hydrographic basins, waste waters and the putting in place of continuous surveillance and the putting in place of a development plan for action programs, setting out public policy objectives;

8. to set up a responsibility system for the State parties assuring respect for the convention provisions. The non-compliant States would be obliged to make good the damage caused. However, whenever possible, the States parties should help the defaulting bona fide State. The State parties should set up penalties in their national laws;

9. the parties should use lawful peaceful means to resolve their disputes. If they do not resolve them, an appeal to the international tribunal of the law of the sea would be preferred.

RECOMMANDATION N°10

SUR LES BESOINS D?UNE PROTECTION DES DÉPLACÉS ENVIRONNEMENTAUX

- Considérant l?urgence de la situation de l?environnement mondial qui ne cesse de se dégrader, en raison des changements climatiques et/ou de la perte de diversité biologique, de la sécheresse, de la désertification, du déboisement, de l?érosion des sols, des épidémies, de conflits armés, des grandes infrastructures et, plus généralement, des risques naturels et technologiques,

- Considérant que les victimes de ces phénomènes sont confrontées à la disparition de leur environnement entraînant la dégradation de leur santé et de leur dignité, mettant en cause la substance même de leur droit à la vie,

- Considérant que l?augmentation exponentielle d?ores et déjà prévisible de ces déplacements constitue une menace sur la stabilité des sociétés humaines, la pérennité des cultures et la paix dans le monde,

- Considérant que plusieurs déclarations internationales soulignent l?existence de cette catégorie de déplacés (Déclaration de Rio, principe 18 relatif à l?assistance écologique, juin 1992 ; Agenda 21, chapitre 12, 12.47, élaboration de plans de secours ; Principes directeurs relatifs au déplacement de personnes à l?intérieur de leur propre pays),

- Considérant que de nombreuses conférences internationales évoquent aussi ces situations, telles que :

- la Conférence de Kyoto (1997) et celle de La Haye (2000), qui mettent en avant les risques de fortes migrations liées aux changements climatiques ;

- la Conférence mondiale sur la prévention des catastrophes naturelles (Hyogo, janvier 2005) qui a insisté sur l?ensemble des aspects préventifs liés en particulier aux réfugiés écologiques,

- Considérant que certains organes des Nations Unies sont intervenus en ce sens :

- l?Assemblée générale des Nations Unies à travers les résolutions n° 2956 en 1972 et n° 3455 en 1975 sur les personnes déplacées, la résolution n° 36/225 du 17 décembre 1981 sur le renforcement de la capacité du système des Nations Unies de faire face aux catastrophes naturelles et autres situations revêtant le caractère d?une catastrophe, la résolution 43/131 du 8 décembre 1988 sur l?assistance humanitaire aux victimes des catastrophes naturelles et situations d?urgence du même ordre, la résolution n° 45/100 du 14 décembre 1988 sur l?assistance humanitaire aux victimes des catastrophes naturelles et situations d?urgence du même ordre, la résolution n° 49/22 du 13 décembre 1994 concernant la décennie internationale de la prévention des catastrophes naturelles ; e

- le Conseil de sécurité (5663 séance du 17 avril 2007) en établissant un lien entre l?impact des changements climatiques et la sécurité du monde en particulier par rapport aux personnes qui risquent d?être déplacées d?ici 2050 ;

- le Secrétaire général des Nations Unies (message du 5 juin 2006) en exhortant les gouvernements et les collectivités du monde entier à penser à ceux qui ne peuvent subsister dans les zones arides et deviennent des réfugiés écologiques,

- Considérant que les institutions spécialisées des Nations Unies telles que l?Organisation mondiale de la santé, l?UNESCO, la Banque mondiale, d?autres institutions du système des Nations Unies telles que le Haut-commissariat aux réfugiés, le Programme des Nations Unies pour l?environnement, le Programme des Nations Unies pour le développement, des organisations régionales telles que le Conseil de l?Europe, l?Union européenne, l?Union africaine attirent l?attention sur les enjeux des migrations écologiques,

- Considérant que des conventions internationales prennent déjà en partie en considération les déplacements environnementaux, notamment :

- la Convention (No 169) concernant les peuples indigènes et tribaux dans les pays indépendants du 27 juin 1989 (Organisation Internationale du Travail) ;

- la Convention sur la lutte contre la désertification du 12 septembre 1994 ;

- la Convention africaine pour la protection et l?assistance aux personnes déplacées en Afrique du 22 octobre 2009,

- Reconnaissant le principe d?assistance à un Etat écologiquement sinistré comme un devoir de la communauté internationale,

- Considérant les Principes de Nansen rédigés les 6 et 7 juin 2011,

- Considérant l?article 14 § f) de l?accord de Cancún

1. Propose l?adoption d?un nouvelle Convention internationale sur les déplacées environnementaux permettant une définition harmonisée des « déplacées environnementaux »

2. Propose d?instituer un mécanisme institutionnel inédit de « double protection » des déplacés environnementaux inter et intra étatiques

3. Propose l?adoption de 11 droits communs aux déplacés environnementaux intra et inter-étatiques : Droits d?être secouru, Droit à l?eau et à une aide alimentaire de subsistance, Droit aux soins, Droit à la personnalité juridique, Droits civils et politiques, Droit à l?habitat, Droit au retour, Droit au respect de l?unité familiale, Droit de gagner sa vie par le travail, Droit à l?éducation et à la formation, Droit au maintien des spécificités culturelles).

4. Propose l?adoption de principes clefs du droit international, droit international de l?environnement, du droit international des droits de l?Homme, du droit international des réfugiés et des déplacés : Principe de solidarité, Principe de responsabilités communes mais différenciées, principe d?humanité, principe de protection effective, Principe de non-discrimination, Droit à l?information et à la participation, Droit au déplacement, Droit au refus du déplacement

5. Recommande la mise en place d?un mécanisme institutionnel de coopération avec la création de Commissions nationales des déplacés environnementaux dans chaque Etat partie, chargée de l?examen des demandes de reconnaissance du statut, d?une Agence mondiale pour les déplacés environnementaux composée d?un conseil scientifique, d?un conseil d?administration et d?un secrétariat

6. Recommande la mise en place d?un mécanisme de suivi de la bonne application de la Convention avec la réunion de Conférences aux parties et la production de rapports nationaux.

7. Encourage enfin la création d?un mécanisme de financement avec le Fonds mondial pour les déplacés environnementaux

RECOMMANDATION N°10

A PROTECTION FOR THE ENVIRONMENTALLY DISPLACED PEOPLE

- Considering the alarming condition of the global environment and the increasing rate of its deterioration,

- Considering that these negative environmental phenomena produce victims who encounter injury to their health and their dignity, and even impairment of their fundamental right to life,

- Considering that the gravity of environmental harm necessitates the displacement of individuals, families and populations,

- Considering that the exponential growth and clear foreseeability of such movements constitute a threat to the stability of human societies, the preservation of cultures, and world peace,

- Considering the many appeals from non-governmental organizations to recognize a status for environmentally-displaced persons, and insisting on the urgent necessity of responding to their plight,

- Considering that several international declarations underline the existence of this category of displaced persons (Principle 18 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, concerning ecological assistance, June 1992; Agenda 21, Chapter 12, 12.47 ; and the Directive principles relating to internallydisplaced persons),

- Considering the numerous international conferences that also refer to such situations, including:

-the Kyoto Conference (1997) and that of The Hague (2000) which set forth the risks of large migrations linked to climate change,

-the World Conference on the Prevention of Natural Disasters (Hyogo, January 2005) which insisted on prevention linked in particular to ecological refugees,

- Considering that certain organs of the United Nations have spoken of this matter:

- The General Assembly of the United Nations in resolutions 2956 (1972) and 3455 (1975) on displaced persons, resolution 36/255 of 17 December 1981 on strengthening the capacity of the United Nations system in the face of natural disasters and other catastrophes, resolution 43/131 of 8 December 1988 on humanitarian assistance to victims of natural disasters and emergency situations of the same type, resolutions 45/100 of 14 December relative to humanitarian assistance to victims of natural disasters and emergency situations of the same type, resolution 49/22 of 13 December 1994 concerning the international decade for the prevention of natural disasters,

- The Security Council (5663rd session of 17 April 2007) making the link between the impact of climate change and international security, in particular in respect to persons who risk displacement by 2050;

- The Secretary General of the United Nations in his message of 5 June 2006 exhorting governments and societies through the world to think of those who cannot subsist in arid zones and will become ecological refugees,

- Considering that the specialized institutions of the United Nations such as the World Health Organization, UNESCO, the World Bank, and other institutions in the United Nations system, such as the High Commissioner for Refugees, the United Nations Environment Programme, and the United Nations Development Programme, regional organizations such as the Council of Europe, the European Union, and the African Union have drawn attention to the challenges of environmental migrations,

- Considering the international agreements that already take into consideration environmental displacements, notably:

- The International Labour Organization?s Convention No. 169 concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries of 27 June 1989;

- The Convention to Combat Desertification of 12 September 1994;

- The African Union?s Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa of October 22, 2009;

- Considering Principles Nansen prepared 6 and 7 June 2011,

- Considering article 14 § f) Cancun agreements .

1. Proposes the adoption of a new international convention on environmental displacement that includes a clear definition of "environmentally displaced persons".

2. Proposes to establish an institutional mechanism unprecedented protection of environmentally both those displaced within their own country and those who are displaced to other states .

3. Proposes the adoption of common rights for environmentally displaced internally-and inter states -persons including: Right to assistance, Right to water and to subsistence food aid, Right to health care, Right to juridical personality, Civil and Political Rights, Right to housing, Right to return, Right to respect for the family, Right to work, Right to education and training, Right to maintain cultural specificity.

4. Proposes the adoption of key principles of international law, international environmental law , international law of human rights, international law of refugees and displaced persons including: Principle of Solidarity, Principle of humanity, Principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, Principle of effective protection, Principle of non- discrimination, Rights to information and participation, The Right to Displacement, The Right to Refuse Displacement.

5. Recommends the establishment of an institutional mechanism for cooperation with the National Commissions on Environmental Displacements in each State Party, in charge of reviewing applications for recognition of the status of a World Agency for Environmentally-Displaced Persons composed of a scientific council, board of directors and a secretariat .

6. Recommends the establishment of a mechanism to monitor the proper implementation of the Convention through Conferences of the parties and national reporting.

7. Encourages the creation of funding mechanism with the World Fund for the Environmentally-Displaced persons.

RECOMMANDATION N°11

CONFLITS ARMÉS ET ENVIRONNMENT

Convaincue que les prétendues nécessités de guerre ne sauraient justifier un manqué de respect pour l?environnement et, par conséquent, des conditions de vie des générations futures ;

Note que la protection de l?environnement en temps de conflit armé par voie de dispositions spécifiques est insuffisante ;

Demande, pour cette raison, qu?un traité soit adopté qui disposerait de problèmes spécifiques à cet égard, applicable aussi bien en temps de conflit international que non-international, à savoir :

- Afin d?assurer la protection de l?environnement en tant qu?objet civil, certains élément de l?environnement doivent avoir le statut de « zone démilitarisée » ;

- Un processus de désignation de telles zones devrait être réglé par un traité, qui pourrait prévoir une désignation par des tiers, notamment par le Conseil de sécurité ;

- Ceux qui préparent et décident une attaque doivent tenir dûment compte de la protection de l?environnement naturel ;

- En particulier, le risque d?un dommage environnemental, y inclus un dommage à long terme, doit être prise en compte dans l?application du principe de proportionnalité en ce qui concerne les dommages causés incidemment ;

- Des activités entreprises pour réparer ou mitiger des dommages environnementaux en temps de conflit armé doivent être protégées et respectées ;

- La réhabilitation de l?environnement entreprise après la fin des conflits armés devrait être aidée et promue.

Demande au Comité international de la Croix´Rouge et aux Etats de tenir compte de cette demande lors de leurs consultations relatives au développement du droit international humanitaire.  

RECOMMENDATION N°11

WAR AND ENVIRONMENT

Convinced that purported necessities of war cannot justify disregard for the environment and, thus, for the living conditions of future generations,

Notes that the protection of the environment in times of armed conflict by way of specific treaty provision is insufficient;

Demands, therefore, that a treaty is adopted regulating a number of specific problems related to armed conflicts, both for international and domestic conflicts, that

- Ensures the protection of the environment as civilian objects, and as ?demilitarized zones?,

- Provides for a special designation process for environmental areas that should be protected, which could include a designation by third parties such as the Security Council;

- Requires that those who plan and decide upon an attack must pay due regard to the protection of the natural environment;

- Mandates that the risk of environmental damage, including long term damage, must be taken into account in the application of the so-called proportionality principle relating to incidental damage,

- Assures that activities undertaken for the purpose of repairing or mitigating environmental damage during an armed conflict are protected and respected.

- Promotes and makes provision for post-conflict environmental rehabilitation.

Requests the International Committee of the Red Cross and States to take this demand into consideration in consultations concerning the further development of international humanitarian law.

RECOMMANDATION N°12

SUR L'EXPLOITATION PETROLIERE OFFSHORE

La réunion mondiale des juristes de l'environnement :

Considérant le contexte actuel de développement de l'offshore profond et ultra-profond (plus de 3000 mètres).

Considérant que le prix actuel du baril de pétrole permet de tirer des bénéfices de l'exploitation de ces gisements profonds et ultra-profonds.

Considérant l'extension des plateaux continentaux autorisée par les Nations-Unies ouvrant aux États la possibilité d'engager des forages profonds plus nombreux.

Considérant que les progrès importants des techniques d'exploitation marquent le pas face à l'augmentation constante de la profondeur des forages.

Considérant que les contrats pétroliers liant les États et les sociétés d'exploitation contiennent des clauses de sécurité pour les chantiers mais qu'il n'est jamais question de la protection de l'environnement.

Considérant que l'article 204 de la Convention des Nations-Unies sur le Droit de la Mer prévoit pourtant que les États doivent surveiller les effets des activités qu'ils autorisent sur leur territoire.

Constatant que ces évènements, et de façon générale les risques potentiels liés aux activités d'exploitation offshore, attirent l'attention sur les déficiences du droit international face à un développement qui ne peut qu'affecter l'intégrité des océans et des mers en tant que biens communs. Ainsi il convient qu'une résolution des Nations-Unies propose des lignes de conduite qui devraient s'imposer aux États possédant des ressources pétrolières.

Recommande :

a) qu'en se fondant sur le principe de précaution, les Conventions Mers Régionales qui n'en sont pas encore pourvues se dotent de protocoles sur cette approche.

b) que les États riverains doivent réaliser un rapport annuel concernant les mesures de protection de l'environnement imposées aux sociétés d'exploitation pétrolière. Ce rapport devra être remis à une agence spécialisée ou à une éventuelle future Organisation Mondiale de l'Environnement.

c) une interdiction globale des forages dans les aires marines protégées.

d) que la responsabilité de l'État soit systématiquement engagée en cas de pollution qui serait le fait d'une négligence ou d'un manquement dans les restrictions imposées aux sociétés d'exploitation.

e) qu'une étude d'impact soit systématiquement réalisée antérieurement à toute délivrance d'un permis d'exploitation.

f) que soit mis en place un système d'inspection des installations pétrolières offshores par des observateurs tiers désignés par une agence spécialisée ou par l'éventuelle future Organisation Mondiale de l'Environnement.

g) que soit constitué un fond de réparation des dommages en cas de pollution alimenté à la fois par les entreprises pétrolières et par les États de la ressource.

RECOMMENDATION N°12

REGARDING A RESOLUTION ON OFFSHORE OIL DRILLING

The world meeting of environmental lawyers :

Considering the current context of deepwater and ultra-deepwater (more than 3000 meters) offshore oil development ;

Considering that the current price per barrel of oil allows such deepwater and ultra-deepwater to be cost-effective ;

Considering that the extension of the exclusive economic zone authorized by the United Nations (PLEASE CHECK, NOT SURE IF THAT?S WHAT THIS REFERS TO) opens the possibility for a greater number of deepwater wells ;

Considering that signficant advances in drilling technology allow an ongoing increase in the depth of deepwater well ;

Considering that oil contracts between States and oil companies contain security questions that do not account for environmental protection ;

Considering that Article 204 of the United National Convention on the Law of the Sea nevertheless anticipates that States shall monitor the effects of activities that they allow on their territory ;

Noting that these activities, and in general the potential risks from offshore drilling, draw attention to deficiencies in international to deal with a form of development that will undoubtedly affect the integrity of the oceans and seas, and public goods. It is therefore appropriate that a United Nations resolution propose rules of conduct that should be imposed on States with oil resources.

Recommend :

a). Consistent with the precautionary principle, Regional Sea Conventions ( ??) should be based on the precautionary principle, to the extent that they currently are not.

b) Coastal States shall prepare an annual report on environmental protection measures imposed on oil development companties. This report should be submitted to a specialized agency or to an eventual World Environmental Organization.

c) A global prohibition on drilling in marine protected areas.

d) States shall systematically impose liability in the case of polluation caused by negligence or failure to abide by restrictions imposed on oil development companies.

e) Impacts assessments shall be required systematically prior to the issuance of all oil drilling permits.

f) A system shall be established for inspections of offshore oil installations by third-party observers designated by a specialized agency or by an eventual World Environment Organization.

g) A contingency fund shall be established to cover cleanup and restoration in the event of pollution, to be financed by oil companies and oil States.

RECOMMANDATION N°13

SUR L?INSTRUMENT INTERNATIONAL JURIDIQUEMENT CONTRAIGNANT SUR LE MERCURE (DIT CONVENTION DE MINAMATA) :

La réunion mondiale :

Considérant les dangers avérés du mercure dans l?environnement, notamment relevés dans l?évaluation mondiale du mercure réalisée par le Programme des Nations Unis pour l?Environnement (PNUE) ;

Affirmant que seule une action mondiale peut être engagée sur le mercure, tout en l?adaptant aux réalités locales d?usage de ce métal et de ses dérivés ;

Considérant la nécessité d?une réponse globale aux problèmes posés par le mercure, portant sur l?intégralité de son cycle de vie ;

Constatant les nombreuses injustices environnementales causées par les rejets anthropiques de mercure ;

Recommande :

De veiller à la signature dans les plus brefs délais et si possible lors de la Conférence de Rio 2012 de l?instrument international juridiquement contraignant sur le Mercure dite « convention de Minamata » ;

De poser clairement la définition et l?objectif de l?instrument international juridiquement contraignant sur le mercure, à savoir garantir la protection concomitante de la santé des individus et de la nature, en réduisant au minimum, et, dans la mesure du possible, en éliminant à terme les rejets anthropiques de mercure dans l?air, l?eau et le sol;

De reconnaître expressément la pertinence des principes de prévention, précaution, pollueur- payeur et de responsabilités communes mais différenciées dans le traitement des problèmes liés au mercure au niveau international ;

D?apporter aux pays où le mercure est utilisé pour des activités artisanales difficilement contrôlables, un soutien technique et financier à la reconversion de cette économie, notamment par la mise en place d?un mécanisme financier, possiblement administré par le fonds mondial pour l?environnement ;

De s?assurer de l?inclusion, dans le texte même de la Convention de Minamata, d?un mécanisme de mise en conformité, étroitement lié à la fourniture effective du soutien technique et financier nécessaire aux pays en voie de développement ;

De régler, le plus en amont possible, la question de l?articulation entre l?instrument international juridiquement contraignant sur le mercure et les conventions connexes (Bâle, Rotterdam, Stockholm, Protocole « métaux lourds » de la Convention de Genève, CNUCC) ;

De réfléchir à un type de structure conventionnelle susceptible de permettre l?inclusion future d?autres métaux lourds que le mercure dans le cadre de la convention, en particulier le plomb et le cadmium ;

D?informer sans attendre les populations sur les risques du mercure et notamment sa présence dans les activités et les objets de la vie quotidienne (piles, ampoules, activité de soins, produits cosmétiques?) ;

De participer avec l?Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) à la sensibilisation des acteurs de la santé sur la présence de mercure dans les activités de soins pour supprimer son usage.

RECOMMENDATION N°13

THE LEGALLY BINDING GLOBAL TREATY ON MERCURY (CONVENTION OF MINAMATA)

Considering the known risks from mercury in the environment, in particular raised in the Global Mercury Assessment Report of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP);

Acknowledging that only a united global action can result in an effective response to mercury pollution, as long as it is adapted to local realities of the use of this metal and its derivatives; Considering the need for a global answer to the problems posed by mercury, and its lifecycle;

Noting that many environmental injustices are caused by anthropogenic mercury emissions:

Recommend:

The signature, as soon as possible and if possible at the time of Rio+ 20 in 2012, of the legally binding global treaty on Mercury known as ?Convention of Minamata?;

To request the elaboration of terms and objectives for the legally binding global treaty on Mercury, in order to guarantee the protection of health of the individuals and nature, while minimizing, and, as far as possible in the long-term, eliminating the anthropogenic mercury emissions into the air, water and soil;

To expressly recognize the relevance of the principles of prevention, precaution, polluter pays and of common but differentiated responsibilities in any response to problems caused by mercury at the international level;

To bring to technical and financial support to countries where mercury is used for local-level artisanal activities to replace mercury-based economic activities, in particular by the installation of a financial mechanism, possibly managed by Global Environment Facility (GEF);

To ensure the inclusion in the text of the Convention of Minamata of a mechanism for establishing a standardized approach to mercury regulation, closely linked with an effective supply of the technical and financial support for developing countries;

To regulate mercury, as far upstream as possible, through the harmonization of international instruments and conventions related to mercury (Basel, Rotterdam, Stockholm, ?heavy metals? Protocol of the Geneva Convention, CNUCC);

To develop a convention structure to enable the future incorporation of other heavy metals, including, in particular lead and cadmium, into the framework of the convention;

To inform people without delay on the risks of mercury and in particular its presence in the activities and the objects of the daily life (batteries, light bulbs, health care activities, cosmetic products ?);

To take part with the World Health Organization (WHO) in the education of public health workers on the presence of mercury in healthcare tools and procedures, and to seek to eliminate the use of mercury.

RECOMMANDATION N°14

LE PROJET DE CONVENTION MONDIALE SUR LE PAYSAGE

Considérant

Que le paysage est un élément indissociable de la qualité de la vie et du droit de l?homme à l?environnement ;

Que la perception du paysage dépend des cultures et de leur diversité ;

Qu?il existe plusieurs textes juridiques au niveau international dans le domaine du paysage, mais que leur portée est limitée soit géographiquement, soit matériellement ;

Que l?UNESCO a engagé une réflexion sur l?opportunité et la faisabilité d?un nouvel instrument mondial sur le paysage ;

Que les paysages subissent des dégradations croissantes et qu?il convient de les préserver.

Recommande

La reconnaissance du paysage comme l?un des éléments fondamentaux du développement durable dans la déclaration finale de la Conférence de Rio+20.

La poursuite du processus engagé par l?UNESCO concernant l?opportunité d?élaborer un instrument mondial sur le paysage ;

A cette fin :

1. D?engager des études pluridisciplinaires sur les concepts liés aux paysages et sur les instruments existants aux niveaux mondial, régional et national

2. D?élargir le débat à tous les acteurs internationaux concernés (institutions, société civile, secteur économique ?)

La prise en compte, dans la réflexion sur cet instrument mondial, des éléments suivants :

La bonne gouvernance des paysages à travers la participation des populations et la coopération à tous les niveaux (mondial, régional, local).

La considération de tous les paysages, y compris les paysages ordinaires ou dégradés, et quel que soit l?espace (urbain, rural, naturel?).

La nature juridique de l?instrument, qui devrait permettre à la fois de fixer des principes généraux et cohérents au niveau mondial, tout en laissant aux Etats du monde la faculté de se doter d?instruments régionaux adaptés à leur diversité administrative, juridique et politique, géographique, sociale, culturelle?

RECOMMENDATION N°14

THE PROJECT OF A GLOBAL LANDSCAPE CONVENTION

Considering

That the landscape is an element which is inseparable from the quality of life and the human rights to the environment;

That the perception of landscape depends on cultures and their diversity;

That there are various international legal texts on the topic of landscape but their scope is limited either geographically or in contents;

That the UNESCO has begun a reflection on the opportunity and feasibility of a new world instrument on landscape;

Those landscapes undergo increasing degradation and should be preserved.

Recommends

The recognition in the final declaration of the Rio+20 Conference of landscape as one of the fundamental elements of sustainable development.

The continuation of the process initiated by UNESCO concerning the opportunity of developing a global instrument on landscape;

To this end:

1) To undertake multidisciplinary studies regarding the concepts related to landscapes and the existing instruments at international, regional and national scale.

2) To broaden the discussion to all relevant international actors (institutions, civil society, economic sector ...).

Taking into account the following elements while reflecting on the global instrument: The good governance of landscapes through the participation of populations and co- operation at all levels (global, regional, local).

The consideration of all landscapes, including everyday or degraded landscapes, and every kind of space (urban, rural, natural, etc.).

The legal nature of the instrument, which should allow both the establishment of general and coherent principles worldwide, while allowing States around the World the ability to develop regional instruments adapted to their administrative, legal, political, geographical, social and cultural diversity.  

RECOMMANDATION N°15

POUR UNE COUR INTERNATIONALE DE L'ENVIRONNEMENT (CIE)

«Nous, participants à la troisième Conférence mondiale des juristes et des associations de droit de l?environnement,

Convaincus que l'appel à la création d'une CIE doit être appréhendé à la lumière du problème plus général des procédures de suivi des traités et du règlement des litiges en droit de l'environnement,

Insistant sur le fait que les accords multilatéraux environnementaux (AEM) ne prévoient que rarement des règles obligatoires de règlement des différends,

Reconnaissant qu'en conséquence, la contribution des tribunaux internationaux et nationaux au développement du droit international de l'environnement est entravée par leur incapacité juridictionnelle à générer des décisions sur la base des AEM,

Prenant note de la Résolution du Parlement européen visant à développer une position commune de l'UE avant la Conférence des Nations Unies sur le Développement Durable (29.IX.2011), Rappelant que l'idée d'une CIE doit être maintenue en vie malgré la difficulté de la considérer comme une priorité absolue dans l'agenda international,

Avons approuvé les recommandations suivantes concernant la création d'une CIE: 1. Il est important que le Statut de la CIE soit adopté en prévoyant que les différends concernant l'interprétation et l'application des AME puissent être soumis unilatéralement par l'État qui considère que ses droits ont été violés.

2. Les nouveaux AME et protocoles conclus à l'avenir devraient toujours inclure un règlement des différends obligatoire et des mécanismes efficaces du contrôle du respect des conventions.

3. Une large compétence devrait être accordée à la CIE ; des mécanismes pour éviter une concurrence de juridiction doivent être prévus.

4. Le statut de la CIE serait un instrument utile si les États étaient d'accord pour modifier tous les AME existants afin que les différends concernant leur interprétation et leur application puissent y être soumis par la requête d'une partie. Cela impliquerait que:

(i) les AME soient soumis à une juridiction obligatoire alors qu'actuellement ils ne peuvent être soumis à un juge ou un arbitre que par un accord spécial ou lorsque la «clause facultative» de l'article 36 (2) du Statut de la CIJ (ou des accords régionaux ayant des effets similaires) est applicable;

(ii) l?on aboutirait à une interprétation uniforme des différents accords.

5. Les États pourraient également attribuer à la CIE

(i) une compétence de juridiction pour des questions préjudicielles sur des questions d'interprétation ou d'application des AEM relevant des tribunaux nationaux ou internationaux;

(ii) une compétence consultative sur les questions de droit de l'environnement soulevées par les organisations non gouvernementales et les organisations internationales.

6. Même si il n'existe actuellement pas de réelle possibilité d'intégrer un projet de création d'une CIE au niveau universel, un certain nombre raisonnable d'États pourrait déjà donner à la CIE compétence pour adopter des décisions à titre préjudiciel sur les questions environnementales à la demande des tribunaux nationaux et commencer à préparer des amendements appropriés à la législation nationale. Un tel projet semble complexe mais pas impossible.

7. L'utilisation de l'arbitrage concernant les questions environnementales (qui peut recourir à des arbitres spécialisés en droit de l'environnement) devrait être considéré comme une alternative aux procédures judiciaires.

8. La CIE pourrait être un complément nécessaire à la proposition de convention mondiale sur l'environnement.

RESOLUTION N°15

FOR AN INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL COURT (IEC)

?We, attendees to the Third worldwide conference of environmental law NGOs and Lawyers, Convinced that the call for the establishment of an IEC should be considered in light of the more general problem of environmental law non-compliance and disputes,

Emphasizing on the fact that multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) only rarely provide for compulsory dispute settlement rules,

Recognizing that, as a consequence, the contribution of both international and national courts to the development of international environmental law is hindered by their jurisdictional incapacity to generate MEA-based decisions,

Taking note of the European Parliament?s Resolution developing a common EU position ahead of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (29.IX.2011),

Recalling that the idea of an IEC should be kept alive in spite the difficulty of considering it as a top-priority in the international agenda,

Approved the following recommendations regarding the creation of an IEC:

1. It is important the IEC Statute be adopted providing that disputes concerning the interpretation and application of MEAs could be submitted unilaterally by the State that considers its rights as being violated.

2. New MEAs and Protocols concluded in the future should always include compulsory dispute settlement and efficient compliance mechanisms

3. A broad jurisdiction should be granted to the IEC ; mechanisms for avoiding concurrent jurisdiction must be provided.

4. The ICE statute would be an useful instrument if States were to agree to amend all existing MEAs so that disputes concerning their interpretation and application could be submitted to it at the request of one party. This would entail that:

(i) MEAs would be submitted to compulsory jurisdiction while now they can be submitted to a judge or arbitrator only by a special agreement or when the ?optional clause? of art.36(2) of the ICJ Statute (or regional agreements of similar effect) are applicable;

(ii) uniform interpretation of different agreements would be obtained.

5. States could also attribute to the IEC

(i) jurisdiction for preliminary rulings on questions of interpretation or application of MEAs arising before domestic or international courts;

(ii) consultative jurisdiction on questions of environmental law raised by non- governmental and international organizations.

6. Even if there is currently no real opportunity to mainstream any project of creating an IEC on the international level, a reasonable number of States could give to the IEC the competence to adopt preliminary rulings on environmental questions at the request of domestic courts and start preparing appropriate amendments to domestic law. Such a project would be complex but not impossible.

7. The use of arbitration concerning environmental matters (which can use arbitrators specialized in environmental law) should be considered as an alternative to judiciary procedures.

8. The IEC would be a necessary complement to the proposed global convention on the environment.

RECOMMANDATION N°16

ORGANISATION MONDIALE DE L'ENVIRONNEMENT (OME)

La réunion mondiale

-Considérant que la protection de l'environnement exige une institution à la hauteur des enjeux relatifs aux luttes contre les pollutions et pour la conservation de la nature,

-Considérant que la gouvernance environnementale mondiale est, pour une large part, fragmentée, inefficace, incohérente, et dotée de moyens souvent dérisoires,

-Considérant que le PNUE, même si le travail qu'il a accompli a été considérable, est doté d'une structure qui n'est pas assez démocratique, d'un mandat qui n'est pas assez large, de pouvoirs et de moyens beaucoup trop faibles,

-Considérant que, comme le commerce international qui a son institution, il est vital que le domaine de l'environnement ait un tel moyen institutionnel décisif,

-Considérant que l'idée et le projet d'une OME ont commencé depuis la Conférence de Rio de juin 1992 et se sont poursuivis à travers de multiples réunions, en particulier au niveau international,

-Considérant que le Conseil d'Administration du PNUE, réuni du 21 au 24 février 2011 en Forum ministériel mondial sur l'environnement rassemblant 144 ministres, a transmis formellement au Comité préparatoire de la Conférence de Rio de juin 1992 les recommandations ministérielles sur le renforcement de la gouvernance de l'environnement qui identifie notamment « la création d'une OME comme une option privilégiée ».

Recommande

(a) de créer une Organisation Mondiale de l'Environnement (OME), son siège sera à Nairobi

(b) d'établir des structures démocratiques fondées sur une vocation universelle, une plus grande équité dans le fonctionnement entre Etats du Nord et Etats du Sud, des organes classiques d'une institution spécialisée des Nations Unies, des ONG ayant des pouvoirs consultatifs particulièrement participatifs, un appui à la mise en ?uvre internationale des instruments de participation environnementale des citoyens.

(c) d'amplifier la démocratie environnementale de l'OME, par exemple après cinq années de fonctionnement, et cela par deux moyens,. Une représentation symbolique, avec voix consultative, des générations passées et futures serait organisée au sein de l'OME. L'Assemblée générale et le Conseil exécutif verraient six collèges s'ajouter à celui des Etats : ONG et syndicats, entreprises, organisations internationales et régionales, communautés locales et peuples autochtones, collectivités territoriales, experts. Leur représentativité, leur élection, leur poids dans la votation et les processus de décision seraient déterminés pendant la cinquième année de fonctionnement de l'OME.

(d) de fixer les objectifs de l'OME. L'OME a pour objectif la protection de la nature et les luttes contre les pollutions, dans le respect de la démocratie environnementale. Elle assure cette responsabilité dans l'intérêt des générations présentes et futures, sans oublier le respect dû aux générations passées, elle le fait dans l'intérêt de l'ensemble du vivant.

(e) de déterminer les fonctions correspondant à ces objectifs. Ces fonctions, dans un ensemble opérationnel et global, seraient au nombre de 16 :

1. déterminer les orientations stratégiques mondiales de l'environnement,

2. renforcer la cohérence et l'efficacité des accords multilatéraux sur l'environnement,

3. gérer un certain nombre de secrétariats de conventions et participer sous différentes formes aux renforcements de l'ensemble des moyens de tous les secrétariats,

4. renforcer l'expertise scientifique, l'alerte précoce et l'information,

5. contribuer à la promotion massive de l'éducation à l'environnement dans tous les systèmes d'enseignement du monde,

6. renforcer la gouvernance au niveau régional,

7. conduire des évaluations rigoureuses et complètes des instruments juridiques classiques et des instruments économiques de marché afin de mettre en lumière les avantages et les inconvénients respectifs des uns et des autres et d'éclairer les raisons de leur faible efficacité. Aucune priorité de principe ne doit être accordée à l'une ou l'autre catégorie d'instrument, étant entendu que leur fonctionnement doit supporter, compte tenu du principe d'information, la plus grande transparence démocratique sans que puissent être invoqués les secrets protégés industriel, commercial, financier et des affaires, compte tenu de la prééminence du droit de l'Homme à l'environnement,

8. contribuer à répondre aux besoins spécifiques des pays en développement,

9. initier la création d'une Organisation Mondiale d'Assistance Ecologique (OMAE) et agir étroitement avec elle,

10. initier la création d'une Organisation Mondiale pour les Déplacés Environnementaux (OMDE) et agir étroitement avec elle,

11. initier l'élaboration de nouvelles conventions universelles de protection de l'environnement,

12. mettre en ?uvre un mécanisme d'aide relatif à l'application des conventions,

13. contribuer à organiser une écofiscalité globale mondiale,

14. mettre en place un mécanisme de règlement des conflits environnementaux,

15. représenter la nature comme patrimoine des générations présentes et futures, et être garante de ses besoins,

16. mettre en place un mécanisme de sanction fondé, en particulier, sur la remise en état. Certaines fonctions, considérées par certains Etats comme trop radicales, en particulier les trois dernières, seraient mise en ?uvre au bout de cinq ans de fonctionnement de l'OME.

(f) de donner à l'OME des moyens à la hauteur de ses objectifs et de ses fonctions, moyens financiers, moyens juridiques, personnels particulièrement nombreux, sièges régionaux renforcés et siège de l'OME à Nairobi.

(g) de planifier, dans le temps les moyens et les conséquences, la transformation juridique du PNUE en OME laquelle deviendrait une institution spécialisée des Nations Unies.

RECOMMENDATION N°16

WORLD ENVIRONMENT ORGANIZATION (WEO)

The world meeting (of environmental lawyers in Limoges)

-Considering that environmental protection calls for an institution up to the tasks related to confronting pollution and conserving nature,

- Considering that global environmental governance is largely fragmented, inefficient, inconsistent and vastly underfunded,

- Considering that UNEP, despite its considerable accompishments, has a structure that is insufficiently democratic, a mandate that is too limited, and powers and resources that are too weak,

- Considering that, just as international trade has its own institution, it is essential that the environment have a comparable institution,

- Considering that the idea and plans for a WEO originated at the Rio Conference of June 1992 and have been pursued at numerous meetings, in particular at the international level,

- Considering that the Governing Council of UNEP, meeting from 21-24 February 2011 at the Global Ministerial Environment Forum that brought together 144 ministers, formally transmitted to the preparatory committee for the Rio Conference of June 1992 (SHOULD THIS BE 2012 ?) ministerial recommendations on the strengthening of environmental governance that included « creation of a WEO as a favored option ». (NOTE : THIS SHOULD BE CHECKED AGAINST THE ORIGINAL DOCUMENT IN ENGLISH)

Recommends

(a) the creation of a World Environment Organization (WEO), headquartered in Nairobi

(b) establishment of democractic structures based on UNE VOCATION UNIVERSELLE (NOTE : I DON?T KNOW WHAT THIS MEANS), greater equity between States of the North and States of the South, and constituent bodies typical of specialized institution of the United Nations, with NGOs given a strong consultative and participatory role, and support for international impementation of instruments on environmental participation of citizens.

(c) an increase in the environmental democracy of the WEO, for example five years after teh WEO is created, by two principle means. A symbolic representation, with a consultative role, of past and future generations will be established within the WEO. The General Assembly and Executive Council would recognize six groups in addition to States : NGOs and unions, private enterprises, international and regional organizations, local communities and indigenous peoples, local authorities and experts. Their representation, election and weight of authority in voting and other decisionmaking processes would be determined in the WEO?s fifth year.

(d) Establish the goals of the WEO. The goal of the WEO is to protect nature and combat pollution, while respecting environmental democracy. It undertakes this responsibility in the interest of present and future generations, with respect for past generations, and in the interest of all life.

(e) The determination of the functions related to these goals. 16 functions are proposed :

1. determine global environmental strategy,

2. strengthen the consistency and efficiency of multilateral environmental agreements,

3. manage several secretariats of conventions and participate in various ways to strengthening them,

4. strengthen scientific expertise, early warning systems and information,

5. contribute to a vast promotion of environmental education in educational systems throughout the world,

6. strengthen regional governance,

7. conduct rigorous and thorough assessments of traditional (command-and- control) legal and market-based mechanisms (RELATED TO THE ENVIRONMENT) in order to shed light on their advantages and disadvantages and to clarify their weaknesses and ineffeciencies. No preference should given to either type of mechanism, given that they should support, consistent with rights to information, as much transparency as possible, without overreliance on protected industrial, trade, financial and business secrets, given the preeminence of the human right to the environment,

8. help respond to the specific needs of developing countries,

9. initiate the creation of, and work closely with, a World Organization of Ecological Assistance,

10. initiate the creation of, and work closely with, as World Organization for Environmental Refugees,

11. initiate the development of new global conventions on environmental protection,

12. implement means to support the implementation and enforcement of environmental conventions,

13. help put in place comprehensive global system of eco-taxes,

14. establish a mechanism for resolution of environmental conflicts,

15. represent nature as a heritage of present and future generations, and ensure that its needs are met,

16. put in place a sanctions mechanisms based especially on restoration. Some functions, which some States might find too radical, especially the last three, should be implemented five years after creation of the WEO.

(f) Give the WEO sufficient resources for fulfillment of its goals and functions, including financial resources, legal tools, adequate staff, strengthened regional offices, and a headquarters in Nairobi.

(g) Plan for the transformation of UNEP into a WEO, which would be a specialized institution of the United Nations.

RECOMMANDATION N°17

LA TRANSFORMATION DU CONSEIL ÉCONOMIQUE ET SOCIALE DES NATIONS- UNIES EN CONSEIL ÉCONOMIQUE, SOCIAL ET ENVIRONNMENTAL

Considérant que le chapitre 38 d?Action 21 recommande la mise en place de mécanismes institutionnels adaptés à une gestion internationale efficace de l?environnement ; Considérant que le chapitre XI du plan d?application de Johannesburg recommande le renforcement du cadre institutionnel du développement durable à l?échelon international; Considérant que le chapitre 27 d?Action 21 recommande le renforcement du rôle des organisations non gouvernementales (ONG) en tant que partenaires du développement durable ; Considérant la nécessité d?améliorer la représentation des ONG dans le système institutionnel international de l?environnement et d?assurer leur participation aux processus décisionnels en la matière ;

Notant que la gouvernance internationale souffre d?un déficit démocratique certain, et que la communauté internationale montre des signes encourageants d?acceptation d?une participation active de la société civile, particulièrement des ONG., dans la recherche de solutions aux problèmes d?environnement ;

Recommande :

(a) D?entreprendre une réforme institutionnelle de la protection de l?environnement dans le système des Nations Unies, à travers la fusion de la Commission du développement durable (CDD) et du Conseil économique et social (CES) en un Conseil économique social et environnemental (CESE) renforcé et doté explicitement par la Charte d?une compétence en matière d?environnement et de développement durable ;

(b) D?attribuer au nouveau Conseil le rôle de superviseur des Conventions environnementales et de coordination des compétences environnementales des divers organes du système des Nations Unies ;

(c) De créer un Forum permanent pour le développement durable, organe subsidiaire du Conseil, chargé d?assurer un suivi et une expertise technique dans les trois domaines concernés par le développement durable ;

(d) D?assurer au sein de ce Forum une représentation des Etats et de la société civile (ONG sociales et environnementales, industriels, scientifiques), afin d?impliquer au même titre tous les acteurs concernés par la question du développement durable en fonction de leurs compétences, et afin d?assurer une meilleure représentation de la société civile au sein de la gouvernance internationale de l?environnement;

(e) De garantir l?indépendance des représentants de la société civile par un processus de nomination interne aux membres des secteurs concernés, sans que l?avis ni des Etats intéressés ni du Conseil ne soit nécessaires ;

(f) Que la société civile ait accès, par l?intermédiaire des membres du Forum représentant les ONG, à l?information en matière d?environnement

(g) Que ce droit soit garanti par la création d?une obligation pour les organes de l?ONU et les Etats de communiquer toutes les informations nécessaires au Forum, dont les membres pourront participer à toutes les sessions au sein de l?ONU intéressant le développement durable.

RECOMMANDATION N°17

LA TRANSFORMATION DU CONSEIL ÉCONOMIQUE ET SOCIAL DES NATIONS- UNIES EN CONSEIL ÉCONOMIQUE, SOCIAL ET ENVIRONMENTAL

Considering that Chapter 38 of Agenda 21 recommends the implementation of institutional mechanisms which are adapted to the effective international management of the environment;

Considering that Chapter XI of the Johannesburg Plan of implementation recommends the strengthening of the institutional framework for sustainable development at international level;

Considering that Chapter 27 of Agenda 21 recommends the strengthening of the role of Non governmental organizations (NGOs) as partners for sustainable development;

Considering the necessity to improve the representation of NGOs in the international institutional system of environment and to ensure their participation in decision making in this area;

Noting that international governance suffers from a certain democratic deficit, and that the international community shows encouraging signs of acceptation for an active participation of the civil society, especially NGOs, in finding solutions to environmental matters;

Recommends:

(a) To undertake an institutional reform of the environmental protection in the UN system, by merging the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) and the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) in an Economic Social and environmental Council (ECOSOEC), reinforced by the Charter explicitly with a competence in environmental matters and sustainable development;

(b) To give the new Council the role of supervisor of Environmental Conventions, and coordinator of environmental competences of the various organs of the UN system;

(c) To establish a Permanent Forum on sustainable development, as a subsidiary body of ECOSOEC, responsible for monitoring and technical expertise in the three areas of sustainable development; 

(d) To provide in this Forum an equal representation of the states and the civil society ( social and environmental NGOs, industry and scientists), to engage in the same way all the actors involved in the issue of sustainable development according to their skills, and to ensure better representation of civil society in international governance of the environment;

(e) To ensure the independence of the representatives of civil society by an internal appointment process for members of the sectors concerned, without notice of the states or the council required.

(f) That civil society could access, through the Forum members representing NGOs, to information about international negotiations on the environmental ;

(g) To guarantee this right by creating an obligation for the UN bodies and the States to provide all the necessary information to the Forum, whose members will serve for all UN sessions interesting sustainable development;

RECOMMANDATIONS N°18

LA PLACE DE LA SOCIETE CIVILE ET DES ONG EN DROIT INTERNATIONAL DE L?ENVIRONNEMENT

(1) La conférence de Rio + 20 devrait décider d?engager un processus de négociation pour l?adoption d?une convention globale sur le principe n° 10 de la Déclaration de Rio, dans le but qu?un texte puisse être proposé à l?adoption en 2017. Le processus de négociation doit lui-même être transparent et participatif.

(2) La conférence de Rio + 20 devrait (a) encourager le développement de traités régionaux basé sur le principe n° 10 de la Déclaration de Rio en s?inspirant de la Convention d?Aarhus, et (b) encourager les Etats intéressés à accéder à la Convention d?Aarhus et à son Protocole PRTR, étant donné que ces deux instruments sont ouverts à tous les Etats membres des Nations-Unies.

(3) La conférence de Rio + 20 devrait exiger du PNUE qu?il apporte une assistance aux Etats pour leur permettre de mieux mettre en ?uvre les lignes directrices de Bali sur le principe 10, et inviter les gouvernements et les institutions donateurs à apporter une aide financière à cet effet.

(4) Tous les nouveaux instruments ou processus établis par la Conférence Rio + 20 devrait être « mis à l?épreuve du Principe 10 », c?est-à-dire qu?ils doivent intégrer des dispositions et/ou des exigences visant à promouvoir un accès effectif à l?information, à la participation du public et à la justice dans leurs domaines respectifs.

(5) Au sein de ses conclusions sur le cadre institutionnel du développement durable, la Conférence Rio + 20 devrait inviter les organes gouvernementaux des Parties aux traités internationaux relatifs à l?environnement, y compris les Parties aux traités multilatéraux sur l?environnement, à s?assurer que les résultats substantiels de ces instruments promeuvent un accès effectif à l?information, à la participation du public et à l?accès à la justice.

(6) La Conférence Rio + 20 devrait adopter une série de lignes directrices garantissant des standards minimum sur la participation de la société civile dans les processus de décision internationaux.

RECOMMENDATION N°18

THE PLACE OF CIVIL SOCIETY AND NGOs IN INTERNATIONAL LAW ON THE ENVIRONMENT

(1) The Rio+20 Conference should take a decision to start negotiating a global treaty on Principle 10 of the Rio Declaration, in order to have a text ready for adoption in 2017. The negotiation process itself should be transparent and participatory.

(2) The Rio+20 Conference should (a) encourage the development of regional treaties on Principle 10 along the lines of the Aarhus Convention, and (b) encourage interested States to accede to the Aarhus Convention and its Protocol on PRTR, both of which are open to accession by any UN Member State.

(3) The Rio+20 Conference should request UNEP to provide assistance to countries to enable them to better implement the Bali Guidelines on Principle 10, and invite donor governments and institutions to provide financial assistance for this purpose.

(4) Any new instruments or processes established pursuant to the Rio+20 Conference should be ?Principle 10-proofed?, i.e. they should contain provisions and/or requirements promoting effective access to information, public participation and access to justice in relation to their subject matter.

(5) In its conclusions on the institutional framework for sustainable development, the Rio+20 Conference should invite the governing bodies of and Parties to international treaties relating to the environment, including but not limited to multilateral environmental agreements, to ensure that the substantive outcomes under such instruments promote effective access to information, public participation and access to justice.

(6) The Rio+20 Conference should adopt a set of guidelines guaranteeing minimum standards for civil society participation in international decision-making processes.

RECOMMANDATION N°19

RENFORCEMENT DU DROIT FORESTIER AU NIVEAU NATIONAL, REGIONAL ET INTERNATIONAL

La Réunion:

Consciente que les forêts, dans la richesse de leur diversité, matérialisent des processus écologiques indispensables à l?entretien de toutes les formes de vie;

Alarmée par la poursuite, à un rythme élevé, de la régression et de la dégradation de la couverture forestière mondiale, en dépit de l?expansion notable des reboisements;

Convaincue que la capacité des forêts de satisfaire les besoins globaux de l?humanité ne peut être maintenue à long terme que par une gestion durable et équitable de leurs ressources, dans l?intérêt des générations présentes et futures, des points de vue écologique, économique, social, culturel et spirituel;

Se félicitant des avancées significatives du droit forestier au niveau national, réalisées à travers de multiples réformes législatives conduites par de nombreux Etats, et convaincue de la nécessité de poursuivre ces efforts afin d?adapter, de perfectionner, de compléter, d?actualiser et d?appliquer les dispositifs juridiques nationaux relatifs aux forêts dans tous les pays;

Appréciant l?importance, dans ce contexte, de la Déclaration de principes, non juridiquement contraignante mais faisant autorité, pour un consensus mondial sur la gestion, la conservation et l?exploitation écologiquement viable de tous les types de forêts, adoptée en 1992 par la Conférence des Nations Unies sur l?environnement et le développement;

Saluant les résultats obtenus au sein du Forum des Nations Unies sur les forêts et dans le cadre de l?Arrangement international sur les forêts, ayant débouché sur l?adoption en 2007 de l?Instrument juridiquement non contraignant concernant tous les types de forêts par l?Assemblée générale des Nations Unies;

Notant la tendance croissante de la part des pays consommateurs à imposer des restrictions directes ou indirectes à l?importation de produits forestiers pour assurer la légalité des abattages et la gestion durable des forêts;

Considérant qu?il n?existe pas encore de convention mondiale, de portée générale, applicable à l?ensemble des forêts que compte la planète et constatant la divergence de vues persistante sur l?opportunité d?élaborer une telle convention, aussi bien entre les Etats que parmi les acteurs non gouvernementaux;

Convaincue qu?une convention forestière mondiale créerait un cadre juridique idoine pour une bonne gouvernance et une coopération accrue en matière de protection et de mise en valeur des forêts, et qu?elle permettrait de renforcer la synergie avec les conventions existantes relatives à des domaines connexes, au service du développement durable, de la lutte contre la pauvreté, la préservation de la biodiversité et l?atténuation des changements climatiques;

Recommande:

a) la poursuite du dialogue, dans un esprit constructif, en vue de rapprocher les positions et de dégager un consensus permettant d?initier, dans les meilleurs délais, la négociation d?une convention forestière qui: (i) aurait une porté mondiale; (ii) s?appliquerait à toutes les catégories de forêts et à tous les produits et services qui en dérivent, dans le respect des diversités éco- régionales; (iii) traiterait des dimensions environnementale, économique, sociale, culturelle, sacrée et spirituelle de la conservation et de l?utilisation des écosystèmes forestiers; (iv) se baserait sur les principes de légalité, de durabilité, d?équité, de solidarité, d?éthique et de transparence, en tenant compte du pluralisme juridique; (v) mettrait en ?uvre des mécanismes financiers viables et permettrait d?accroître l?aide publique au développement destinée à la gestion durable des forêts;

b) la promotion des initiatives nationales, bilatérales, régionales et mondiales tendant à adopter et parfaire les instruments politiques et juridiques de protection et de mise en valeur des forêts, en particulier: (i) les outils de planification et de programmation forestière; (ii) les critères et indicateurs de l?aménagement durable des forêts; (iii) les programmes de certification forestière; (iv) les directives volontaires concernant des aspects spécifiques de la gestion et l?utilisation des forêts; (v) les accords bilatéraux et les conventions régionales visant à renforcer la coopération en matière de gestion et de protection forêts, y compris sur les questions de gouvernance, de légalité et de commerce dans le secteur forestier;

c) la généralisation et l?approfondissement des réformes visant à améliorer, actualiser et compléter les législations forestières nationales afin qu?elles assurent notamment:

(i) la valorisation des fonctions environnementales, sociales, économiques, culturelles et spirituelles des forêts;

(ii) la planification de l?aménagement forestier et l?encadrement de l?exploitation forestière dans le respect de la durabilité et de la légalité;

(iii) la lutte contre les défrichements et les abattages illicites, la transparence du commerce du bois et la traçabilité des produits forestiers;

(iv) la réduction de la perte de la biodiversité forestière; (v) la certification des produits forestiers;

(vi) une gestion plus équitable, participative et décentralisée des forêts, impliquant tous les acteurs concernés, publics et privés, respectueuse des intérêts des populations usagères et autochtones, des collectivités locales et de la communauté nationale;

d) un meilleur encadrement juridique du rôle des forêts dans l?atténuation des incidences négatives des changements climatiques, notamment au regard:

(i) des droits de propriété liés au stockage, à la fixation et à la vente du carbone;

(ii) des initiatives REDD+, en tenant dûment compte des intérêts des communautés locales et des populations riveraines des forêts;

e) la mobilisation des financements, la formation des capacités, le développement de la recherche et le transfert des technologies nécessaires à la mise en ?uvre des mesures énoncées aux paragraphes précédents.

RECOMMENDATION N°19

STRENGTHENING OF FORESTRY LAW AT THE NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL LEVEL

The Meeting:

Aware that forests, in the richness of their diversity, support ecological processes which are indispensable for maintaining all forms of life;

Alarmed at the continued high rate of loss and degradation of the world?s forests, despite the notable expansion of reforestation;

Convinced that the capacity of forests to satisfy the global needs of humanity cannot be maintained in the long term except by the sustainable and equitable management, in the interest of present and future generations, from the ecological, economic, social, cultural and spiritual points of view;

Welcoming the significant progress of forestry law achieved at the national level through the many legislative reforms undertaken by numerous States, and convinced of the necessity to pursue such efforts to adapt, improve, complement, update and enforce the national legal frameworks relating to forests in all countries;

Appreciating the importance, from this perspective, of the Non-Legally Binding Authoritative Statement of Principles for a Global Consensus on the Management, Conservation and Sustainable Development of all Types of Forests, adopted in 1992 by the Nations United Conference on Environment and Development;

Welcoming the results achieved in the framework of the United Nations Forum on Forests and under the International Arrangement on Forest, which led to the adoption in 2007 of the Non- legally Binding Instrument on all Types of Forests by the General Assembly of the United Nations;

Noting the rising trend for consumer countries to impose direct or indirect restrictions on the import of forest products to ensure legal logging and sustainable management of forests; Bearing in mind that there is still no global convention, of general scope, applicable to all the forests which the planet relies on, and noting the persistent divergences in opinion on the desirability to develop such a convention, both between States and amongst non-government actors;

Convinced that a global forestry convention would provide a sound legal basis for good governance and increased cooperation for the conservation and development of forests, and also enhance synergies among existing conventions dealing with related areas, in order to foster sustainable development, the fight against poverty, the preservation of biodiversity and a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions;

Recommends:

a) a dialogue should be initiated, in a constructive spirit, to bring positions closer together so as to reach a consensus allowing negotiations to start as soon as possible on a forestry convention which would: (i) have a worldwide scope; (ii) be applicable to all categories of forests and all forest products and services derived therefrom, respecting eco-regional diversities; (iii) cover the environmental, economic, social, cultural, sacred and spiritual dimensions of the conservation and utilisation of forest ecosystems; (iv) be grounded on principles of legality, sustainability, equity, solidarity, ethics and transparency, taking into account legal pluralism; (v) provide for viable financial mechanisms and help to raise official development aid for sustainable forest management;

b) the promotion of national, bilateral, regional and global initiatives aiming at the adoption and improvement of policy and legal instruments for the conservation and development of forests, especially: (i) forestry planning and programming tools; (ii) criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management; (iii) forest certification programmes; (iv) voluntary guidelines on specific aspects of forest management and use; (v) bilateral agreements and regional conventions intended to strengthen cooperation on forest conservation and development, including governance, legality and trade issues in the forestry sector;

c) the dissemination and deepening of reforms to improve, update and complement national forestry legislation in order to promote, inter alia: (i) environmental, social, economic, cultural and spiritual values of forests; (ii) forest planning and management and regulation of forest use, in compliance with sustainability and legality; (iii) the fight against illegal clearing and logging, transparency of trade in timber and traceability of forest products; (iv) reduction of forest biodiversity loss; (v) certification of forest products; (vi) more equitable, participatory and decentralized management of forests, involving all concerned actors, public and private, respecting the interests users, indigenous peoples, local entities and the national community;

d) a better legal regime for encouraging the role play of forests in reducing the negative impacts of climate change, notably in respect of: (i) tenure rights related to forest carbon stocks, sinks and credits; (ii) the REDD+ initiatives, taking due account of the interests of local communities and those living in the vicinity of forests;

e) the raising of funds, building of capacities, development of research, and transfer of technologies necessary to implement the measures mentioned in the preceding paragraphs.

RECOMMANDATION N°20

LES AIRES MARINES PROTEGEES EN HAUTE MER

1) Les États devraient lancer des négociations pour un accord de mise en ?uvre de la Convention des Nations Unies sur le droit de la mer qui énoncerait sous la forme d'un «paquet» commun un régime mondial sur la conservation et l'utilisation durable de la biodiversité marine dans les zones situées hors des juridictions nationales;

2) Le contenu de base de ce futur accord de mise en ?uvre comprendrait :

- l'établissement d'un réseau des aires marines protégées en haute mer,

- une procédure d'évaluation de l'impact environnemental dont le contenu et l'effectivité garantissent un haut niveau de protection,

- un régime pour les ressources génétiques marines, comprenant l'accès et le partage des bénéfices,

- des dispositions sur le renforcement des capacités et le transfert de technologie.

3) En ce qui concerne les aires marines protégées, la priorité devrait être accordée à un certain nombre d'éléments, parmi lesquels inter alia:

- l'établissement d'une liste des aires marines protégées en haute mer d'importance mondiale;

- la définition de critères communs pour déterminer les aires marines protégées en haute mer (importance pour la conservation de la diversité biologique, des écosystèmes ou habitats d'espèces menacées ; intérêt particulier pour la science, l'esthétique, la culture ou l'éducation; etc.);

- une procédure pour l'inscription des aires marines protégées en haute mer sur une liste basée sur une décision des parties à l'Accord de mise en ?uvre;

- l'adoption au cas par cas d'un ensemble de mesures de protection et de conservation, contraignantes pour toutes les parties à l'Accord de mise en ?uvre;

- l'obligation pour les parties d'adopter des mesures appropriées, compatibles avec le droit international, afin de s'assurer que nul ne s'engage dans une activité contraire aux principes et aux objectifs de protection et aux mesures de conservation adoptées pour chacune des aires marines protégées en haute mer d'importance mondial.

- Les dispositions sur les arrangements institutionnels et les mécanismes financiers nécessaires à l'application de l'Accord.

- Des mesures concernant les aires marines protégées en haute mer relevant pour partie d'une juridiction nationale.

RECOMMENDATION N° 20

MARINE PROTECTED ZONES ON THE HIGH SEAS

1) States should start the negotiations for an Implementation Agreement of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea that would set forth a commonly agreed ?package? on a global regime for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction;

2) The basic components of the future Implementation Agreement should be:

- the establishment of a network of high seas marine protected areas,

- a procedure for environmental impact assessment of hight level dont le contenu et l'effectivité garantissent un haut niveau de protection,

- a regime for marine genetic resources, including access and benefit sharing,

- provisions on capacity building and transfer of technology;

3) As regards marine protected areas, consideration should be given to a number of elements, such as, inter alia:

- the provision of a List of high seas marine protected areas of world importance;

- the definition of common criteria for the choice of high seas marine protected areas (importance for the conservation of biological diversity, ecosystems or habitats of endangered species; special interest at the scientific, aesthetic, cultural or educational level; etc.).

- a procedure for the inscription of high seas marine protected areas on the List based on a decision taken by the parties to the Implementation Agreement;

- the adoption on a case by case basis of a set of protection and conservation measures, which are binding on all the parties to the Implementation Agreement;

- the obligation of the parties to adopt appropriate measures, consistent with international law, to ensure that no one engages in any form of activity contrary to the principles and purposes of the protection and conservation measures adopted for each high seas marine protected areas of world importance.

- the provisions of institutional arrangements and financial mechanisms necessary for the implementation of the Agreement.

- the provision of measures regarding marine protected zones on the high seas which are partly within national jurisdiction.

RECOMMANDATION N°21

LA GESTION INTEGREE DES ZONES CÔTIERES

Préambule :

Considérant que, nonobstant la participation, les autorités publiques sont les premières responsables des conditions de mise en ?uvre de la GIZC

Considérant l?état écologique des mers dont 80% des pollutions sont d?origine tellurique

Considérant la dérive de véritables îlots de déchets sur tous les océans (notamment Pacifique et Atlantique) dont l?origine terrestre est établie

Considérant les enjeux que représente la biodiversité côtière et marine

Considérant les risques technologiques auxquels sont soumises les zones côtières et marines, notamment par les pollutions d?origine terrestre et d?origine marine

Considérant les risques naturels, caractéristiques de ces zones, notamment les risques d?évolution du trait de côte et de submersion

Considérant les enjeux que représentent les zones côtières et marines pour l?humanité, en termes :

- De ressources halieutiques

- De transport (personnes et/ou biens)

- D?activités portuaires,

- De tourisme,

- De production énergétique

- D?urbanisation

- D?activités économiques diverses liées à la mer

Considérant aussi qu?il est nécessaire de prendre en considération :

- L?impact du changement climatique caractéristique sur l?interface terre/mer

- L?impact croissant des activités humaines sur les zones littorales terrestres et maritimes

- La croissance exponentielle de l?humanité, notamment son implantation dans les zones côtières

Recommande que les chefs d?Etat et de gouvernement s?engagent:

I - A mettre en ?uvre, en préalable:

- une gestion intégrée des zones côtières, fondée sur la réalisation de leur développement durable,

- une application des droits en vigueur (environnement, urbanisme, aménagement, mer etc..)

- des politiques publiques redéfinies, développées sur le principe d?une démarche intégrée et participative

- une approche prioritaire fondée sur les écosystèmes côtiers et marins,

- une approche transnationale/régionale, fondée sur les bassins fluviaux côtiers et maritimes

- des orientations précises: protection de la biodiversité, maîtrise de l?urbanisation en zone littorale (avec des zones d?interdiction de construire en zone littorale), zones de protections renforcées, une économie littorale et marine au service des finalités environnementales et sociales

- le développement d?une culture de la GIZC auprès de tous les acteurs, notamment les populations locales

II - A définir des objectifs pour la GIZC

Les politiques publiques en matière de GIZC doivent reposer sur :

A - La connaissance

Compte tenu des enjeux et de la complexité des écosystèmes côtiers et marins, seront développées les connaissances sur les écosystèmes côtiers dans un cadre transational.

En se référant à la création en 2009 du Centre Mondial de Surveillance pour la Conservation de la Nature (www.wdpa-marine.org): seront créés d?ici 5 ans des observatoires régionaux

B - Un ensemble d?objectifs

Dans un cadre régional et/ou interétatique pertinent, des objectifs prioritaires seront définis

Compte tenu des liens terre/mer, et de la nécessaire transversalité des problématiques, mais aussi du rôle de ces écosystèmes et de leur dégradation caractérisée, des objectifs qualitatifs prioritaires concerneront:

1. Les récifs coralliens

2. Les estuaires

3. Les mangroves

Ces objectifs conduiront à :

a. restaurer les milieux dégradés

b. préserver les milieux de qualité

C - Une coordination

La gestion intégrée des zones côtières exige de mettre en ?uvre une coordination :

4. des stratégies : d?une part la stratégie GIZC au niveau géographique et d?autre part les dispositions de protection existantes, entre autres la Convention de Montego Bay, la Convention de Ramsar, la Convention sur diversité biologique, la Convention sur la gestion des déchets, les nombreuses Convention régionales ou bilatérales sur la gestion de l?eau etc..

5. des acteurs : ceux de la GIZC et les acteurs des autres politiques publiques, les acteurs publics régionaux et les acteurs nationaux et locaux, les acteurs publics et les acteurs privés

6. des instruments : planification et instruments opérationnels, programmes et financements

III - A mettre en ?uvre des moyens opérationnels dans les cinq ans

Les zones côtières et maritimes, comme les estuaires, les deltas ou les embouchures des fleuves constituent toujours des frontières politiques et administratives, au niveau international et au niveau national.

Le fondement de l?intervention opérationnelle doit reposer sur la volonté des Etat à développer la coopération transfrontalière pour la gestion durable des grands estuaires ou deltas du monde.

Afin d?atteindre les objectifs qualitatifs, sera mis un programme de 2013 à 2018 conduisant à :

7. Renforcer la coordination entre les institutions universelles (PNUE/ONESCO/FAO) etc.., mais aussi régionales et locales, à la fois verticale et horizontale

8. Etablir un plan d?action régional intégré aux grands écosystèmes ( Océans), fondée sur les - grands bassins côtiers

9. Etablir un plan national d?action, associé à une démarche locale. La planification spatiale côtière et marine doit être développée de façon transversale et à l'échelle des bassins fluviaux et maritimes, qu'ils soient nationaux ou transfrontaliers

10. Renforcer le processus participatif (Aarhus)

11. Etablir un programme durable associant tous les programmes et tous les acteurs

12. Assurer un financement durable

13. Renforcer l?adaptabilité dans le temps du processus de la GIZC

14. Mettre en ?uvre un droit opposable : planification, règlementation, incitation

15. Sensibiliser et former les autorités de police et les magistrats

16. Assurer une évaluation reposant sur des indicateurs partagés

17. Renforcer les capacités de recherche sur les moyens opérationnels et efficaces à développer

18. Renforcer la coopération internationale

19. Développer une culture de la GIZC, s?appuyant sur les cultures locales

VI- A instaurer des outils de contrôle partagés

En s'appuyant sur les acquis des évaluations existantes, sera mise en ?uvre une évaluation de la GIZC, reposant sur une expertise indépendante et un ensemble d?indicateurs qualitatifs et quantitatifs communs à tous les Etats, complétés par des indicateurs locaux, notamment :

20. l?urbanisation et l?artificialisation (aménagements, infrastructures) des zones côtières

21. la démographie

22. la biodiversité marine et côtière

23. la qualité des eaux côtières et marines

24. la gestion des déchets

25. le paysage

Afin de disposer d?outils pertinents pour réaliser une gestion intégrée et durable des zones côtières, seront créés :

26. un panel d?indicateurs contribuant à mesurer l?empreinte écologique sur les zones côtières

27. une évaluation ex-post des résultats

28. des pôles d?expertise indépendante

Sur la base de ces propositions, nous recommandons la promotion à Rio+20 d?une résolution pour l'AG des nations unies sur les exigences de la GIZC,

Et une négociation sur des principes universels et les modalités d?intervention de la GIZC, conduisant à une convention cadre, qui sera déclinée par chacune des mers régionales en conventions régionales détaillées.

RECOMMENDATION N°21

INTEGRATED COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT (ICZM)

Preamble:

Whereas, notwithstanding public participation, public authorities have the primary responsibility for the implementation of ICZM

Considering the ecological status of marine pollution, 80% if which is from land-based sources

Considering the drift of islands of waste in every ocean (including Pacific and Atlantic)

Considering the challenges for the protection of coastal and marine biodiversity

Considering the technological risks that coastal and marine areas are subject to, including

pollution from land and marine sources

Considering the hazards, characteristics of these areas, including the risks of evolution of the coastline and flooding

Considering the challenges posed by coastal and marine areas for humanity in terms of:

- Fisheries resources

- Transport (people and / or property)

- Port activities,

- Tourism,

- Energy production

- Urbanization

- Various economic activities related to the sea

Considering also the need to consider:

- The impact of climate change on the land / sea interface

- The growing impact of human activities on coastal land and sea

- The exponential growth of humanity, including its presence in coastal areas

Recommend that the Heads of State and Government undertake:

I - To be implemented in advance:

- Integrated management of coastal zones, based on the achievement of sustainable development,

- An application of Fees (environment, urban planning, land, sea etc. ..)

- Public policy redefined, developed on the principle of an integrated and participatory

- An approach based on priority coastal and marine ecosystems,

- A transnational / regional, based on river basins and coastal shipping

- Specific directions: protection of biodiversity, land-use planning in coastal areas (with closed areas to build in coastal areas), areas of enhanced protection, coastal and marine economy in the service of environmental and social goals

- Developing a culture of ICZM from all stakeholders, including local

II- A set of objectives for ICZM

Public policy on ICZM should be based on:

A - Knowledge

Given the stakes and the complexity of coastal and marine ecosystems will be knowledge on transboundary coastal ecosystems will be developed.

Referring to the creation in 2009 of the World Conservation Monitoring Centre for Conservation of Nature (www.wdpa-marine.org):

- Regional Observatories will be created in 5 years

B - A set of objectives

Based on regional and / or interstate relevant priorities, objectives will be defined

Given the links land / sea, and the transboundary nature of these issues, but also the role of these ecosystems and their degradation characterized by qualitative targets of priority concern:

1. Coral reefs

2. Estuaries

3. « Mangroves »

These objectives will lead to:

a. restoration of degraded environments

b. preservation of environmental quality

C - Coordination

Integrated management of coastal areas requires coordination of:

4. Strategies: first ICZM strategy in geographical and other steps to protect existing, including the Montego Bay Convention, the Ramsar Convention, the

Convention on Biological Diversity, the Convention on the management of waste, many regional and bilateral Convention on the water management etc. ..

5. Actors: those of ICZM and other policy actors, public actors and regional national and local actors, the public and private actors

6. instruments: planning and operational tools, programs and funding

III - To implement operational capacity within five years

The coastal and marine zones, such as estuaries, deltas and river mouths are always political and administrative borders, international and national levels.

The basis of the operational response must be based on the will of the state to develop cross- border cooperation for the sustainable management of large estuaries or deltas in the world.

To achieve the qualitative objectives, a program will be conducted from 2013 to 2018 leading to:

7. Strength coordination between universal institutions (UNEP / ONESCO / CAM) etc. .., but also regional and local, both vertical and horizontal

8. Establish a regional action plan integrated with major ecosystems (oceans), based on - coastal basins

9. Establish a national plan of action, combined with a local approach. The coastal and marine spatial planning should be developed in a transversal way across river basins and sea, whether national or transboundary

10. Strengthen the participatory process (Aarhus)

11. Establish a sustainable program involving all programs and all stakeholders

12. Ensure sustainable funding

13. Enhancing the adaptability of the process in time of ICM

14. Implement an enforceable right planning, regulation, incentives

15. Raise awareness and educate law enforcement and judges

16. Provide an assessment based on shared indicators

17. Build capacity for research on ways to develop operational and effective

18. Strengthen international cooperation

19. Develop a culture of ICZM, drawing on local cultures

VI- Establishing shared control tools

Building on the achievements of existing assessments, an evaluation of ICZM will be conducted, relying on independent expertise and a set of qualitative and quantitative indicators common to all states, supplemented by local indicators, including:

4. Urbanization and the artificialization of coastal zones (facilities, infrastructure)

5. Demographics

6. Marine and coastal biodiversity

7. The quality of coastal and marine waters

8. Waste management

9. The landscape

In order to have appropriate tools to achieve integrated and sustainable management of coastal areas:

10. A panel of contributing indicators to measure the ecological footprint on coastal areas will be created

11. An ex-post evaluation of results will be conducted

12. Centers of independent expertise will be established

On the basis of these proposals, we recommend the promotion at ?Rio +20? of:

- A resolution to the General Assembly of the United Nations on the requirements of ICZM and

- Negotiations on universal principles and methods of intervention of ICZM, leading to a framework agreement, which will be adapted by each of the regional seas in detailed regional conventions.

RECOMMANDATION N°22

LA PLACE DES ENTREPRISES DANS LE DÉVELOPPEMENT DURABLE ET LEUR RESPONSABILITÉ

Vu la déclaration de Stockholm de 1972 et plus particulièrement ses affirmations selon lesquelles «l?Homme a un droit fondamental à la liberté, l?égalité et à des conditions satisfaisantes dans un environnement dont la qualité lui permette de vivre dans la dignité et le bien être», et « tous, citoyens et collectivités, entreprises et institutions, à quelque niveau que ce soit, assument leurs responsabilités et se partagent équitablement les tâches»,

Vu les principes de la déclaration de Rio et plus particulièrement le Principe 13 qui pose que «Les Etats doivent élaborer une législation nationale concernant la responsabilité de la pollution et d?autres dommages à l?environnement et l?indemnisation de leurs victimes. Ils doivent aussi coopérer diligemment et plus résolument pour développer davantage le droit international concernant la responsabilité et l?indemnisation en cas d?effets néfastes de dommages causés à l?environnement dans des zones situées au-delà des limites de leur juridiction par des activités menées dans les limites de leur juridiction ou sous leur contrôle »,

Vu le Plan Action 21,

Vu la résolution de l?Assemblée Générale des Nations Unies du 11 décembre 1987 indiquant que « la notion de développement durable? devrait devenir le principe directeur fondamental pour ? les institutions, organisations et entreprises privées »,

Vu, la déclaration de Johannesburg sur le développement durable et particulièrement son § 27 qui souligne que «dans le cadre de ses activités légitimes, le secteur privé dans son ensemble, c?est-à- dire les grandes entreprises comme les petites, a le devoir de contribuer à l?émergence de communautés et de sociétés équitables et durables»,

Vu le Plan de mise en ?uvre du Sommet mondial pour le développement durable (§140 f) rappelant la nécessité de «Promouvoir la responsabilité des entreprises, leur obligation de rendre des comptes et les échanges des meilleures pratiques au regard du développement durable, y compris, lorsqu?il convient, par des dialogues multipartites?»,

Considérant que les entreprises, privées comme publiques, devraient être reconnues comme des acteurs à part entière du Droit International de l?Environnement au même titre que le sont les Etats, les ONG, ou la société civile, qu?elles sont notamment les mieux placées pour relever les défis du développement durable, et permettre l?émergence d?une économie verte. Que leur rôle est essentiel dans l?innovation et le développement de technologies respectueuses de l?environnement,

Considérant qu?il est nécessaire de se placer dans la perspective des principes de précaution et pollueur-payeur en encourageant l?esprit d?entreprise, la compétitivité et l?innovation,

Considérant que les entreprises se doivent de faire progresser à tous les niveaux les piliers interdépendants et complémentaires du développement durable que sont les piliers économique, social et environnemental en adoptant une approche intégrée,

Considérant que les entreprises ont le devoir de préserver l?environnement des impacts négatifs générés par leurs activités, tant à l?égard des générations présentes que futures ; qu?elles doivent par conséquent adopter un comportement responsable à l?égard de l?Homme et de l?environnement,

Considérant qu?elles ont l?obligation de respecter les règles contraignantes propres à assurer la protection de l?environnement, en vigueur tant au niveau local, national, régional qu?au niveau international, que trop souvent ces règles sont méconnues et ne sont pas respectées,

Considérant que l?effectivité de la protection de l?environnement doit être assurée,

Considérant que les atteintes graves causées à l?environnement peuvent constituer des violations des droits fondamentaux internationalement consacrés et qu?il est indispensable de garantir ; qu?il est important de renforcer ces droits en matière environnementale et sociale,

Considérant qu?il est nécessaire d?affirmer avec force et vigueur, à l?échelle internationale, le droit fondamental de chacun à vivre dans un environnement viable, sain et garantissant sa dignité ; que chaque Etat a pour obligation de protéger ce droit,

Considérant que de nombreuses conventions existent en matière de responsabilité du fait de certaines pollutions et nuisances générées par les acteurs économiques, qu?il est toutefois nécessaire de dépasser cette approche sectorielle par une approche plus globale, générale,

Considérant que le temps est donc venu d?élaborer un texte international contraignant dans ce domaine, qu?une telle option avait été d?ailleurs envisagée lors du Sommet de Johannesburg en 2002 et avait même donné lieu à l?engagement d??uvrer en ce sens,

Considérant qu?il convient de s?adresser à l?ensemble des acteurs économiques multinationaux ou nationaux, privés comme publics, et ce quel que soit leur statut, leur structure ou leur domaine d?activités.

Considérant que ce texte relatif à la responsabilité environnementale des entreprises doit être contraignant pour être efficace, qu?il ne saurait s?analyser en un catalogue de principes directeurs non contraignants, qu?il doit en outre faire l?objet de mécanismes efficaces de surveillance et de sanctions,

Considérant que la notion de responsabilité environnementale, au sens de la présente recommandation, doit s?entendre comme l?obligation de répondre tant de ses actions que de ses inactions pouvant, directement ou indirectement, causer des dommages graves à l?environnement, que ces dommages soient purement environnementaux ou se traduisent par des atteintes aux personnes ou aux biens, et de réparer les atteintes ainsi causées,

Considérant que les Etats sont responsables des atteintes causées à l?environnement par les acteurs économiques qui relèvent de leurs juridictions, qu?il pèse sur les Etats des obligations positives de tout mettre en ?uvre pour prévenir et réprimer ces atteintes, dans le respect du principe pollueur-payeur,

Considérant que les Etats ont l?obligation de mettre en place une réglementation nationale adéquate et de s?assurer de sa pleine efficacité sur le terrain, d?informer et d?alerter le public, ainsi que de prévoir et de s?assurer de l?existence et de l?efficacité de voies de recours adéquates et accessibles devant un juge national, permettant d?obtenir une réparation satisfaisante,

Considérant que les Etats doivent également adopter des mesures propres à endiguer les phénomènes de law shopping ou forum shopping par l?instauration de règles de droit international privé, ayant pour finalité d?assurer la protection effective de l?environnement, Considérant qu?il est de la responsabilité des entreprises de prévenir les atteintes graves à l?environnement résultant de leurs activités et de réparer les dommages qu?elles pourraient avoir causé, que cette responsabilité doit pouvoir être engagée au plan national, régional, et international,

Considérant que la prise en compte des enjeux environnementaux et sociaux ne doit pas se faire au détriment des règles de concurrence et que la mise en ?uvre de la présente recommandation ne doit pas être discriminatoire,

Les Chefs d?Etat et de gouvernements devraient arrêter ce qui suit :

Article 1

Il n?est pas possible d?atteindre les objectifs du développement durable sans une pleine participation des entreprises qui en sont des actrices essentielles. Une bonne gestion des entreprises repose sur la juste appréhension des données sociales et environnementales, à côté des données économiques. Les entreprises doivent intégrer la pluralité des objectifs économiques sociaux et environnementaux dans l?ensemble de leurs activités et pouvoir justifier de l?application des principes et critères du développement durable. Les Etats mettent à la disposition des entreprises les instruments nécessaires à la détermination des coûts écologiques et doivent tout mettre en ?uvre pour favoriser des modes de consommation et de production respectueux de l?environnement et de la santé. Ils doivent notamment veiller à ce que les règles du droit de la concurrence garantissent la prise en compte des objectifs du développement durable.

Article 2

Les entreprises doivent répondre des atteintes graves à l?environnement et à la santé résultant de leurs activités, produits ou services. Leurs initiatives volontaires en matière environnementale, sociale et de gouvernance doivent être encouragées et il ne doit pas pouvoir être reproché à une entreprise d?aller au-delà des exigences légales.

Article 3

Les entreprises doivent adopter une attitude responsable, sur la base des Principes internationalement reconnus, dans le respect de l?ensemble des législations qui leurs sont applicables.

Une entreprise s?implantant dans un pays doit le faire sur la base d?un diagnostic clair de la situation et des possibles impacts de son activité sur l?environnement et la société, et pouvoir justifier de la prise en compte de ce diagnostic et des réponses apportées aux enjeux environnementaux identifiés ainsi que de l?accueil de ces réponses par les collectivités concernées.

Article 4

Au sens de la présente, on entend par « entreprise » toutes les entreprises, privées ou publiques, simples ou composées de plusieurs entités. En cas de pluralité d?entités, le terme «entreprise», se réfère aux diverses entités.

Lorsqu?une entreprise exerce une influence déterminante sur une entité contrôlée, elle peut être tenue pour responsable du comportement de celle-ci.

Article 5

Dans le cadre de leurs relations commerciales avec leurs sous-traitants et fournisseurs, et au-delà, dans le cadre de leur sphère d?influence, les entreprises doivent s?assurer du respect de l?ensemble des obligations environnementales et sociales légalement formulées.

Dans le respect des obligations applicables à chacun, les entreprises doivent s?assurer de l?absence de défaillance environnementale dans leur chaine d?approvisionnement et, le cas échéant, assister leurs partenaires pour les aider à y mettre fin.

Article 6

Les entreprises doivent évaluer les impacts de leurs actions et proposer des mesures d?accompagnement limitant, le cas échéant, les conséquences sur l?environnement et la santé de l?introduction sur un marché donné de produits.

Article 7

Afin de réduire les consommations de matières premières non renouvelables, d?encourager l?utilisation rationnelle des ressources naturelles et de prévenir la production de déchets, les exigences d?éco-conception doivent être systématiquement intégrées aux processus de production. Une préférence doit être accordée à la valorisation et au recyclage, tant des résidus de production que des produits en fin de vie. L?obsolescence programmée des produits doit être combattue.

Les Etats doivent mettre en place un cadre de recyclage permettant la récupération des matières premières dans des conditions respectueuses de l?environnement et de la santé des personnes. A défaut de réglementation étatique, il appartient à chaque opérateur de recyclage de s?assurer du respect de ces intérêts.

Conformément au principe pollueur-payeur, les producteurs de produits générateurs de déchets doivent être incités à prendre en charge les coûts de collecte, de recyclage ou d?élimination des déchets issus de leurs produits.

Article 8

Les entreprises mettent en place des structures d?échanges avec les «parties prenantes» (Stakeholders), s?assurent de la qualité des informations qui leurs sont dispensés et prennent en considération leurs recommandations.

Article 9

Les Etats doivent garantir l?effectivité du droit de l?environnement et la mise en ?uvre des principes du développement durable. A cette fin ils garantissent l?accès à la justice et s?assurent de la réparation des dommages à l?environnement, à la santé et aux conditions de vie.

Article 10

La gouvernance des entreprises repose sur une juste identification des informations sociales et environnementales et leur mise à disposition tant des organes dirigeants que des associés et des tiers intéressés.

Article 11

Les règles de comptabilité des entreprises doivent intégrer les informations pertinentes en matière d?environnement. Ces informations doivent être présentées de manière accessible et intelligible et être cohérentes avec l?ensemble des données environnementales disponibles. Un auditeur indépendant doit pouvoir attester l?exactitude et la sincérité des informations ainsi produites.

Article 12

Les rapports diffusés en matière de résultats économiques des entreprises sont accompagnés des informations environnementales et sociales appropriées.

Les entreprises dont l?activité est susceptible d?avoir des conséquences importantes pour l?environnement doivent élaborer un code de conduite, ou adhérer à un code existant, préconisant les meilleures pratiques et rendre compte de son application ou expliquer pourquoi elles ne le font pas.

Article 13

Les salariés et leurs représentants ont accès à l?ensemble des informations environnementales détenues par l?entreprise et sont associés à la gestion des enjeux qu?elles représentent. L?environnement de travail ne doit pas présenter de dangerosité pour les salariés. Ils sont, comme leurs représentants, associés aux mesures réalisées et à la gestion des questions d?environnement au travail.

Les entreprises doivent s?assurer que leurs salariés sont correctement formés aux questions liées au développement durable et notamment aux conséquences environnementales et sanitaires de leurs activités. Lorsqu?ils existent, les plans de formations du personnel doivent intégrer ces dimensions. Lorsqu?ils n?existent pas, de tels plans doivent être élaborés pour permettre une bonne appréhension de ces questions.

Article 14

Toute entreprise doit mettre à la disposition des consommateurs de ses produits ou services et du public une information sur l?impact environnemental et sanitaire de ces produits ou services.

A chaque fois que cela apparaît possible, il sera fait référence, pour dispenser cette information, à un programme d?écoétiquetage efficace, transparent, vérifiable, et non discriminatoire. Le PNUE élaborera des schémas minimaux d?écoétiquetage et de labels environnementaux auxquels les Etats se réfèreront dans leurs procédures nationales.

Article 15

Toute personne ayant connaissance d?informations lui permettant de penser que des conséquences environnementales ou sanitaires graves pourraient résulter de son silence doit pouvoir alerter librement l?un quelconque des membres de sa hiérarchie ou une personne désignée à cet effet, ou une autorité juridictionnelle, ou ad hoc, désignée par l?Etat dans lequel elle exerce son activité. Chaque Etat prend, conformément à son système juridique interne et dans la limite de ses moyens, des mesures appropriées pour assurer une protection efficace contre des actes éventuels de représailles ou d?intimidation des témoins et des experts qui déposent concernant ces alertes sanitaires ou environnementales

Chaque Etat prend, des mesures appropriées pour assurer la protection contre tout traitement injustifié de toute personne qui lance une alerte environnementale ou sanitaire, de bonne foi et sur la base de soupçons raisonnables.

Article 16

Les entreprises qui peuvent justifier de la qualité et de la réalité de leur engagement en faveur des objectifs du développement durable doivent pouvoir en retirer avantage. Les Etats s?engageront dans une procédure de valorisation des initiatives de sollicitude environnementale et sociale.

Article 17

L?engagement environnemental, social et de gouvernance des entreprises doit être valorisé dans l?ensemble des procédures d?achats publics. A cette fin, les Etats s?engagent :

- Soit à réserver l?accès à la commande publique aux entreprises pouvant justifier de démarches volontaires dans les domaines environnementaux, sociaux et de gouvernance, vérifiées par un organisme tiers indépendant qu?ils agréent

- Soit à intégrer dans l?ensemble de leurs politiques de commande publique des exigences spécifiques liés aux objectifs du développement durable

Les Etats s?assureront que l?interdiction d?accès à la commande publique puisse être prononcée par les juges statuant en matière environnementale, sociale ou de gouvernance. Les entreprises condamnées par des décisions revêtue de l?autorité de la chose jugée et faisant l?objet d?une telle interdiction d?accès à la commande publique ne pourront pas, directement ou indirectement, répondre à des appels d?offres publics.

Article 18

Dans les entreprises les plus importantes, et au moins dans celles dont les titres sont admis aux négociations sur un marché réglementé, la rémunération des dirigeants devrait être appréciée sur la base d?indicateurs se référant de manière significative aux objectifs du développement durable.

Article 19

Les institutions financières, publiques comme privées, intègrent les objectifs du développement durable dans l?ensemble de leurs activités.

Les institutions financières privées communiquent les critères de financement liés au développement durable qu?elles appliquent et dans quelle mesure elles les appliquent ou expliquer pourquoi elles n?en appliquent pas.

Les institutions financières publiques réservent leurs financements à des activités intégrant de manière significative et vérifiable les objectifs du développement durable. Les critères de sélection des projets financés doivent être prédéterminés, clairs et vérifiables et il doit être annuellement rendu compte de leur application.

Article 20

Les Etats intègrent systématiquement dans leurs accords économiques un volet environnemental et social afin de concourir à la satisfaction des objectifs du développement durable.

Article 21

Des approches sectorielles en matière de responsabilité des entreprises seront développées dans les domaines suivants :

- Transports,

- Gestion des déchets,

- Chimie,

- Eau,

- Agriculture et foresterie,

- Énergie,

- Industries extractives,

- Construction et travaux publics,

- Finance.

***

A défaut d?un accord sur les éléments précédents, il peut être envisagé :

1 - d?étendre systématiquement et explicitement à la protection de l?environnement et à la poursuite des objectifs du développement durable les principes directeurs relatifs aux entreprises et aux droits de l?homme (principes Ruggie).

2 - De consacrer dans le cadre d?un texte adopté par les Etats les orientations fondamentales présentées dans les lignes directrices relatives à la responsabilité sociétale : ISO 26000.

3 - De consacrer et de rendre contraignants, dans le cadre des Nations Unies, les principes directeurs de l?OCDE à l?intention des multinationales et les doter de mécanismes renforcés de surveillance et de contrôle.

RECOMMENDATION N°22

COMPANIES? PLACE IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND THEIR RESPONSIBILITY

Having regard to the 1972 Stockholm Declaration and more particularly its assertions according to which ?Man has the fundamental right to freedom, equality and adequate conditions of life, in an environment of a quality that permits a life of dignity and well being? and ?everybody, citizens and communities, firms and institutions, whatever ?, assume its responsibilities and share tasks on an equal level?,

Having regard to the principles of the 1992 Rio declaration, and more particularly Principle 13 which says that ?States shall develop national law regarding liability and compensation for the victims of pollution and other environmental damage. States shall also cooperate in an expeditious and more determined manner to develop further international law regarding liability and compensation for adverse effects of environmental damage caused by activities within their jurisdiction or control to areas beyond their jurisdiction?,

Having regard to the Action Plan 21,

Having regard to the resolution of the UN General Assembly of the 11th of December 1987 indicating that ? the concept of sustainable development ?should become the directive and fundamental principle for ? institutions, organizations and private firms?,

Having regard to the Johannesburg declaration on sustainable development and particularly § 27 which underlines that ?in pursuit of its legitimate activities the private sector, including both large and small companies, has a duty to contribute to the evolution of equitable and sustainable communities and societies?,

Having regard to the plan implementation of the World Summit for sustainable development (§140 f) which reminds the necessity of ?promoting the corporate responsibility and being held accountable and the exchange of the best practices in the context of sustainable development, including, as appropriate, through multi-stakeholder dialogues ??,

Considering that companies, either private or public, should be considered as full-fledged actors of Environmental International Law on the same level as States, NGO, or the civil society and that they have more particularly the best position to take up the challenges of sustainable development, and to permit the emergence of a green economy. That their role is essential in the innovation and the development of technologies which respect the environment,

Considering that it is necessary to look at things from the perspective of precautionary and polluter-pays principles by encouraging team spirit, competitiveness and innovation,

Considering that companies must make interdependent and complementary mainstays - economic, social and environmental ones - progress on all levels by adopting an integrated approach,

Considering that companies must save the environment from negative impacts generated/ caused by their activities, as well towards actual generations as towards future ones; that as a consequence they must adopt a responsible behavior towards the Human and the Environment, Considering that they have to respect the binding rules destined to assure the protection of the environment, in effect on the local, national, regional but also international level, that these rules are too often unknown and not respected,

Considering that the effectiveness of the protection of the environment has to be ensured, Considering that serious damages caused to the environment can constitute violations of the fundamental rights which are internationally recognized and that it is essential to ensure; that it is important to reinforce these rights as far as the environment and social matters are concerned, Considering that it is necessary to claim with force and vigour, on the international scale, the fundamental right of each person to live in a viable and safe environment, which ensure its dignity; that each State has to protect this right,

Considering that lots of conventions exist in terms of responsibility because of some pollutions and nuisance generated by economic actors, that however, it is necessary to overcome this sectoral approach by a more global and general one,

Considering that the time has come to elaborate an international and binding text in this field, that besides such an option had been planned during the Johannesburg Summit in 2002 and had even given rise to the involvement of acting that way,

Considering that one should speak to all the multinational or national economic actors, either private or public, and whatever their status, structure or fields of activity,

Considering that this text which concerns the environmental responsibility of companies has to be binding to be efficient, that it could not be analyzed in a range of directive and non-binding principles, that besides it has to be under efficient monitoring mechanisms and sanctions, Considering that the concept of environmental responsibility, in the context of this recommendation, has to be taken as the obligation to answer both its actions and inactions which can, directly or indirectly, cause serious damages to the environment, that these damages are purely environmental or result in violations to people or goods, and also to repair the violations thus caused.

Considering that the States are responsible for the violations caused to the environment by the economic actors which depend on their jurisdictions, that positive obligations of carrying out everything to prevent and punish these violations - which respect the principle of polluter pays - weigh on the States,

Considering that the States have to introduce adequate national rules and to be sure of its full efficiency to real conditions, to inform and warn people, and also to foresee and be sure of the existence and efficiency of adequate and available remedies in front of a national judge, permitting to obtain a satisfying compensation,

Considering that the States also have to adopt proper statements to hold back the phenomena of law shopping or forum shopping by implementing rules of private international law, which will lead to the carrying out of the final protection of the environment,

Considering that companies are responsible for preventing serious violations to the environment resulting from their activities and repairing the damages that they could have led to, that this responsibility must be held nationally, regionally and internationally,

Considering that the consideration of environmental and social issues must be done at the expense of competition rules and that the implementation of this recommendation must not be discriminatory,

The Heads of States and governments should decide on what follows:

Article 1

It is not possible to reach the objectives of sustainable development without a full participation of companies which are the essential actors.

An appropriate management of companies relies on the correct apprehension of social and environmental data, linked to economic data. Companies have to take into account the plurality of economic, social and environmental objectives in all their activities and be able to justify the implementation of principles and criteria of sustainable development.

The States have to make the necessary tools to work out the ecological costs available to companies and have to implement everything they can to encourage consumption and production ways which respect the environment and health. They have to ensure more particularly that the rules of competition law guarantee the recognition of the objectives of sustainable development. Article 2

Companies shall be liable to the serious violations on the environment and on health which result from their activities, products or services. Their voluntary initiatives concerning the environment, social concerns and governance have to be promoted and a company must not be blamed for going over legal requirements.

Article 3

Companies have to adopt a responsible behavior, based on the internationally recognized principles which respect all the legislations which are enforceable to them.

A company which establishes itself in a country has to rely on a clear diagnosis of the situation and consider the possible impacts of its activities on the environment and society, and it has to be able to justify the recognition of this diagnosis and the answers given to the environmental issues and the acceptance of these answers by the concerned authorities.

Article 4

In this context, the use of the word ?company? means all the companies, either private or public, either simple or composed of several entities. In the case of several entities, the word ?company? refers to these different entities.

When a company has a decisive influence on a controlled entity, it can be blamed for the behavior of this one.

Article 5

Within the framework of trade relationships with their subcontractors and suppliers, and beyond, within the framework of their sphere of influence, companies have to be sure of the respect of all the environmental and social obligations, legally set out.

Article 6

Companies must evaluate the impacts of their actions and put forward accompanying measures which limit, if necessary, the consequences of the implementation of products - on a given market - on the environment and health.

Article 7

In order to reduce the consumption of non renewable raw materials, to urge the rational use of natural resources and to prevent the production of waste, the requirements linked to eco-design have to be systematically integrated to production processes. Upgrading or recycling both production residues and products at the end of their life-cycle have to be underlined. The planned obsolescence of products must be fought against.

The States have to implement a framework of recycling that permits the salvage of raw material in conditions which respect the environment and people?s health. Without state rules, each recycling operator has to ensure the respect of its interests.

In accordance with the polluter-pays principle, the producers of products which generate waste have to be urged on taking responsibility of the charges linked to the collection, the recycling or the destruction of the waste issued from their products.

Article 8

Companies implement exchange structures with the stakeholders, verify the quality of the information which are given to them and take into consideration their recommendations.

Article 9

The States have to guarantee the efficiency of the right of the environment and the implementation of the principles of sustainable development. To reach this purpose, they ensure the access to justice and make sure of the compensation for damages on the environment, health and living conditions.

Article 10

The governance of companies relies on a correct identification of social and environmental information and the availability of both the executive bodies and the associates and others taking part in it.

Article 11

The rules of companies? accounting must take into account relevant information concerning the environment.

These informations have to be introduced in an accessible and understandable way and be coherent with all the available environmental data. An independent hearer must be able to vouch for the accuracy and fairness of the information thus introduced.

Article 12

The spread reports concerning the economic results of the companies are accompanied with appropriate environmental and social information.

Companies whose activity may have important consequences on the environment have to elaborate a code of conduct, or subscribe to an existing code, which recommend the best practices and give an account of its application or explain why they do not do it.

Article 13

Workers and their representatives have access to all the environmental information hold by the company and are associated to the management of the stakes they represent.

The working environment must not be dangerous for workers. Like their representatives, they are associated to the implemented measures and to the management of issues linked to the working environment.

Companies have to make sure that their employees are correctly trained to issues linked to sustainable development and, more particularly to the environmental and health consequences of their activities. When they exist, training plans for workers have to take into account these issues. When they do not, such plans have to be elaborated to permit a good apprehension of these issues.

Article 14

Each company has to make available to its products? or services? consumers and to people information about the environmental and health impact of these products or services. Each time it seems possible, one will refer to an efficient, clear, easy to check and non- discriminatory program of eco-labelling to spread this information.

The PNUE will elaborate minimum eco-labelling and environmental labels? schemes to which the States will refer in their national procedures.

Article 15

Any person who will know information which will permit him to think that serious environmental or health consequences could result from his/her silence has to be able to alert freely one of the members of his/her hierarchy or a person assigned to this, or a judicial authority, or ad hoc, designed by the State in which he/she works.

In accordance with its national legal system and within the limits of its resources, each State takes appropriate measures to ensure an efficient protection against possible acts of reprisal or intimidation of witnesses and experts who testify concerning these health or environmental alerts. Each State takes appropriate measures to ensure the protection against an unfair handling by a genuine person who casts an environmental or health alert, on acceptable suspicions.

Article 16

The companies which can justify the quality and the reality of their involvement in favor of the objectives of sustainable development must be able to take advantage of it. The States will get involved in a procedure of promotion of the initiatives of environmental and social concerns.

Article 17

The environmental, social and companies? governance commitment must be promoted among all the public purchase procedures. To reach this aim, the States are committed to:

- Either reserve the access to all the public command to companies which can justify for voluntary approaches in the environmental, social and governing matters verified by a third party independent organization that they approve.

- Or integrate in all their politics of public demand of specific requirements linked to the objectives of sustainable development.

The States will make sure that the ban of an access to the public procurement can be sentenced by judges deciding on environmental, social or of governance matters. The companies sentenced by decisions which come under the force of res judicata and which are subjected to a ban of an access to the public procurement will not be able, directly or not, to answer public tenders.

Article 18

In the most important Companies and at least in those which titles are admitted for negotiations on a ruled market, the pay of the leadership should be determined on the basis of indicators which significantly refer to the objectives of sustainable development.

Article 19

The financial institutions, either public or private, integrate the objectives of sustainable development in all their activities.

The private financial institutions transmit their financing criteria linked to sustainable development that they implement and to which extend they implement them or explain why they do not implement them.

The public financial institutions put aside their financing to activities which integrate in a significant and easy to check way the objectives of sustainable development. The criteria of the choice of the financed plans have to be pre-established, clear and easy to check and a report about their implementation has to be written every year.

Article 20

The States systematically take into account in their economic agreements an environmental and social aspect in order to contribute to the satisfaction of the objectives of sustainable development.

Article 21

Sectoral approaches concerning the responsibility of companies will be developed in the following fields:

- Transport,

- Waste management,

- Chemistry,

- Water,

- Agriculture and forestry,

- Energy,

- Extractable industries,

- Building and civil engineering works,

- Finance.

In the absence of an agreement on the former elements, it can be planned to :

1 - systematically and explicitly spread to the protection of the environment and to the pursuit of the objectives of sustainable development the directive principles about companies and human rights ( Ruggie principles).

2- to devote - within the framework of a text adopted by the States -the fundamental orientations introduced in the directive lines concerning the societal responsibility : ISO 26000.

3 - to devote and to make restrictive, within the framework of the United Nations, the directive principles of the OCDE aimed at multinational companies and to establish reinforced mechanisms for supervision and control.

RECOMMANDATION N°23

POUR UNE TRANSITION GLOBALE VERS L'ENERGIE PROPRE

Conscients de l'importance de l?accès à énergie dans la réalisation de nombreux besoins humains fondamentaux,

Vu que près d?un tiers de l?humanité n?a pas accès aux sources modernes d?énergie, Convaincus que le système énergétique contemporain essentiellement fondé sur une énergie issue de ressources minières provoque des dommages irréversibles sur l?environnement et la santé humaine,

Rappelant que le secteur de l?énergie est responsable de trois cinquièmes des émissions anthropiques de gaz à effet de serre induisant un changement climatique, et que les États se sont engagés lors de la quinzième session de la Conférence des Parties de la Convention cadre sur le changement climatique tenue à Copenhague à réduire de moitié ces émissions d'ici 2050 par rapport à celles de 1990, pour ne pas dépasser une augmentation de la température moyenne de 2°C en 2100 par rapport à l'ère pré-industrielle,

Reconnaissant qu'une énergie issue de ressources minières qui s?amenuisent ne peut garantir un approvisionnement pérenne et respectueux de l?environnement, et qu'une demande croissante à son égard devrait conduire à un renchérissement des prix, voire à des conflits diplomatiques ou armés,

Alertés sur la nécessité de réaliser une transition énergétique constituée d'une réduction quantitative de l?énergie consommée et d'une amélioration qualitative de l?énergie produite,

Éclairés par l'AIE, le PNUD et l'ONUDI sur la possibilité d'assurer un accès universel à l'énergie d'ici 2030, par le DAESNU sur la nécessité de limiter les consommations individuelles annuelles d'énergie à 70 gigajoules, et par le GIEC sur la capacité d'assurer un approvisionnement fondé à près de 80% sur des énergies renouvelables d'ici 2050,

Ayant pris acte qu'aucune source d?énergie n?est propre par nature et que la propreté d?une source dépend de la manière dont elle est utilisée par l?Homme,

Résolus sur la nécessité d'évaluer l'impact énergétique des activités humaines,

Soulignant qu?une transition vers l?énergie propre relancerait la croissance économique,

Affirmant qu'une transition énergétique présente un caractère d?urgence et que seule une action globale et coordonnée de l?ensemble des acteurs du secteur énergétique peut en assurer l?effectivité,

Insistant sur la décision de l'Assemblée générale des Nations unies de proclamer 2012 Année internationale de l?énergie durable pour tous,

Les États sont invités lors de la Conférence des Nations unies sur le développement durable qui se déroulera en juin 2012, à Rio de Janeiro, à établir une feuille de route sur une transition globale vers l?énergie propre reposant sur les engagements suivants :

1. L'accès universel à l'énergie propre doit être garanti à un coût économiquement abordable d'ici 2030, et des mécanismes de solidarités institués afin d'approvisionner gratuitement les plus démunis. A cette fin, le droit à l'énergie intègre les législations nationales et le droit international.

2. La consommation individuelle annuelle d'énergie devra être limitée à 70 gigajoules, et 80% de l?approvisionnement énergétique mondial devra provenir de sources renouvelables d?ici 2050.

3. Tout projet susceptible d?impacter significativement les besoins énergie (mise sur le marché de biens et services, ouvrages et aménagements, activités, politiques publiques, et traités internationaux) doit faire l?objet d?un bilan énergétique préalable et d?un suivi comprenant le cas échéant des mesures correctrices. Cette évaluation repose sur cinq critères: améliorer la sobriété et l?efficacité énergétique ; estimer l?énergie grise ; garantir le renouvellement de la ressource ; partager équitablement l'énergie issue de ressources minières ; et valoriser l'énergie.

4. Le traité sur la Charte de l'énergie établit un cadre juridique essentiel concernant la sécurité énergétique et devrait être amendé afin d'intégrer les droits sociaux et environnementaux fondamentaux, renforcer la coopération entre les États, et disposer de mécanismes de solidarité énergétique.

5. L'Agence internationale des énergies renouvelables (IRENA) constitue une instance de référence pour assurer une transition vers l'énergie propre. Elle est encouragée à adopter au plus vite un plan d'action visant à réaliser les présents objectifs, en impliquant l'ensemble des acteurs du secteur énergétique et en accordant une priorité aux entreprises locales.

6. Les destinataires des projets énergétiques devraient se voir reconnaître un droit à l'information et à la participation dans leur élaboration et mise en ?uvre. Ne devraient être éligibles à leur réalisation que les organisations présentant les meilleures garanties en matière d'éthique sociale et environnementale.

7. Les subventions en faveur des énergies issues de ressources minières seront supprimées et remplacées par une taxe mondiale sur la production d'énergie issue de ressources minières. Les revenus générés seront affectés au développement de projets conformes à l'énergie propre, aux ménages les plus démunis, et en faveur de dépenses publiques hautement prioritaires telles que la santé et l?éducation.

8. Les gisements d?énergie issue de ressources minières devraient être conservés pour les générations futures et la préservation de l?environnement. En contrepartie, les États pourraient solliciter une indemnisation dont le financement serait assuré par le produit de la taxe mondiale sur la production d?énergie issue de ressources minières et affectée aux projets conformes à l'énergie propre, aux ménages les plus démunis, et en faveur de dépenses publiques hautement prioritaires telles que la santé et l?éducation.

9. Des objectifs quantitatifs en termes de réduction des consommations et d'énergie renouvelable seront adoptés et régulièrement actualisés. Des certificats et des garanties d'origine pourront les compléter afin d'en garantir l'effectivité.

10. Des normes techniques en matière d'éco-conception seront adoptées afin de n'autoriser la mise sur le marché que des biens, services et activités présentant les meilleures performances énergétiques.

11. Des programmes étatiques inciteront les investisseurs à développer des biens, des services et des activités présentant des performances énergétiques supérieures à l'offre du marché.

12. Tous les moyens seront mis en ?uvre pour concourir à une éducation à l'énergie, en intégrant notamment ses caractéristiques et enjeux essentiels dans les programmes scolaires et dans la formation professionnelle.

13. Les biens, services et activités recourant à l'énergie ou pouvant influencer celle-ci feront l'objet d'un étiquetage sur la performance énergétique sous la forme d'une information standardisée et compréhensible pour le public.

14. Les règles concernant le management énergétique des sociétés seront renforcées afin que toute personne puisse accéder facilement à ces informations. Leur sincérité doit être garantie par le contrôle d'organismes indépendants.

15. Afin de concourir à l'effectivité de ces moyens et objectifs, les autorités publiques et les sociétés sont encouragées à collaborer avec des ONG engagées en faveur d'une éthique sociale et environnementale.

RECOMMENDATION N°23

FOR A GLOBAL TRANSITION TO CLEAN ENERGY

Given the importance of access to energy for the realization of many basic needs,

Recognizing that nearly one third of humanity has no access to modern sources of energy,

Convinced that the modern energy system, which is heavily based on energy mining, is causing irreversible damage to the environment and human health,

Recalling that the energy sector is responsible for three fifths of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases inducing climate change, and that States are committed at the fifteenth session of the Conference of Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change in Copenhagen to halve emissions by 2050 compared to 1990, and not to exceed an average temperature increase of 2°C in 2100 compared to the pre-industrial era,

Recognizing that decreasing energy mining cannot ensure sustainable access to an environmentally friendly energy, and that a growing demand for them should lead to higher prices of energy and may even lead to diplomatic and armed disputes,

Alerted to the need for an energy transition characterized by a quantitative reduction of energy consumption and an improvement in the quality of energy,

Informed by the IEA, UNDP and UNIDO on the possibility of universal access to energy by 2030, by UNDESA on the need to limit the annual individual consumption to 70 gigajoules of energy, and by the IPCC on the ability to ensure a supply basis at almost 80% renewable energy by 2050,

Having noted that no energy source is clean in nature and the cleanliness of a source depends on how it is used by humans,

Resolved on the need to assess the impact of energy activities,

Stressing that a transition to clean energy would boost economic growth,

Stating that a transition to clean energy is an emergency and that only global and coordinated action of all actors in the energy sector can ensure effectiveness,

Emphasizing the decision of the United Nations General Assembly to proclaim 2012 International Year of sustainable energy for all,

States are encouraged at the UN Conference on Sustainable Development to be held in June 2012 in Rio de Janeiro, to adopt a roadmap for a transition to clean energy based on the following commitments:

1. Universal ac access to clean energy must be guaranteed at an economically acceptable cost, and solidarity mechanisms should be established to supply the poor free. To this end, the right to energy includes national legislation and international law.

2. Annual per capita consumption of energy should be limited to 70 gigajoules, and 80% of global energy supplies should be provided from renewable sources by 2050.

3. Any activities likely to significantly impact energy requirements (put up for sale of goods and services, buildings and facilities, activities, public policies, international treaties) are subject to a preliminary energy assessment and monitoring, including appropriate corrective action. This assessment is based on five criteria: improve energy sobriety and energy efficiency, estimate the embodied energy, guarantee the renewal of the resource, equitable sharing of the energy mining, and recover energy.

4. The Energy Charter Treaty establishes an essential legal framework for energy security and should include social and environmental fundamental rights, strengthen cooperation among States, as well as mechanisms of energy solidarity.

5. The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) can significantly contribute to the clean energy transition. It is encouraged to adopt without delay a plan of action to achieve these objectives, involving all stakeholders in the energy sector and giving priority to local businesses.

6. The recipients of energy projects should be granted a right to information and participation in their development and implementation. Only organizations with the best guarantees of social and environmental ethics should be eligible for these projects.

7. Subsidies for energy mining will be cancelled and replaced by a global tax on the production of energy from mineral resources. The revenue generated will be allocated to the development of projects in accordance with clean energy, the poorest households, and high-priority spending such as health and education.

8. Mining energy fields should be conserved for future generations and preservation of the environment. In return, States could seek compensation based on the revenue generated by the global tax on the production of energy from mineral resources and allocated to the development of projects in accordance with clean energy, the poorest households, and high-priority spending such as health and education.

9. Quantitative targets in terms of renewable energy and consumption reduction will be adopted and regularly updated. Certificates and guarantees of origin will ensure their effectiveness.

10. Technical standards ecodesign will be adopted to ensure that only those goods, services and activities with the best energy performance are placed on the market.

11. State programs will encourage investors to develop goods, services and activities of energy performance above the market supply.

12. All measures will be implemented in order to contribute to an energy education, especially by incorporating its features and key issues in school curricula and vocational training.

13. Goods, services and activities using energy is subject to energy performance labeling, which should be standardized and easily understandable to the public.

14. The rules for energy management will be open-accessed so that anyone can easily reach this information whose sincerity will be ensured by an energy auditing.

15. To contribute to the effectiveness of these methods and objectives, public authorities and companies are encouraged to collaborate with NGOs working in favor of social and environmental ethics.

RECOMMANDATION N°24

LES NANOTECHNOLOGIES

Lignes directrices en matière de nanotechnologies

1. Principes directeurs

2. Nécessité d?équilibre

3. Risques potentiels

4. Démarche de précaution

5. Prise en compte des risques

6. Coopération entre Etats

7. Transfert transfrontières

8. Traçabilité

9. Obligations d?information

1. Principes directeurs

La Déclaration de Rio sur l?environnement et le développement durable a posé plusieurs principes qui doivent guider toute réglementation en matière de technologies émergentes, et plus particulièrement :

- Principe de coopération : « Les Etats devraient coopérer ou intensifier le renforcement des capacités endogènes en matière de développement durable en améliorant la compréhension scientifique par des échanges de connaissances scientifiques et techniques et en facilitant la mise au point, l'adaptation, la diffusion et le transfert de techniques, y compris de techniques nouvelles et novatrices » (Principe 9)

- Principe de participation : « La meilleure façon de traiter les questions d'environnement est d'assurer la participation de tous les citoyens concernés, au niveau qui convient. Au niveau national, chaque individu doit avoir dûment accès aux informations relatives à l'environnement que détiennent les autorités publiques, y compris aux informations relatives aux substances et activités dangereuses dans leurs collectivités, et avoir la possibilité de participer aux processus de prise de décision. Les Etats doivent faciliter et encourager la sensibilisation et la participation du public en mettant les informations à la disposition de celui-ci (?) » (Principe 10)

- Principe de précaution : « Pour protéger l'environnement, des mesures de précaution doivent être largement appliquées par les Etats selon leurs capacités. En cas de risque de dommages graves ou irréversibles, l'absence de certitude scientifique absolue ne doit pas servir de prétexte pour remettre à plus tard l'adoption de mesures effectives visant à prévenir la dégradation de l'environnement » (Principe 15).

- Principe pollueur-payeur : « Les autorités nationales devraient s'efforcer de promouvoir l'internalisation des coûts de protection de l'environnement et l'utilisation d'instruments économiques, en vertu du principe selon lequel c'est le pollueur qui doit, en principe, assumer le coût de la pollution, dans le souci de l'intérêt public et sans fausser le jeu du commerce international et de l'investissement » (Principe 16).

- Principe d?action préventive : « Une étude d'impact sur l'environnement, en tant qu'instrument national, doit être entreprise dans le cas des activités envisagées qui risquent d'avoir des effets nocifs importants sur l'environnement et dépendent de la décision d'une autorité nationale compétente » (Principe 17).

2. Nécessité d?équilibre

- Dans cet esprit, les Etats doivent tout mettre en ?uvre pour éviter que les avantages attendus des technologies émergentes soient amoindris par les inconvénients qu?elles sont susceptibles de créer, tant pour la santé de l?homme que pour l?environnement.

3. Risques potentiels

- Les attentes placées dans les nanotechnologies tout au long de leur cycle de vie ont conduit à de forts investissements en recherche et développement. Dans le même temps cependant, elles suscitent de vives inquiétudes notamment en raison des risques qu?elles sont susceptibles de créer pour la santé de l?homme et l?environnement. L?efficacité des barrières naturelles de protection des organismes vivants peut ainsi être prise en défaut.

- Or, l?insuffisance des connaissances scientifiques actuelles sur la dangerosité des produits issus des nanotechnologies ne permet pas d?évaluer les risques qu?ils induisent.

4. Démarche de précaution

- Les Etats doivent, dans le respect du principe de participation, mettre en place une réglementation en application du principe de précaution à même de prévenir les effets dommageables des produits issus des nanotechnologies.

- Le risque doit être présumé et faire l?objet d?une évaluation. L?absence de caractère générique de ces produits impose une gestion des risques au cas par cas.

- La mise sur le marché d?un produit issu des nanotechnologies ne présume pas de l?absence de risques et ne doit pas être le prétexte pour cesser les recherches les concernant.

- S?agissant des nanomatériaux, si des données sont disponibles pour des objets de taille supérieure et de même nature chimique, l?hypothèse minimale pour élaborer une démarche conforme au principe de précaution est de considérer que les nanomatériaux correspondants présentent des dangers au moins similaires.

5. Prise en compte des risques

- Les Etats doivent n?autoriser la fabrication, la mise en ?uvre, la mise sur le marché et l?utilisation des produits issus des nanotechnologies qu?à la suite de cette démarche, et notamment une évaluation environnementale et sanitaire ouverte à la participation du public.

- Une attention particulière doit être accordée aux travailleurs exposés à ces produits.

- Les Etats doivent imposer un suivi permanent des effets de ces produits. Les autorités administratives sont destinataires de l?ensemble des données disponibles et doivent disposer des moyens juridiques et techniques propres à rechercher et à faire cesser d?éventuels effets dommageables.

- Les Etats doivent subordonner les autorisations de fabrication, mise en ?uvre, mise sur le marché et utilisation à l?obligation de disposer ou de pouvoir disposer de la capacité technique ou financière aux fins de prévenir et de réparer les atteintes constatées à l?environnement et à la santé. Le risque développement ne doit pas pouvoir servir de prétexte pour que les producteurs échappent à la responsabilité du fait des produits qu?ils fabriquent et mettent sur le marché.

6. Coopération entre Etats

- Les Etats doivent coopérer pour étudier les risques liés aux produits issus des nanotechnologies ainsi que les mesures destinées à les prévenir et les circonscrire. La protection du secret industriel et commercial et le droit des brevets ne doivent pas constituer un obstacle à cette coopération.

- Les Etats sur le territoire desquels ces produits sont fabriqués ou mis en ?uvre doivent informer les autres Etats des risques encourus et des mesures adoptées.

- Les Etats doivent promouvoir le renforcement des capacités techniques et financières des pays en développement, relatives aux risques associés aux nanotechnologies et aux produits qui en sont issus.

7. Transferts transfrontières

- Les Etats doivent n?autoriser la cession des produits issus des nanotechnologies à destination d?un autre Etat qu?après s?être assurés que cet Etat dispose sur son territoire des moyens propres à circonscrire ces risques ainsi que des installations adéquates, en l?état des connaissances scientifiques et techniques du moment. Une coopération doit être recherchée à cette fin.

8. Traçabilité

- Les Etats doivent imposer les mesures permettant d?assurer la traçabilité des produits issus des nanotechnologies tout au long de leur cycle de vie.

9. Obligations d?information

- Lorsque les produits sont issus en tout ou partie des nanotechnologies, les Etats doivent imposer que les consommateurs en soient informés.

- Les Etats doivent imposer que soient mentionnées les précautions à prendre pour l?utilisation et la déréliction de ces produits.

- Ils doivent promouvoir la sensibilisation du public et lui garantir l?accès à l?information sur les nanotechnologies et les produits qui en sont issus.

RECOMMENDATION N°24

THE NANOTECHNOLOGIES

Guidelines for international regulations concerning the nanotechnologies

1. Guiding principles

2. Need for balance

3. Potential risks

4. Precautionary approach

5. Risks assessment

6. Cooperation between States

7. Transboundary movements

8. Traceability

9. Information obligations

1. Guiding principles

The Rio Declaration on the Environment and Development has adopted several principles that must guide any regulation on the emerging technologies, and more specifically :

- Cooperation. ?States should cooperate to strengthen endogenous capacity-building for sustainable development by improving scientific understanding through exchanges of scientific and technological knowledge, and by enhancing the development, adaptation, diffusion and transfer of technologies, including new and innovative technologies? (Principle 9)

- Participation. ?Environmental issues are best handled with the participation of all concerned citizens, at the relevant level. At the national level, each individual shall have appropriate access to information concerning the environment that is held by public authorities, including information on hazardous materials and activities in their communities, and the opportunity to participate in decision-making processes. States shall facilitate and encourage public awareness and participation by making information widely available (?) (Principle 10)

- Precautionary approach. ?In order to protect the environment, the precautionary approach shall be widely applied by States according to their capability. Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation? (Principle 15)

- Polluter pays principle. ?National authorities should endeavour to promote the internalization of environmental costs and the use of economic instruments, taking into account the approach that the polluter should, in Principle, bear the cost of pollution, with due regard to the public interest and without distorting international trade and investment? (Principle 16)

- Preventive action. ?Environmental impact assessment, as a national instrument, shall be undertaken for proposed activities that are likely to have a significant adverse impact on the environment and are subject to a decision of a competent national authority? (Principle 17)

2. Need for Balance

- In that spirit, Member State must do their utmost to avoid reduction of the potential gains from the implementation of emerging technologies by the disadvantages that may be caused to the human health or the environment.

3. Potential risks

- The expectations placed on nanotechnology throughout their entire life cycle have led to heavy investment in research and development. However, they raise serious concerns about the potential risks that may be caused to the human health or the environment. The integrity and effectiveness of the natural protective barriers of living organisms may be affected.

- Lack of scientific certainty due to insufficient relevant scientific information and knowledge regarding the hazardous character of the products from nanotechnology make the risks assessment difficult.

4. Precautionary approach

- In accordance with the principle of participation, States have to establish regulations on the basis of the precautionary principle to prevent the potential adverse consequences of the products from nanotechnology.

- The risk has to be presumed and assessed. The lack of the generic character of these products imposing a risk management based on a case by case analysis.

- The placing on the market of the products from nanotechnology does not presume the absence of risks and the researches on these products must continue.

- With regard to nanomaterials, if informations on bigger objects with the same chemical composition are available, the minimum valuation in accordance with the precautionary principle is to consider that nanomaterials show similar dangers.

5. Risks assessment

- States shall not authorize manufacture, application, placing on the market and use of the products from nanotechnology without this precautionary approach and shall impose an assessment of the environment and health situation in accordance with the principle of participation.

- Special attention should be given to the workers exposed to these products.

- States have to take measures to ensure a permanent monitoring on the effects of these products. Administrative authorities of the State must be sent all relevant information that is available and should have legal and technical capacities to search and prevent the potential adverse consequences of the products from nanotechnology.

- States should make the manufacturing, application, marketing and using authorisations upon the legal obligation to have technical and financial capacity in relation to prevent the risks potentially associated with nanotechnology and its products and repair the damages that may be caused to the human health or the environment. Liability for development risk cannot furnish a pretext for the producters to escape liability relating to the products they manufacture and market.

6. Cooperation between States

- States have to cooperate to consider risks associated with the products from nanotechnology and the measures to prevent or reduce any adverse effects. Protection of commercial and industrial secrecy and patent law may not constitute an obstacle to this cooperation.

- States within whose territory these products are manufactured or implemented have to pass on information on product risk and to inform national authorities of the action taken to prevent risks.

- States have to support developing countries to build technical and financial capacity in relation to the risks potentially associated with nanotechnology and its products.

7. Transboundary movements

- States shall not authorise international transfers of the products from nanotechnology without having verification that the State of destination has the technical, legal and administrative resources to safely manage the risks potentially associated with nanotechnology and its products, in the light of the present state of scientific and technical knowledge. For that purpose, a cooperation has to be achieved. -

8. Traceability

- States have to take appropriate measures to ensure traceability of the products from nanotechnology throughout their entire life cycle.

9. Information obligations

- When the products derived in part or in full from nanotechnology, States have to require that the consumers are adequately informed.

- States have to impose the indication of safety precautions on the label or on an enclosed leaflet for the use of these products and their management as waste.

- States have to promote the public's awareness and guarantee an access to the information on nanotechnology and its products.

RECOMMANDATION N°25

PROTOCOLE POUR LA DIVERSITE BIOLOGIQUE ET LA PROTECTION FONCIERE DES ESPACES NATURELS ET RURAUX DE LA PLANETE

Considérant que chaque année plusieurs centaines de milliers d?hectares d?espaces naturels, de forêts et de terres agricoles sont détruits ou dégradés dans le monde,

Considérant que les objectifs fixés par la Convention sur la Diversité Biologique ainsi que les objectifs désignés par l?Union européenne n?ont pas pu être atteints à l?échéance de 2010 et que l?érosion de la biodiversité se poursuit à un rythme élevé partout dans le monde,

Considérant que tant l?Organisation des Nations Unies que l?Union européenne, au vu de ce constat, ont été contraintes de revoir leurs objectifs en envisageant de nouvelles échéances,

Considérant que la disparition des terres exploitées de longue date pour l?agriculture s?oppose à l?objectif d?une alimentation suffisante pour une population mondiale qui pourrait atteindre 9 milliards d?êtres humains à l?horizon 2050 ainsi qu?à la promotion de formes locales de développement rural, en même temps qu?elle participe à l?érosion de la biodiversité,

Considérant que l?artificialisation toujours croissante des sols et leur imperméabilisation constituent une conséquence directe de la consommation des espaces naturels et ruraux,

Considérant le principe d?irréversibilité des situations qui en résulte,

Considérant également que la consommation des terres exploitées de longue date entraîne un report sur les espaces naturels, provoquant ainsi de nouveaux défrichements, la déforestation, le drainage des zones humides, la perturbation des écosystèmes, le cloisonnement des milieux et le recul des espaces naturels, dans une logique de compétition des espaces naturels et des espaces agricoles entre eux,

Considérant que les achats massifs de terres aux fins de production agricoles, énergétiques, minières ou touristiques dans plusieurs parties du monde, à l?initiative de compagnies privées et de gouvernements étrangers, accélèrent encore davantage ce processus,

Considérant que l?érosion de la biodiversité ne pourra pas être stoppée dans ces conditions,

Considérant que les politiques de création de nouvelles aires protégées doivent impérativement être poursuivies et renforcées partout dans le monde,

Considérant dès lors qu?une politique foncière pour la biodiversité doit être définie et promue à l?échelle internationale, dans l?optique d?une complémentarité aux politiques qui ont pour objet la création de nouvelles aires protégées et des autres mesures prises en faveur de la biodiversité,

Soucieuse de promouvoir le principe de non-régression du droit de l?environnement,

DEMANDE aux parties signataires de la Convention sur la Diversité Biologique, réunies, à RIO de JANEIRO les 14-16 juin 2012, d'adopter la recommandation suivante :

PROTOCOLE POUR LA DIVERSITE BIOLOGIQUE ET LA PROTECTION DES ESPACES NATURELS ET RURAUX

I- PRINCIPES GUIDANT L'ELABORATION D'UNE STRATEGIE MONDIALE POUR LA DIVERSITE BIOLOGIQUE ET LA PROTECTION FONCIERE DES ESPACES NATURELS ET RURAUX

AMELIORATION DU NIVEAU DES CONNAISSANCES SCIENTIFIQUES

- Privilégier et généraliser le critère scientifique de l?habitat naturel en l?intégrant dans :

- les systèmes de comptabilité nationaux et au plan international, notamment les observatoires de la biodiversité, la mesure de l?empreinte écologique, l?évaluation des services écosystémiques rendus par la nature, les indicateurs du développement durable

- les politiques qui ont pour objet la protection de la diversité biologique au plan international et au niveau régional

MISE EN PLACE DE CADRES JURIDIQUES

Habitats naturels

- Obliger les États à mettre en place au plan national et dans le cadre d'accords régionaux d?un réseau d?habitats naturels et d?espèces

- Permettre aux pays émergents et aux pays les plus pauvres de la planète d'avoir accès rapidement aux outils scientifiques de connaissance des habitats naturels et de la diversité biologique et pour leur évaluation de leur état de conservation, et de se doter d?un cadre juridique foncier

Cadastre

- Aider les Etats et les pouvoirs locaux qui le souhaiteraient à se doter d?un système cadastral informatisé permettant d?asseoir les politiques foncières en général et la politique en faveur de la biodiversité en particulier, en veillant à ne pas porter atteinte aux droits coutumiers et aux droits des peuples autochtones, notamment les peuples nomades

Études d'impact foncières et compensation

- Obliger les États à compléter leur droit national par des mesures réglementaires sur les études d'impact, lesquelles doivent intégrer des considérations foncières et des mesures compensatoires associées :

- Inscription dans les études d?impact des projets d?ouvrages et d?équipements et dans l?évaluation des incidences sur l?environnement des plans et des programmes, d?un volet foncier faisant apparaître, à l?échelle de la parcelle, la surface totale du projet, les habitats naturels présents et lorsque le milieu est dégradé, les habitats naturels susceptibles d?être restaurés ou renaturés, ainsi que les mesures destinées à éviter, réduire, et le cas échéant compenser les impacts sur la diversité des espèces et ses habitats

- Lorsque les impacts sur la diversité biologique et sur les habitats des espèces ne peuvent pas être évités ou réduits, prévoir une mesure compensatoire foncière reposant sur les principes suivants :

- Prohibition de la compensation financière et du calcul surfacique à parité ; la compensation doit être foncière, fondée sur une équivalence de valeurs (écologiques, paysagères,... ) et avoir pour objet la conservation d?un ou plusieurs habitats ou sa renaturation

- Principe de la réalisation de la compensation, par priorité locale

- Les aires protégées, les habitats naturels présentant un intérêt particulier, notamment pour la fonctionnalité des écosystèmes et pour le renouvellement des ressources naturelles, ne doivent pas être intégrés dans un mécanisme de compensation

ACCES A L'INFORMATION, PARTICIPATION DU PUBLIC EN MATIERE DE PROTECTION DE LA BIODIVERSITE ET DES ESPACES NATURELS ET RURAUX

Suivi des transactions

- Les Etats doivent mettre en place un système de suivi des opérations portant sur le foncier dans les espaces naturels et ruraux, sur la base d?indicateurs pertinents et actualisés régulièrement

Transparence et accès à l'information

- Les Etats veillent à la transparence et à la publication des opérations portant sur le foncier dans les espaces naturels et ruraux, notamment au moyen de la publication en ligne des contrats fonciers et des actes de vente des terres ainsi que le montant des transactions réalisées

- L'ONU soutient des observatoires régionaux et contribue à mettre en place un observatoire mondial des habitats naturels et de la biodiversité, au moyen d?indicateurs établis sur une base scientifique et permettant une appréciation objective de leur état de conservation

- Favoriser la création de comités locaux fonciers à l'image des comités de gestion de l'environnement pour les agendas 21

Lanceurs d'alerte

- Les organisations internationales prennent en compte la fonction assurée par les lanceurs d?alerte dans le domaine de l?environnement

Formation

- L'ONU soutient des programmes régionaux de formation au droit de l?environnement intégrant le droit foncier, dans la perspective de l?émergence d?une filière professionnelle de négociateurs fonciers pour la biodiversité

OUTILS ET MOYENS D?INTERVENTION FONCIERE POUR LA BIODIVERSITE ET LA PROTECTION DES ESPACES NATURELS ET RURAUX

Agences foncières

- Encourager les Etats à créer des agences spécialisées, nationales ou/et locales, destinées à mettre en ?uvre, à titre principal, des mesures foncières spécifiquement orientées vers la protection des habitats naturels et de la biodiversité

Autorités de régulation

- Encourager les Etats à créer des autorités indépendantes de régulation foncière compétentes notamment sur les questions relatives aux droits d'accès à la terre et à leur mise en ?uvre équitable ainsi qu'à la mise en ?uvre des mesures compensatoires

Protections conventionnelles

- Encourager les Etats à compléter leur droit national par une règlementation en faveur de la protection conventionnelle des espaces naturels et de la biodiversité, telles que des baux sur la longue durée et des clauses contractuelles types permettant une protection et une gestion intégrées des habitats sur le long terme

Fonds mondial

- Création d?un fonds mondial pour la conservation des habitats naturels, destiné à permettre à des organisations non gouvernementales agréées, ayant pour objet statutaire à titre principal la conservation et la gestion des espaces naturels, d?acquérir ou de louer sur le long terme de grandes superficies pour protéger les habitats naturels prioritaires, tout en associant les populations locales à une gestion durable et écologique de ces territoires, et à leur donner les moyens d?une gestion pérenne dans l?objectif de la conservation et de la fonctionnalité des habitats et des espèces

Stratégie foncière et aires protégées

- Dans les aires protégées, les États mettent en ?uvre une stratégie foncière destinée à compléter les mesures réglementaires

- Afin de concilier la protection de la biodiversité, le maintien des espaces naturels et les besoins des communautés autochtones, et notamment ceux des populations nomades, recommander la reconnaissance et la création d'aires de patrimoine autochtone et communautaire

- Encourager les États, en application du principe de non régression, à compléter leur droit national par une règlementation garantissant la pérennité du classement des aires protégées

Droit de préemption

- Recommander aux États l'inscription dans leur droit national d'un droit de préemption aux fins de protection des espaces naturels au bénéfice des États et des pouvoirs locaux. En cas de création d?un office chargé de l?exercice du droit de préemption, une composition équilibrée de ses instances délibérantes devra être garantie, notamment vis à vis des peuples autochtones et des ONG ayant pour objet statutaire à titre principal la conservation et la gestion des espaces naturels

- Instaurer la faculté, pour les Etats et les pouvoirs locaux, d?affecter les biens préemptés à une ONG agréée ayant pour objet statutaire et à titre principal la conservation et la gestion des espaces naturels

Régions prioritaires

- Inventorier les régions atteignant un seuil critique, identifier les aires d?intervention foncière et désigner les outils d?intervention fonciers adaptés à leur contexte

- Élaborer des programmes fonciers d?objectifs et de moyens spécifiques pour les régions prioritaires du monde, telles que l?Afrique et Madagascar, l?Amérique du Sud, l?Asie du Sud-Est

III - UNE VALORISATION EQUILIBREE ET DURABLE DES RESSOURCES NATURELLES

Agro-systèmes

  demander aux États, aux pouvoirs locaux et aux acteurs privés de promouvoir un développement fondé sur les agro-systèmes, modèles locaux intégrant la protection de la diversité biologique, la protection des sols, l?alimentation et la lutte contre la pauvreté

  encourager les États à soutenir les activités agricoles respectueuses de l?environnement, compatibles avec la structure et les caractéristiques des sols, ainsi que les débouchés des produits

  obliger les États à réglementer l?utilisation des produits phytosanitaires et des organismes génétiquement modifiés dans l?optique d?assurer la protection effective des sols et de la biodiversité ainsi que dans le cadre des politiques de santé publique Principe généraux

- demander aux États d?intégrer dans leur droit national deux principes :

- principe pollueur-payeur

- principe protecteur-receveur

Services rendus par les écosystèmes

- reconnaissance du principe des services rendus par les écosystèmes

- augmentation des ressources financières au moyen de la mise en ?uvre effective des paiements pour les services environnementaux rendus, ou de mesures équivalentes, dont le produit doit être affecté à des actions de protection des habitats naturels

Agriculture de proximité

- privilégier les circuits courts, à moindre empreinte écologique

- favoriser le rapport direct entre le producteur et le consommateur

III. COHERENCE DES POLITIQUES ET DES PROGRAMMES INTERNATIONAUX

PAR RAPPORT A LA BIODIVERSITE ET A LA PROTECTION FONCIERE DES ESPACES NATURELS ET RURAUX

- Inventorier au sein des programmes internationaux les dispositions qui auraient pour effet contradictoire d?aggraver l?érosion de la biodiversité, notamment en accentuant la disparition des habitats naturels, l'érosion de la diversité biologique et la consommation des espèces naturels et ruraux

- Encourager les Etats à rechercher une complémentarité entre les programmes mondiaux et régionaux d'aide au développement et à l'alimentation avec la protection de la diversité biologique et la protection foncière des espaces naturels et ruraux

- Inscrire dans les programmes mondiaux et régionaux d?aides au développement et à l?alimentation les principes suivants :

- Intégration des objectifs de maintien des habitats naturels et ruraux dans ces programmes

- Désignation des pratiques agricoles et forestières compatibles avec le maintien du bon état de conservation des habitats naturels

- Encourager les Etats et les organisations internationales à élaborer un cadre commun entre les politiques d?aide au développement et la politique de protection de l?environnement

- Encourager les Nations Unies à compléter dans le même sens les objectifs du Millénaire pour le développement, notamment l?objectif

RECOMMENDATION N°25

PROTOCOL ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AND THE PROTECTION OF NATURAL AND RURAL SPACES ON THE PLANET

Considering that every year hundreds of thousands of hectares of natural areas, forests and farmland are destroyed or degraded in the world,

Whereas the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the objectives identified by the European Union could not be achieved at the end of 2010 and the degradation of biodiversity is continuing at a rapid pace throughout the world,

Considering that both the United Nations that the European Union, in light of this, have been forced to review their goals by considering new deadlines,

Considering that the disappearance of land used for a many for agriculture is contradictory to the objective of adequate food for a world population that could reach 9 billion people by 2050 and the promotion of local rural development, while it contributes to the erosion of biodiversity,

Whereas the increasing artificiality of soils and their impermeability have direct consequences for the further conversion of natural and rural areas,

Considering the irreversibility of the situations resulting,

Considering also that the conversion of land long exploited for agriculture has further results on natural areas, leading to new land clearing, deforestation, drainage of wetlands, disruption of ecosystems, fragmentation of habitats, and the decline of natural areas, in the logic of competition between natural areas and the farmland between them, Whereas the massive purchases of land for agricultural production, energy, mining and tourism in many parts of the world, at the initiative of private companies and foreign governments, further accelerate this process,

Whereas the loss of biodiversity can not be stopped under these conditions,

Whereas it is imperative that a policy of creation of new protected areas be pursued and strengthened around the world,

Considering therefore that a land policy for biodiversity should be defined and promoted internationally, from the perspective of a harmonization of policies that are intended to create new protected areas and other measures taken for biodiversity,

Anxious to promote the principle of non-regression of environmental law,

REQUESTS the parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, meeting in Rio de Janeiro on 14-16 June 2012, to adopt the following recommendation:

PROTOCOL ON BIODIVERSITY AND THE PROTECTION OF NATURAL AND RURAL AREAS

I - PRINCIPLES GUIDING THE ELABORATION OF A GLOBAL STRATGEY FOR

BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AND THE PROTECTION OF NATURAL AND RURAL AREAS

IMPROVEMENT OF LEVEL OF SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING

- Prioritize and generalize the scientific criterion of the natural habitat by incorporating it into:

- National accounting systems and internationally, including biodiversity observatories, the extent of the ecological footprint, the valuation of ecosystem services provided by nature, sustainable development indicators

- Policies aimed at protection of biodiversity at the international and regional levels

ESTABLISHMENT OF LEGAL FRAMEWORKS

Natural habitats

- Require states to implement at the national level and through regional agreements network sof natural habitats and species

- Allow emerging countries and the poorest countries on the planet to have timely access to scientific tools for knowledge of natural habitats and biodiversity and the assessment of their condition, and to develop a legal framework on land

Cadastre

- To assist States and local authorities who wish to develop a computerized land registration system on which to base land policies in general and biodiversity policy in particular, taking care not to undermine customary rights and the rights of indigenous peoples, including nomadic peoples Studies on impacts to land and compensation

- Require states to complete their national law with regulatory measures on environmental impact assessment, which must incorporate land and associated compensatory measures:

- Inclusion of a land component in impact assessments of the projects of works and equipment and in the assessment of environmental impacts of plans and programs, including the scale of the plot, the total area of the project, natural habitats present and when the environment is degraded, natural habitats that could be restored or rehabilitated, as well as measures to avoid, reduce, and possibly offset the impacts on species diversity and habitats

- Where impacts on biodiversity and the habitats of species can not be avoided or reduced, provided land compensation measures based on the following principles:

- Prohibition of financial compensation and compensation based on the surface area alone; land compensation must be based on an equivalent value (ecological, landscape, ...) and have the purpose of conservation of one or more habitats or its restoration

- Principle of achieving compensation according to local priority

- Protected areas, natural habitats of particular interest, especially for the functionality of ecosystems and for the renewal of natural resources should not be included in a compensation mechanism

ACCESS TO INFORMATION, PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN BIODIVERSITY PROTECTION AND NATURAL AND RURAL AREAS

Monitoring of transactions

- States must implement a system to monitor transactions involving the land in natural and rural areas, on the basis of relevant indicators that must be used regularly

Transparency and Access to Information

- States must ensure the transparency and publication of transactions involving land in natural and rural areas, including through the online publication of land contracts and deeds of land sales and the amount of transactions

- The UN supports and contributes to regional observatories contributes to the establishment of a global observatory of natural habitats and biodiversity, using indicators established on a scientific basis for an objective assessment of their conservation status

- Promote the establishment of local land committees like the Management Committees of the environment for Agenda 21

Whistleblowers

- International organizations take into consideration the function provided by the whistleblowers in the field of environment

Training

- The UN supports regional training programs in environmental law, including land rights, in view of the emergence of a group of professional negotiators of land for biodiversity

TOOLS AND MEANS OF INTERVENTION IN LAND FOR BIODIVERSITY AND THE PROTECTION OF NATURAL AND RURAL AREAS

Land agents

- Encourage States to establish specialized agencies, national and/or local, for implementation, primarily, of land measures specifically aimed at the protection of natural habitats and biodiversity

Regulatory authorities

- Encourage States to establish independent land regulatory authorities with particular competence and jurisdiction over the land rights issues of right access to land and their equitable implementation and the implementation of compensatory measures

Conventional protection

- Encourage States to complete their national law by a regulation on the conventional protection of natural areas and biodiversity, such as the long-term leases and contractual clauses requiring long-term protection and integrated management of habitats

Global Fund

- Creation of a global fund for the conservation of natural habitats, designed to enable accredited non-governmental organizations established principally with the objective of conservation and management of natural areas to acquire or lease long-term large areas to protect priority natural habitat, while involving local communities in a sustainable and environmentally friendly management of these territories, and give them the means of sustainable management with the objective of conservation and habitat functionality and species

Land strategy and Protected Areas

- In protected areas, states are implementing a land strategy to complement regulatory measures

- In order to reconcile the protection of biodiversity, the maintenance of natural areas and the needs of indigenous communities, particularly those of nomadic peoples, recommend the recognition and the creation of areas of indigenous heritage and community

- Encourage States, under the principle of non-regression, to complete their national law by ensuring the permanence of the regulatory classification of protected areas

Right of pre-emption

- Recommend that States incorporate in their national law a right of first refusal for the purpose of protection of natural areas for state and local authorities. In the case of the establishment of an agency responsible for exercising the right of first refusal, equitable representation on its deliberative or management structure must be guaranteed, particularly with respect to indigenous peoples and NGOs established principally for conservation and management of natural areas

- Establish the authority for states and local governments to allocate preempted assets to an NGO accredited principally established for the conservation and management of natural areas

Priority Regions

- Inventory regions reaching a critical threshold, identify land areas of intervention and designate land policy instruments adapted to their context - Develop land programs objectives and specific resources for priority areas of the world such as Africa and Madagascar, South America, Asia, South East

II - EQUITABLE AND SUSTAINABLE VALUATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES VALORISATION EQUILIBREE ET DURABLE DES RESSOURCES NATURELLES

Agro-systems

  Request States, local authorities and private actors to promote development based on an agro- system incorporating local models and the protection of biodiversity, soil protection, nutrition and the fight against poverty  

Encourage States to support environmentally friendly agricultural activities, that are compatible with the soil structure and characteristics, as well as with markets for products  

Require the states to regulate the use of pesticides and genetically modified organisms with a view to ensuring the effective protection of soil and biodiversity as well as safety within public health policy

General principles

 

-Require States to incorporate into their national law two principles: polluter pays principle

- protector-receiver principle

Ecosystem services

  Recognition of the principle of ecosystem services  

Increase in financial resources through the effective implementation of payment for environmental services, or equivalent measures, of which the proceeds must be allocated to actions to protect natural habitats

Local agriculture

  Focus on short distribution systems in order to lower the ecological footprint   Promote the direct relationship between producer and consumer

III - HARMONIZATION OF POLICIES AND PROGRAMMES IN RELATION TO INTERNATIONAL BIODIVERSITY AND LAND PROTECTION OF NATURAL AND RURAL AREAS

  Inventory, conducted by international programs, of provisions that would have the destructive effect of aggravating degradation of biodiversity, notably by increasing habitat loss, degradation of biodiversity and destruction of natural and rural areas  

Encourage States to seek complementarity between the global and regional programs of development assistance and food for the protection of biodiversity and protection of natural and rural land  

Include in global and regional programs of development assistance and food the following principles:

- Integration of the objective of maintenance of natural habitats and rural areas in these programs

- Designation of agricultural and forestry practices compatible with maintaining the good condition of conservation of natural habitats  

  Encourage states and international organizations to develop a common framework for development aid policies and politics of environmental protection

- Encourage the United Nations to complete the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals, especially Goal

RECOMMANDATION N°26

LE TOURISME DURABLE

Consciente que le tourisme, dans la richesse de sa diversité, est une source d'épanouissement humain et un facteur de paix entre les populations, mais aussi un moyen de prise de conscience des processus écologiques indispensables à l?entretien de toutes les formes de vie ;

Convaincue que la capacité des ressources naturelles, la disponibilité des populations d'accueil, les ressources énergétiques pour satisfaire les besoins globaux de l?humanité en déplacement et découverte touristiques ne peuvent être maintenues à long terme que par une gestion durable et équitable des ressources, dans l?intérêt des générations présentes et futures, des points de vue tant écologique et économique que social, culturel et spirituel ;

Considérant les valeurs de paix et d?échanges des déclarations internationales du tourisme comme la Charte Mondiale du Tourisme Durable de Lanzarote et le Code Mondial d'Ethique du Tourisme ;

Reconnaissant l'intérêt des recommandations issues de la Conférence internationale sur les petites iles en développement et autres petites iles tenue à Mahé en 2001 et rappelées lors du Sommet mondial de Québec sur l'Ecotourisme en mai 2002 ;

Considérant qu?il n?existe pas encore aujourd?hui de convention mondiale, de portée générale, applicable à l?ensemble des pratiques et des sites touristiques que compte la planète ;

Estimant qu?une telle convention mondiale du tourisme durable servirait de fondement légal à une coopération accrue en matière de protection et de mise en valeur des sites touristiques et qu?elle serait de nature à renforcer les conventions existantes relatives à des domaines connexes ;

Rappelant les principes fondamentaux du droit international de l?environnement ;

Revendiquant, qu'à défaut de convaincre de l?opportunité d?élaborer une nouvelle convention mondiale du tourisme durable aussi bien entre les Etats que parmi les institutions internationales et les organisations non gouvernementales, que les recommandations suivantes servent de base pour les déclarations adoptées lors de la Conférence des Nations Unies à Rio en juin 2012 ;

RECOMMANDE :

1. La reconnaissance du tourisme durable comme facteur de développement socio-culturel des populations et/ou des communautés locales, par sa contribution à la lutte contre la pauvreté, à l'amélioration de leur niveau de vie, à la valorisation de leur cadre de vie et à la considération de la paix entre les peuples ; à travers des processus ad hoc de gouvernance partagée ;

2. l?intensification des réformes visant à améliorer les législations environnementales nationales afin qu?elles favorisent notamment :

(i) la revalorisation des fonctions environnementales et sociales des loisirs,

(ii) la planification de leur aménagement en vue d?assurer la durabilité de leur utilisation,

(iii) une gestion plus équitable, participative et décentralisée de leurs ressources, impliquant tous les acteurs concernés, au profit des populations usagères, des collectivités locales et de la communauté nationale ;

3. l'adoption d'une législation établissant une autorité de police touristique, en relation avec les ministères chargés de l'environnement et du tourisme, des autorités de police et de gardes- côtes, des divers corps d'inspection et des organismes de formation des forces de l'ordre ;

4. la capacitation juridique et économique des populations en vue de l'appropriation et de la maîtrise de leurs territoires et de leurs ressources patrimoniales matérielles et immatérielles;

5. la reconnaissance d'une portée juridique à la Charte mondiale du tourisme durable (Lanzarote, 1995) et au Partenariat mondial pour le tourisme durable (reconnu par l'OMT et le PNUE au Costa Rica, 2011) ;

6. la proclamation de la valeur juridique des chartes, codes et autres instruments institutionnels mondiaux de reconnaissance du tourisme durable, par une codification des principes d'un droit international du tourisme intégrant les exigences des politiques publiques et du droit de l'environnement ;

7. l'élaboration de codes de bonnes conduites entre les pouvoirs publics, le secteur hôtelier, les transporteurs aériens, les autres acteurs économiques du tourisme, les organisations non gouvernementales locales et la population, alliant développement du tourisme et protection de l'environnement et intégrant le principe international usager-payeur pour les activités touristiques ;

8. la promotion des initiatives nationales, régionales et universelles tendant à perfectionner les instruments politiques et juridiques de protection, de mise en valeur et de gouvernance des sites touristiques, en particulier :

(i) les outils de planification et de programmation touristiques locaux intégrant les principes de prévention et de participation issus du droit international de l'environnement,

(ii) un zonage de densité touristique sur les principales destinations touristiques (locales, régionales internationales), après réalisation d'une évaluation environnementale stratégique et dans une démarche de développement durable,

(iii) les critères et indicateurs de l?aménagement durable des espaces touristiques,

(iv) la certification environnementale des sites touristiques ;

9. la reconnaissance de l'intérêt et la pertinence d'une démarche d'intégration du changement climatique dans la définition d'un nouveau tourisme durable inscrit dans l'économie verte (Gothenburg, 2009, Copenhague, 2009), notamment par la mise en place de nouveaux instruments juridiques ou financiers d'encadrement des capacités de déplacement aérien touristique et de discrimination dans le choix des moyens de déplacement au profit des réseaux alimentés par des énergies non carbonées.

RECOMMENDATION N°26

SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

The 3 Global Meeting of Limoges:

Recognizing that tourism, in the richness of its diversity is a source of human development and a condition of peace between peoples, but also an awareness of the essential ecological processes for the existence of all life forms ;

Convinced that the ability of natural resources, the availability of host populations, the needs of energy resources to satisfy touristical travels can be maintained in long term only by sustainable and equitable management of resources into the benefit of present and future generations both ecological and economic, social, cultural and spiritual point of view ;

Considering the values of peace and exchange of international declarations of tourism as the World Charter for Sustainable Tourism of Lanzarote and the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism ;

Recognizing the value of the recommendations of the International Conference on small islands developing and other small islands held in Mahé in 2001 and reiterated by the World Summit on Ecotourism in Quebec in May 2002;

Whereas there is for the moment no global convention applicable to all touristical practices and attractions that exist on the Earth ;

Considering that such a global convention on sustainable tourism serve as legal basis for increased compatibility in the protection and promotion of tourist sites and would strengthen the existing conventions on related fields ;

Recalling the fundamental principles of international environmental law ;

Claim, failing to convince the opportunity to develop a new global convention on sustainable tourism among States as well as among international institutions and nongovernmental organizations, the following recommendations are the basis for the declarations adopted at the United Nations Conference in Rio in June 2012;

RECOMMENDS:

1. The recognition of sustainable tourism as a factor of socio-cultural development of populations and / or local communities, for his contribution to the fight against poverty, to improve their standard of living, to the consideration of peace between peoples ;

2. the improvement of national environmental laws so that they promote :

(i) the revaluation of environmental and social functions of leisure,

(ii) the planning of their development to ensure sustainability of their use,

(iii) a more equitable, participatory and decentralized management of resources, involving all stakeholders for the benefit of user populations, local and national community ;

3. the adoption of legislation establishing a tourism police authority, in relation to the environment and tourism ministries, the Coast Guard, and various inspection bodies ;

4. the legal and economic empowerment of population to the ownership and control of their territories and their heritage resources ;

5. the recognition of legal value to the World Charter for Sustainable Tourism (Lanzarote, 1995) and the Global Partnership for Sustainable Tourism (recognized by the WTO and UNEP in Costa Rica, 2011);

6. the proclamation of legal value to charters, codes and other global and institutional instruments of sustainable tourism, by a codification of international law tourism principles integrating public policies and environmental law;

7. the development of codes of good conduct between public authorities, hotel industry, airlines compagnies, other tourism stakeholders, local NGOs and the public, combining tourism development and environmental protection and integrating polluter pays principle for international tourism activities ;

8. the promotion of national, regional and universal legal instruments for a new governance of tourist sites, including:

(i) planning tools integrating the principles of prevention and participation from the international environmental law,

(ii) a zoning density of the main tourist destinations (local, regional, international), after conducting a strategic environmental assessment and with a sustainable development approach,

(iii) the criteria and indicators for sustainable management of tourist areas,

(iv) environmental certification of tourist sites;

9. the recognition of the value and relevance of an integrating approach to climate change for a new sustainable tourism included in the green economy (Gothenburg, 2009, Copenhagen, 2009), specially with the establishment of new legal and financial supervisory capacity for air travel and with a discrimination in the choice of tourism transport for the benefit of non-carbon energy.
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