Earth Summit 2012 Japan
  • Date submitted: 1 Nov 2011
  • Stakeholder type: Major Group
  • Name: Earth Summit 2012 Japan
  • Submission Document: Download
Keywords: Climate change (2 hits),

Full Submission

EarthSummit Japan 2012

Website: email: United Nation University bldg. 1F, GEOC, 5-53-70 Jingumae, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-0001, Japan

With international society entering the 21st century, we need to address prompt resolutions for deep global issues. We are attempting to resolve various issues by pushing sustainable development forward, but in order to do so we need to consider how development became unsustainable. More specifically, the major premise for measures going forward must discover the cause for the rise of over-development and mal-development and formulate appropriate countermeasures. Through multi-stakeholder dialogue for RIO+20, EathSummit2012 Japan makes following proposals, distilled from Japan based on our cultural background of harmonious coexistence with nature.

INDEX 1. proposals for Green Economy (p2)

1.1. Rule-making for use of natural capital; User-recovers principle (URP)

1.2. An indicator for use of natural capital ; Ecological Debt

1.3. Designing Eco-Wealth

1.4. Green Info Structure

2. Expectations for outcome of RIO+20 (p7)

2.1.Comments on UNEP proposal for "Green Economy"

2.2. Green economy for Aich-Target

2.3. Post GDP indicator

2.4. Launch of study for new pattern of economic development for Post MDGs era.

About us / Earth Summit 2012 Japan (p14)

1. Proposals for Green Economy

1.1. Rule-making for use of natural capital; User-recovers principle (URP)

We propose User-recovers principle (URP) as principles to secure sustainable management of renewable natural capital. URP is a simple and strong principle that captures the economic and social characteristics of renewable natural capital correctly, and it gives the right incentives to users for a sustainable management. The basic idea of URP is that those who exploit renewable natural capital deviating from the pace of its regeneration have a responsibility to help their restoration process and to bear costs that are imposed on others during the restoration.

The functions of URP can be summarized in three aspects:

1. URP provides users with a practical conduct code that corresponds to the dynamic nature of regeneration. Regeneration is processed by ecosystem and its pace obeys the laws of nature. Thus the way we utilize natural capital should fit with the reproduction cycle of natural capital. However, as is often the case for soil, forests, grass fields, fishery and underground water, the open-accessibility of such capitals may cause a situation like "tragedy of commons". That is, pursuing optimal strategies of each user resulting in over-exploitations and harming social welfare. Traditional commons have avoided this problem through establishing local rules of communities. But today's commons are utilized by broader entities including multi-national enterprises operating outsides the coverage of such rules. These entities often pursue shorter-term interests than optimal pace for local communities and nature because they can easily find and move to other places even if the commons would be degraded and extinct. Thus the institutionalization of URP gives internationally-shared code-of-conducts applied to the broader entities even across borders.

2. URP defines the allocation of responsibilities for recovery.

In most cases, the costs and benefits of renewable natural capital are distributed unevenly among locations and societies. Such capitals support human life in two ways; providing ecosystem goods such as foods or fuel, and providing ecosystem services such as regulation of atmospheric chemical composition, flood control, erosion control, waste treatment, pollution control, detoxification, and nutrient cycles. Ecosystem goods can be harvested and consumed by specific economic entities, while ecosystem services support life of wider range of people as public or quasi-public goods unless the capitals are harvested. URP allocates responsibilities among people differently according to the pace of use. Assume there are two entities that benefit from forest ecosystem; woodman and farmer. The woodman maintains the forest and harvests timber, while the farmer grows crops utilizing water cultivated through the well-kept forest. If the woodman harvests timber in a sustainable pace, the user in URP is the farmer and should pay the maintenance costs to the woodman. But once the farmer over-exploits and degrades the forest, the both parties have to wait until the forest recovers itself, or just help the restoration process mostly through costly ways such as ecosystem investigation or plantation. In this case, the user in URP is the woodman and should bear the recovery costs and also pay the opportunity costs to the farmer . In both cases the costs can be transferred to end consumers through value chains.

3. The third function of URP is to foster employments and innovations.

The responsibilities and rewards allocated through URP create various business opportunities related to the sustainable management or recovery of natural capital. For example, the maintenance of the forest creates jobs of thinning down congested trees. Or the recovery may call for forestry innovations that accelerate the restoration process.

1.2. An indicator for use of natural capital; Ecological Debt

Display the amount of Ecological debt to enable socially responsible decision

International rules of natural capital compensation are not yet clear. Biodiversity offsets mechanism and ecological footprints are one of the famous methods to treat them but their scopes are limited. In particular, it is considered extremely important to reflect the economic value of ecosystem services, such as green accounting, in the national accounting system to recognize the negative impact of development on the natural environment.

Ecological debt is one of effective ways to communicate and compare the depreciation of natural capital. Concerning natural capital in particular, it is important to introduce the idea of the speed of regeneration and incorporate it into the method of evaluating natural capital, in addition to its stocks and resource productivity. Ecological deficit is the difference of the depreciation of capital and capital restoration. Ecological Debt is stock concept of ecological deficit which is measured by waiting time for recovery. Economic Externalities can evaluate not only money but also time measurement. Many of the natural capital are difficult to assume it's willing to pay. Such a case, it is easier to measure waiting time to recovery from depreciation of capital. URP rule require natural capital users to eliminate their ecological debt. But if users can't recovery by one selves all ecological debt, user have to swap their debt to others debt. Swapping their debt to others debt which have expertise, user can clean up them easier. And total social cost to eliminate all debt will decrease.

Consumers and merchants will be the main user of information of ecological debt for stopping degradation of natural capital. To enable consumer and merchants to be socially responsible, it is essential to establish international standards on how we display the degrees of sustainability of natural capital that is utilized for the production of goods and services in everyday life. Thus we propose a concept of ecological debt, which is to display the amount of natural capital utilized for manufacturing products and the "waiting time" needed until the capital has become ready to use again. In other words, ecological debt shows us how much forest or soils this product use in its production process and how long we have to wait until the forest or soil regenerate itself. We can calculate "ecological debt" using the accumulated knowledge and information of LCA and integrating them from the viewpoint of recovery time.

1.3. Designing Eco-Wealth minimizing Ecological debt

Design of products and services are required to provide solutions for our lifestyle under more stringent resource constraints. Departure from era of mass production and consumption is inevitable and above more, (conceptual breakthrough) of product design that can turn our constraints into new value is necessary. Yet, for these products to spread and sustain in our society, they must become deeply embedded in our lifestyle. Being conscious of limitation in natural capital on the earth, we must promote a virtuous cycle of improving sustainable product designs and shifting our lifestyle towards sustainability. Therefore, we propose a multi-stakeholder initiative attended by product designers, worldwide research institutes, enterprises, traditional craftsmen, consumers working on the following measures.

A). Design Conceptual Breakthrough: redesigning the wealth of our society based on the principle of minimizing the natural capital recovery period Ecological debt.

Design products and services based on principle of minimizing Ecological debt by LCA approach.

People will need a new concept of wealth "Eco-Wealth". We emphasize the necessity of social investment measured by Eco-Wealth concept, that will lead to healthy and full life of all humankind, especially and primarily in the area that will minimize the household waiting time and the time credit index. Investments in basic infrastructures such as road, rail, water and sewerage, electricity grids must calculate "Ecological debt" prior to the investments. For example, "Eco-Wealth" is proposed. Goods and services necessary for our lifetime, that will be used sustainably over generations, particularly those that will be used longer than the recovery time of the originating natural capital is defined as "Eco Wealth". Historically speaking, for example, the cathedral city of Cologne, European ancient cities, Japanese tea house, these objects, not only sustain over generation but also evolve and increase their value over time. (However, we should note that the term does not apply to objects whose value is based on rarity, such as antiques, rather than the functional value of these objects.) To develop Eco-Wealth, we must make the durability of the product and the recovery time of the natural capital used in the product measurable, which will promote innovations and lifestyle designs based on the Eco-Wealth.

B). Research collaboration among relevant institutes to the sustainable designs and finite formulation and development of common protocols.

Lead redesigning the wealth based on Eco-Wealth --- long time stationary success.

Universities and research institutes currently working under the ethics of finite designs should strengthen cooperation by sharing research results and collaboration projects through building common plat forms.

In order to spread products designed for easy recycle and reuse, we must distinguish between areas which we can encourage innovation through competition among businesses and areas which need cooperation among businesses. For the latter, we must aim to minimize the social cost on natural capital by creating a common protocol to share product designs, production processes and components that will facilitate recycle and reuse.

C). A mechanism for promoting responsible voluntary behaviors of consumers:

For the resolution of global issues, the role of consumers is important and it is necessary to promote civil education for consumers to encourage their responsible and voluntary behaviors. Furthermore, it is vital to raise awareness by environment communication represented under the label of the environment. In order to make consumers interested and influence their daily choice of goods and services, the development of environmental labels, promotion of environment communication and the implementation of environmental education, led by the state and involving all stakeholders including the private sector, are needed.

Companies will be able to innovate, design lifestyles, and develop products based on ecological debt (waiting time to recovery) indicators.

In order to promote product design under constraints on resources, launching the Finite Design Initiative to Support a Sustainable Society with the participation of research institutes, product designers, business corporations, traditional craftsmen and consumers, etc., of various countries for such efforts as

(1) Closer cooperation among institutions concerned with finite design research;

(2) Development of common product protocols conducive to finite design (develops and share common product protocols concerning processes and parts that serve as the pivots of recycling and reuse);

(3) Diffusion of the top-runner format; and

(4) Visualization of the degree of sustainability of natural capital utilization (visualize the degree of sustainability of natural capital utilization by quantitatively showing the amount of natural capital required for the manufacture of goods and services consumers make use of in their everyday life and the waiting time for their recycling).

1.4.Green Info Structure to simulate and manage natural capital

Define a standard of information structure, Green Info Structure, using the concept of Ecological debt.

In order to achieve green economy, it is essential to create the information infrastructure that all relevant stakeholders can easily access and update the data in a decentralized way. We propose to construct the "Green Info Structure" and standardize it internationally. Green Info Structure is a multilayer management system of the information of natural capitals.

The first layer is a comprehensive database of natural capital. The United Nations and its member states should construct the database as an international joint project and share them with all relevant stakeholders.

The second layer is the provider of information. Most of natural capital can provide value flows like ecosystem goods or services in the local context. Furthermore some types of natural capital are embedded in the life of local community and can only exist with the help of people living there. So the local entities like local authorities, research institutions, or civil organizations can accesses the latest information on the current conditions of the capital. Thus it is important to design the database in a decentralized structure, so that such local entities can easily update the information accumulated in the database.

The third layer is the user of the database. That is, companies, NGOs, research institutes, and other relevant stakeholders may easily access the database and utilize it in their activities or strategies. Or they can take advantage of the database to provide plainer information about the current situation and prospects of natural capital to the public. Also, the database can be used to calculate Ecological Debt that we argued above. Thus the database should include the information needed for the estimation of Ecological Debt, that is, the stock amount of various natural capitals on the planet and their regeneration rate. For example, the database will help not only business use but also personal purchasing use.

2. Expectations for outcome of RIO+20

Constraints of Growth due to Rapid Deterioration and Depletion of Natural Capital

To avoid "The limits to Growth," and recognize forests, soils, fisheries, water, and the resulting ecosystem is vital to all human beings for their healthy and full life. The Convention on Biological Diversity has grown to 193 members, while the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety has been developed (Nagoya-Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol on Liability and Redress to Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety were adopted in October 2010) and the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization and the Aichi Target concerning biodiversity conservation have been agreed upon. However, global assessments, such as the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Global Biodiversity Outlook indicate that the situation surrounding biodiversity is still deteriorating.

Humanity is ushering depletion and degradation of natural capital in exchange for rapid accumulation of industrial and financial capital. As a result, the rarity of these capitals has reversed comparatively, especially in recent years with developing and emerging countries at the heart of a sharp rise in global consumption, wherein the amount of available natural capital per capita is decreasing while being surpassed by the increasing pace of consumption. At this current development pattern, we fear that the world population will no longer be able to support itself by the time it reaches 9 billion. Consequently, we face the urgent task of raising collective awareness among all people based on the need that we discover the extent of constraints we must subject ourselves to due to depletion and degradation of natural capital, as well as the nature of the content, speed, and scale of changes we must make to our development patterns.

Hungers affecting more than one billion people as well as response to poverty are pressing issues. As the recent financial crisis and surge in food price showed how an incident in industrialized countries instantaneously worsen hunger in low income countries, under the current globalized world a peril at one place can propagate around the world at a glance of a second leading to a global crisis, marginalizing the livelihoods of the poor dependent on weakened natural capital. Furthermore, as the natural capital per capita falls, there are high risks of circumstances surrounding the low income countries to worsen. Additionally, creation of decent job opportunities for 700 million workers that will emerge by 2025, is a pressing issue.

2.1. Comments on UNEP proposal for "Green Economy"

Earth Summit 2012 Japan recognizes importance of green economy for the following reasons:

1. Economic activities underlie environmental problems;

2. Under constraints on resources and Climate change, we need an economy that is well aware of these constraints.

3. The greening of the economy prompts changes in people's values and individual choices and also encourages people to seek sustainable lifestyles.

Transition to green economy based on conservation and sustainable use of natural capital is inevitable.

Suggestions made by international organizations including UNEP and OECD are:

1. Tools and policies that may help stocking of natural capital and improving capital efficiencies

2. Encouraging shift to green industry that is highly labor intensive. Capable of capacity building, income improvements, and even empowerment through community participation

3. Solution that both developed and developing countries could be proactive in

These points are commendable and we support the direction of these points.

However, there are limits in the existing proposals on the following points:

1. Neither shared understanding nor direction are shown for how the population growth and resulting degradation of natural capital may constrain our economic growth patterns, and choices we are left in terms of its contents, scale and speed. How to foster a common understanding on this issue among the entire human race is not shown.

2. Interpretation of natural capital is misleading when it treats natural capital like other artificial capitals, mainly consisting of private goods, and lacks understanding of natural capital, those especially renewable and sharable ones, in its economic and social values.

3. They are narrowly focused on reforms in manufacturers through public investments and lacks the view point of consumers, namely how the green economy will affect the lifestyle and preferences of the mass consumers and how companies and societies can contribute to the change. Household is the minimal but the most important sector notable for starting green revolution for 7 billion individuals.

2.2. Green economy for Aich-Target

Improve natural capital resilience and adapt the speed of natural capital.

Biodiversity and natural capital that support economic activities are significantly deteriorating at present. We need an economic mechanism that reflects the cost of the deterioration of natural capital and risks to people, including future generations; and

It is desirable to promote the utilization of sustainable ecosystem services based on the Aichi Target and Nagoya Protocol adopted at the tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD-COP10) held in 2010. Implement appropriate policies effectively, make policy linkages based on biodiversity, promote meaning and value of biodiversity and the UN Decade on Biodiversity, as well as take precautionary approaches to decision making.

Following are necessary efforts and procedures for promoting green economy:

1. Secure funding for biodiversity and sustainable development. The greening of finance and agriculture, forestry and fisheries is also an important issue. Increase number of green jobs that contribute to the environment and biodiversity in conjunction with the shift of industrial structure (just transition).

For example, Rice paddies play key role for resilience of Natural Capital in Asia. (CBD and Ramsar Convention recognized that paddies fields are important wetland for biodiversity.) Especially, Winter-flooded Rice Paddies (Fuyumizu-tambo) are one of best practice of investment for biodiversity and food productivity.

2. Establish new Consumption styles that does not break down the balance of natural capital; Provide information that encourages each individual to make purchase decisions on the basis of information on the environment, etc.; Efforts should be promoted while monitoring progress with appropriate indicators.

3. It is necessary to position the perspective of Communication, Education and Public Awareness (CEPA) as basis of efforts toward green economy for synergy effect between CEPA activities to achieve the Aichi Target under the Convention on Biodiversity and promote the U.N. Decade on Biodiversity and each country's obligations concerning the public awareness, education and training concerning the Framework Convention on Climate change and the U.N. Convention to Combat Desertification.

4. Share good practices from around the world in terms of biodiversity and conserving and recovering ecosystems, using biological resources in a sustainable manner, fair and equal distribution of benefits resulting from the use of genetic resources, providing appropriate monetary resources and encouraging capacity building. For example, eco-tourism to encourage both local understanding of bio-diversity and local revitalization is a good example that includes CEPA perspective. The Japan Genki Awards show good examples of community-based initiatives in eco-tourism, and other model cases in creating sustainable society.

(Photo: NPO Kamiechigo-Yamazato-Fun Club Japan Genki Awards2010; School of farming for urban family.)

Example: The Tohoku Green Renaissance Project

Japan would like to provide as reference to the discussions on sustainable development in Rio +20 the example of The Tohoku Green Renaissance Project in which the sustainable use of natural capital has been used as part of the earthquake reconstruction effort that is seeking to quickly restore the core industries of the disaster-affected areas, including agriculture, forestry and fisheries, while balancing biodiversity conservation with development, based on the traditions and culture of these local areas. The spirit of transnational and trans-regional Kyoujyo (mutual assistance) illustrated in the wake of the earthquake and tsunami represents the exact stance required to build a sustainable society.

2.3. Post GDP indicators

Since the 1990s, based on the limitation of GDP as a measure of economic and social development, the international community has developed various sustainability indicators that incorporate environmental factors and social factors. Recently, some international organizations have made efforts to incorporate stock and status of resource productivity of natural capital into the assessment of economic cycle. Population growth and degradation of natural capital is occurring. International community has not come to common understanding of degree of current and future constraint of development. We must examine a scale of how much content rate in the range of speed of sustainable development, and establish the operational indicators to measure. As a prerequisite for green economy, it is necessary to consider natural capital in terms of economy. Fundamentally, further consideration among the international community will be encouraged, aggregating the green economy indicators being examined by Satellite System for Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA), OECD and UNEP. As part of such framework for sustainability indicators, we propose to introduce the concept of regeneration speed and incorporate it as part of the evaluation method of natural capital of the indicators discussed here, in addition to the amount of natural capital stock and resource productivity. Tools to promote the greening of the economy are broadly divided into regulations and incentives, management tools and voluntary efforts, and the following tools are considered effective: Develop indicators to measure quality of life that substitute conventional GDP growth indicators.

Sustainability indicators should include natural capital stock, resource productivity and reproduction speed. Incorporate environmentally sound production technologies, products and services into the social system through implementation of indicator in forms of eco point and top-runner programs.

2.4. Launch of study for new pattern of economic development for Post MDGs era.

International community should agree to create a team for assessment of development patterns, involving researcher from various fields and stakeholders. These study results will be published in 2013, which can be used as basis for the consideration of the framework for the post MDGs.

This team should examine; 1. Options of development pattern, 2. Assessment of MDGs and measures beyond 2015, 3. Projection costs difference among timing of start , 4. A new chance bringing innovation and economic opportunity. Etc.

We are interested in economic developments with personal network development.

Following are utilities to design bottom up pattern of economic development.

1. Focus on role of individuals:

The role of individuals is important. Every organization in the world is formed by individuals and often an individual belongs to multiple major groups. Individuals are required to have awareness as a consumer in compliance with purchasing for a sustainable green economy, choice of time, and choice of policies. Although individuals have certain roles at work, in private and in community, the key to all the changes is the individual's action based on firm awareness that they as an individual have the final responsibility.

Key players of sustainable society are individuals. Every decision will be made by each of you. Each of us must learn more about sustainability and execute responsibility for our common future.

A) If the significance of a green economy becomes clear to individuals, it will lead to actions. With the awareness that the final responsibility of sustainable development lies in individuals, it is important to link this to a life style change.

B) Through more intensified interaction among peoples and societies at grassroots level, people will have more open access to acquiring scientific knowledge and experiences that are not necessarily available in their localities. By being able to access these wealth of human capital, personal life quality and capacity will be enhanced. In return, people can output socially innovative ideas to bring changes to society, and provide services and create new wealth to re-invest in enriching life of others.

C) The international community must encourage an enabling environment and new systems to support entrepreneurship and innovations that are setting the models of conservation and sustainable use of natural capital in pursuit of a healthy and fulfill lifetime. We propose the following:

i. Empowerment, put spotlight on individuals' initiatives

ii. Encourage creation of communities to encourage such individual capacity building and innovations

iii. Information sharing and capacity-building systems which lead to individual empowerment

iv. Social media to enhance participative democracy

v. Risk management of green business, investment in capacity building in such management

2. Provide Effective Incentives:

Expansion of preferential tax, financial and fiscal treatment of and commendation systems for business corporations and organizations, etc. that promote the development and diffusion of environment-friendly technologies and products, evaluation and announcement, etc. of efforts by business corporations, appropriate application of accounting standards.

3. Design BOP business model:

Sustainable base of the pyramid (BOP) business is in the spotlight to eradicate poverty from the perspective that supporting people living in poverty in their employment, business launching and livelihood and thereby enhancing their purchasing power should help their economic growth as well as business expansion. It is necessary to help raise awareness about examples of advanced cases and develop frameworks for supporting BOP business in consultation with stakeholders involved.

4. Utilize international standards and guidelines:

Utilization of international standards as tools for realizing the green economy is also effective. It is important to position ISO26000 issued in November 2010 as a tool to give shape to the green economy in organizational management and promote it at an international level.

5. Shift to PRI Finance:

In order to develop the capital market to support the green economy, urge institutional investors around the world to embrace the Principles for Responsible Investment (PRI) and ask them to enhance the transparency of their investment behaviors. Furthermore, business corporations compile corporate reports that integrate financial as well as sustainability issues, and governments and exchanges institutionalize such reports.

6. Develop social media:

In promoting sustainable development and to support role of individuals, it is important to encourage the reform awareness of citizens and companies on which the media has the biggest influence. Defining the media as an important stakeholder and clarifying its role is crucial. In addition, not only the one-way communication as was in the previous model, but mutual communication such as social media that promotes a participatory society is important.

As we head into the 21st century, intellectual productivity and its impact on human life greatly intensified. Technological advancement of mobile phones, ever-growing webs of social networks in cyber space changed the way people communicate, work, and defines principles of life. It has shortened travel times and uplifted barriers that once exist between peoples and societies. It inter-connected people and made an open learning environment latterly available. More than ever, people across borders can share and understand what society is demanding as definitions of full lifetime, enabling us to offer innovative ideas to create sustainable society under a common and shared vision.


On March 11, M9.0 earthquake hit the eastern part of Japan. More than 15 thousand people died and 8 thousand are still missing. Cities and towns were totally destroyed by 40 meter Tsunami, or even disappeared as if nothing had been there.

But we were not devastated only by a natural disaster but also by what we had created for ourselves. Four nuclear reactors in Fukushima, which had long been supplying large amount of electricity to the Tokyo economic area, had brought about serious meltdown and hydrogen explosion. They have emitted more than 77 tera Bq of radioactive particles into the air, soil, and ocean, which will undermine our children and grand children physically and mentally for decades.

Through the ruin of our towns and contaminated rubbles we see the end of a paradigm which Japan, and the global economy, had long been standing upon. We built a society on a thin ice of extremely complex social system, sacrificing profound relationship with Mother Earth and sacrificing our own culture and spirits. As a result, in our wealthy society more than 30 thousand people kill themselves every year since 1990s.

A recovery we started is entirely different from the one we experienced after the World War. We have to rebuild ourselves as a true sustainable society and show alternative solutions. We believe it is a responsibility of the world largest economies that had long been exploiting the earth and the people, and as a responsibility of the only country that experienced two atomic bombs and the worst nuclear accident in the human history.

Earth Summit 2012 Japan is, on behalf of the Japanese citizens, willing to involve ourselves strongly in the process for Rio+20, and to make valuable contributions to its ambitious project of creating a new paradigm. Especially, we hope what we learn and start from our ground zero will contribute to the long journey of human kind toward a sustainable future where 7 billion people live together in peace and harmony.

Masahiro Sato

President, EarthSummit2012 Japan

About EarthSummit2012 Japan

EarthSummit2012 Japan is a non-profit multi-stakeholder organization that provides policy proposals, civil actions, and inclusive platforms for the process leading up to Rio+20 in Japan. It was established in August 2010 and consists of about 50 staff members from different sectors such as government, NGOs, social enterprises, academics, and students.

Our Activities

Policy Analysis & Proposals / Social Actions / Platform Making / Awareness Raising

Our Network

EarthSummit2012 Japan is carrying on its activities in partnership with various organizations or individuals in Japan. We are making policy proposals to the government including the establishment of the Domestic Preparatory Committee for Rio+20, which ensure the multi-stakeholder participation to the process. We also coordinate a cross-sectional network of NGOs called the Rio+20 NGO Network. Furthermore, we contribute the awareness raising of citizens or companies through holding a variety of events or providing timely information concerning Rio+20 in cooperation with medias or academic community.
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