- Date: 18 Jun 2012
- Time: 10:00 - 1:00 pm
- Organizer: Environmental Law Institute
- Theme: Improving resilience and disaster preparedness
- Perspective: Conflict-affected countries
- Language: english
- See Keynote Speaker
- See instructors
Sustainable management of Natural Resources to support Post-Conflict Peacebuilding
SummaryNatural resources are essential to building resilience and peace in post-conflict countries. However, after conflict, rapidly changing political, social, and economics conditions present substantial challenges to natural resource management. Building resilience in post-conflict and conflict-affected countries depends on more effectively managing and sharing the benefits of natural resources after conflict.
This course provides an introduction to the theory and practices of managing natural resources to support post-conflict peacebuilding. It draws upon four years of research and more than 150 case studies and analyses developed by over 225 practitioners and researchers around the world. The four-year research program and the SD-Learning course based on it answer a call by the UN Secretary-General for increased focus on the links between natural resources, conflict, and peacebuilding.
In the course, we will examine how natural resources factor into the cause of, conduct during, and conclusion of armed conflict. The course will consider the role that natural resources play in the negotiation of peace agreements and how natural resources frequently contribute to and otherwise affect specific aspects of post-conflict peacebuilding, including reintegration of former combatants, peacekeeping operations, enhancement of livelihoods, macroeconomic growth, rebuilding governance, and fostering cooperation and dialogue. Discussion will highlight how post-conflict settings are different from those settings not affected by conflict, and what these differences mean for managing natural resources to build resilience. A range of methods will be employed during the course, including presentations, facilitated discussions, brainstorming exercises, and case studies.
IntroductionNatural resources play a central role in armed conflict and in facilitating the transition to peace in post-conflict societies. They frequently affect whether and how key security, humanitarian, and development objectives are met. Building resilience and sustainably managing natural resources in post-conflict settings is particularly important as post-conflict countries are susceptible to conflict relapse and are more vulnerable to disasters. In addition, given the complex and volatile nature of post-conflict societies, individuals involved in natural resource management face a unique set of challenges and there is a need to tailor natural resource management strategies to fit the post-conflict context. In spite of this demonstrated need, an established field of research and practice that addresses the role natural resources play in post-conflict peacebuilding has only recently begun to emerge.
To address this gap, the Environmental Law Institute, the United Nations Environment Programme, the University of Tokyo, and McGill University have coordinated a global initiative over the past four years, culminating in a series of seven related books which include over 150 case studies from more than 60 countries and territories, written by over 225 authors. This project represents the most significant collection to date of experiences, analyses, and lessons in managing natural resources to support post-conflict peacebuilding. The course will provide an overview of this emerging field, drawing upon the unprecedented body of experiences and analyses that have been gathered.
ObjectiveThe course will aim to:
1) Provide a basic understanding of the role natural resource play in post-conflict peacebuilding. We will examine a variety of resources and peacebuilding activities, highlighting interactions between the two in order to demonstrate how natural resource management can both support and undermine the transition to durable peace.
2) Highlight a range of approaches for managing natural resources after conflict, focusing on those that can support security, basic services, livelihoods, macroeconomic recovery, governance, and cooperation.
3) Analyze how various contextual factors, including social, political, and economic dynamics, affect the selection and effectiveness of different approaches to post-conflict natural resource management.
4) Address differences in and similarities between natural resource management in post-conflict and non-conflict contexts, including an examination of eight common characteristics of post-conflict countries that affect natural resource management programming.
5) Build capacity so that course participants can access additional information on the specific approaches, resources, and peacebuilding activities that are important to them.
ProgrammeThe course will be divided into six sections which examine: how natural resource factor into the cause of, conduct during, and end of armed conflict; how natural resources can contribute to or otherwise affect specific peacebuilding activities, including reintegration of excombatants, provision of basic services, enhancement of livelihoods, macroeconomic growth, and rebuilding governance; and differences in and similarities between natural resource management in post-conflict settings and those settings not affected by conflict.
The first segment will include a round of introductions (10 minutes). The goal of this section will be to learn why course participants are interested in post-conflict natural resource management and if they have worked in or researched post-conflict countries in the past. We will use their responses to tailor the course and incorporate their experiences, perspectives, tools, and approaches to natural resource management into the delivery of the course.
The second segment will examine conflict dynamics (15 minutes), and particularly how natural resources factor into the cause of, conduct during, and conclusion of armed conflict. This will include examples demonstrating how natural resources have assisted in financing conflicts, how they have been targeted during conflict, and how natural resources have influenced peace agreement processes.
The third segment (40 minutes) will examine how natural resources factor into post-conflict peacebuilding, including their role in: reintegrating excombatants; undertaking peacekeeping operations; providing basic services; restoring and enhancing livelihoods of local populations; revitalizing the economy; restoring basic services and infrastructure; and rebuilding governance and inclusive political processes.
The fourth segment will use a brainstorming exercise to compare post-conflict settings with those contexts not affected by conflict (20 minutes). The discussion will focus on the following questions: (1) How are post-conflict settings different from standard, non-conflict contexts? (2) How are the two settings similar? (3) What do these differences and similarities mean for how post-conflict natural resource management is undertaken?
Course participants will consider a series of four mini case studies during the fifth segment (15 minutes per case studies). Five minutes will be spent providing the setup for each case study, followed by a couple questions opening into a discussion of how the case unfolded and how it is different from non-conflict settings. Examples of case studies which might be used include: land management in Angola; cooperation around water in the former Yugoslav republics; and security and natural resource management in Liberia.
To wrap up the course, we will provide a course evaluation form which will be used to modify and guide future course development and delivery.
MethodThe course will include a combination of presentations, facilitated discussions, brainstorming sessions, and case studies.
Ice breakers and introductions at the beginning of the course will be used to develop an understanding of the participants? background, so that the trainers can better tailor the course to fit the needs, interests, and skills of the class.
Presentations by course instructors will be employed during two segments of the course to provide an overview of the relationship between natural resources and post-conflict peacebuilding. PowerPoint will be used, with hard copy versions of the presentation distributed so that participants can take notes.
Brainstorming sessions, facilitated discussions, and case studies will be used during two segments to foster dialogue, share experiences, and consider how to apply lessons and analyses in specific, concrete ways. These more interactive approaches are designed to build familiarity with the ideas and explore the practical considerations in post-conflict peacebuilding and natural resource management.
A two-page course evaluation form will be provided to students at the end to solicit feedback and to improve future delivery of the course.
ImpactExperience demonstrates that natural resources are essential to building resilience and peace in post-conflict countries, and that the environment and development communities play an important role in peacebuilding activities. However, it is only recently that the international community has started to realize the connections between natural resource management and peacebuilding activities. As such, there is an urgent need to raise awareness and build capacity regarding the importance of and approaches to managing natural resources to support post-conflict peacebuilding.
The course will start to raise awareness and build capacity within the environment and development communities on the linkages between natural resources, conflict, and peacebuilding. It will do this by introducing key themes and lessons learned from the unprecedented collection of experiences gathered over the past four years.
The workshop will also improve future awareness-raising and capacity-building activities undertaken by ELI, UNEP, and other organizations by soliciting feedback to improve future course delivery.
Ms. Haddijatou Jallow, Head of Sierra Leone’s Environment Protection Agency
Carl Bruch (Environmental Law Institute)
Carl Bruch is a senior attorney and co-director of international programs at the Environmental Law Institute; he also co-chairs the Specialist Group on Armed Conflict and the Environment of the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Commission on Environmental Law. Bruch?s research focuses on making environmental law work. He has helped countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Eastern Europe develop and implement laws, policies, and institutional frameworks to effectively manage water resources, biodiversity, forests, and other natural resources. Much of his work has focused on the means of preventing, reducing, mitigating, and compensating for environmental damage resulting from armed conflict. He has edited or coedited six books, including The Environmental Consequences of War: Legal, Economic, and Scientific Perspectives (Cambridge University Press, 2000), and authored dozens of scholarly articles. He holds a B.S. in physics from Michigan State University, an M.A. in physics from the University of Texas at Austin, and a J.D. from Northwestern School of Law of Lewis and Clark College.
Arthur Green (Chair of the Department of Geography & Earth and Environmental Science at Okanagan College) (Oknagan College)
Arthur Green is a professional educator and researcher with consulting experience in several countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, Central America, and Southeast Asia. He is currently Chair of the Department of Geography & Earth and Environmental Science at Okanagan College. His research focuses on property rights, legal geography, postwar and post-disaster reconstruction, land policy reform and administration, food security, and sustainable livelihoods. He does consulting on agricultural production, agroforestry, natural resource management law, and participatory mapping.
Allan Cain ()
Allan Cain is an architect and specialist in project planning and urbanization. He has an undergraduate degree in environmental studies from the University of Waterloo in Canada and completed his graduate studies at the Architectural Association in London and further specialist studies at Harvard University and the University of Colorado?Boulder. Cain has over thirty-five years of professional experience in developing countries, twenty-eight of those in Angola during and after the conflict there. He has participated in several program evaluations and missions for the United Nations, European Union, and World Bank. Cain is the director of Development Workshop, which operates in Canada, France, and Angola, and he serves as the Canadian Honorary Consul to Angola, an officer of the Order of Canada, and a board member for several development institutions. He has lectured at universities in Angola, Canada, Norway, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. He has published numerous articles and is working on a forthcoming book titled Planning with Vulnerable People in Turbulent Times.
Sophie Ravier (United Nations Department of Field Support)
Sophie Ravier is the Environmental Officer of the UN Department of Field Support (DFS) in New York. She is in charge of coordinating the environmental initiatives of UN Peacekeeping Operations and Special Political Missions. This includes giving technical and political advice on the implementation of the DPKO/DFS Environmental Policy for UN Field Missions, as well as doing outreach. She also worked for UNEP in its Liaison Office to the European Union (EU) in Brussels and participated in the UNFCCC negotiations on behalf of the UK Presidency of the EU. She holds a Master of International Relations from the University of Auvergne and a Master of Engineering from the 'Ecole des Mines d'Ales' in France, and a Certificate of Advanced Studies in Environmental Diplomacy of the University of Geneva.